英语学习词典
  

symptom

Try Other Sites  百度 Dict.cn Hjenglish  Cambridge M-W OneLook Google





symptom [ 'simptəm] n.症状,征候,征兆

symptom ['simptəm] 症状

The first symptom of true love in a man is timidity, in a girl it is boldness.
真正的爱情的首要征候,在男子是胆怯,在女子是大胆。

Calls for import control are a symptom of the country’s present economic problem.
要求限制进口表明这个国家目前在经济上出了问题。

The lower production levels are a symptom of dissatisfaction among the workers.
生产水平低下表明了工人们的不满情绪。

The symptoms don’t appear until a few days later after you are infected.
症状要在你感染几天以后才出现。

You should consult a doctor if the symptoms get worse.
如果病情恶化,你该问问医生。

是什么症状?
What are your symptoms? *symptom“症状”。

One of the symptoms of approaching nervous breakdown is the belief that one's .work is terribly important, and that to take a holiday would bring all kinds of disaster, If I were a medical man , I should precribe a holiday to many patient who consicered his work important.
Bernard Russell, British philosopher
神经即将崩溃的症状之一是相信自己的工作极端重要,休假将会带来种种灾难。如果我是医生,我给这样的病人开的药方是:休假。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

His symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, excessive fatigue, fever and chills.
他的症状包括没有食欲、体重减轻、非常疲倦、发烧和发冷。

病象 symptom

病状 pathology; symptom

标本 [biāo běn] /specimen/sample/the root cause and symptoms of a disease/

病象 [bìng xiàng] /symptom (of a disease)/

病征 [bìng zhēng] /symptom (of a disease)/

病状 [bìng zhuàng] /symptom (of a disease)/

症状 [zhèng zhuàng] /symptom (of an illness)/

Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
依赖的最初表现是不断增长的耐药量,要产生预期的效果需要的药剂量越来越大,而一旦中断使用就会出现难受的停药症状。

{adj: asymptomatic, symptomless} having no symptoms of illness or disease

{adj: battered} exhibiting symptoms resulting from repeated physical and emotional injury
"a battered child"
"the battered woman syndrome"

{adj: bodily, corporal, corporeal, somatic} affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit
"bodily needs"
"a corporal defect"
"corporeal suffering"
"a somatic symptom or somatic illness"

{adj: cachectic} relating to or having the symptoms of cachexia

{adj: general} affecting the entire body
"a general anesthetic"
"general symptoms"
<-> local

{adj: late, later} at or toward an end or late period or stage of development
"the late phase of feudalism"
"a later symptom of the disease"
"later medical science could have saved the child"
<-> early

{adj: neurotic} characteristic of or affected by neurosis
"neurotic disorder"
"neurotic symptoms"

{adj: paralytic, paralytical} relating to or of the nature of paralysis
"paralytic symptoms"

{adj: preclinical, presymptomatic} of or relating to the early phases of a disease when accurate diagnosis is not possible because symptoms of the disease have not yet appeared

{adj: psychosomatic} used of illness or symptoms resulting from neurosis

{adj: quiescent} causing no symptoms
"a quiescent tumor"

{adj: recognizable} easily perceived; easy to become aware of
"this situation produces recognizable stress symptoms"

{adj: scorbutic} of or relating to or having or resembling scurvy
"scorbutic symptoms"

{adj: subacute} less than acute; relating to a disease present in a person with no symptoms of it

{adj: subclinical} relating to the stage in the development of a disease before the symptoms are observed

{adj: symptomatic} relating to or according to or affecting a symptom or symptoms
"symptomatic relief"
"symptomatic treatment"
"a symptomatic classification of diseases"

{adj: syphilitic} of or relating to or infected with syphilis
"syphilitic symptoms"

{adj: tardive} late-occurring (especially with reference to symptoms of a disease)
"tardive dyskinesia"

{adj: tertian} relating to symptoms (especially malarial fever) that appear every other day
"tertian fever"

{adj: unaccompanied} (of a state or an event) taking place without something specified occurring at the same time
"a headache unaccompanied by other symptoms"

{adv: symptomatically} by symptoms

{n: Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's, Alzheimers} a progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s; first symptoms are impaired memory which is followed by impaired thought and speech and finally complete helplessness

{n: Conn's syndrome} disturbances in saltwater balance and symptoms of weakness and muscular cramps and twitching and convulsions and sometimes paralysis; usually caused by a benign tumor of the cortex of the adrenal gland that leads to excess secretion of aldosterone

{n: Cox-2 inhibitor} an anti-inflammatory drug that blocks Cox-2 activity without impeding the activity of Cox-1
"Cox-2 inhibitors reduce the symptoms of arthritis without endangering the stomach and kidneys"

{n: Horner's syndrome} a pattern of symptoms occurring as a result of damage to nerves in the cervical region of the spine (drooping eyelids and constricted pupils and absence of facial sweating)

{n: Kayser-Fleischer ring} a pigmented ring at the outer edge of the cornea of the eye; a symptom of Wilson's disease

{n: Kernig's sign} symptom of meningitis; patient cannot extend the leg at the knee when the thigh is flexed because of stiffness in the hamstrings

{n: Koplik's spots} small red spots with white centers found on the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue; symptom of measles that appears one or two days before the measles rash appears

{n: abscess} symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

{n: acupressure, G-Jo, shiatsu} treatment of symptoms by applying pressure with the fingers to specific pressure points on the body

{n: acyclovir, Zovirax} an oral antiviral drug (trade name Zovirax) used to treat genital herpes; does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms

{n: addict} someone who is physiologically dependent on a substance; abrupt deprivation of the substance produces withdrawal symptoms

{n: aggravation, exacerbation} action that makes a problem or a disease (or its symptoms) worse
"the aggravation of her condition resulted from lack of care"

{n: ague, chills and fever} successive stages of chills and fever that is a symptom of malaria

{n: albuminuria, proteinuria} the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder

{n: alcoholism, alcohol addiction, inebriation, drunkenness} habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms

{n: allergy, allergic reaction} hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity

{n: aminoaciduria} abnormal presence of amino acids in the urine; usually a symptom of metabolic defects

{n: anxiety disorder} a cover term for a variety of mental disorders in which severe anxiety is a salient symptom

{n: borderline schizophrenia, latent schizophrenia} schizophrenia characterized by mild symptoms or by some preexisting tendency to schizophrenia

{n: catatonia} extreme tonus; muscular rigidity; a common symptom in catatonic schizophrenia

{n: celiac disease} a disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance

{n: chemical terrorism} terrorism using the chemical agents of chemical warfare; can undermine the personal security of citizens
"a good agent for chemical terrorism should be colorless and odorless and inexpensive and readily available and not detectable until symptoms are experienced"

{n: cholera infantum} often fatal form of gastroenteritis occurring in children; not true cholera but having similar symptoms

{n: chronic gastritis} persistent gastritis can be a symptom of a gastric ulcer or pernicious anemia or stomach cancer or other disorders

{n: clubbing} a condition in which the ends of toes and fingers become wide and thick; a symptom of heart or lung disease

{n: cold medicine} medicine intended to relieve the symptoms of the common cold

{n: colon cancer} a malignant tumor of the colon; early symptom is bloody stools

{n: constipation, irregularity} irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis

{n: conversion} (psychiatry) a defense mechanism represses emotional conflicts which are then converted into physical symptoms that have no organic basis

{n: coprophagy, coprophagia} eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity

{n: cough, coughing} sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis

{n: cutaneous anthrax, malignant pustule} a form of anthrax infection that begins as papule that becomes a vesicle and breaks with a discharge of toxins; symptoms of septicemia are severe with vomiting and high fever and profuse sweating; the infection is often fatal

{n: deterioration, impairment} a symptom of reduced quality or strength

{n: diabetic diet} a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes

{n: diarrhea, diarrhoea, looseness of the bowels, looseness} frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor

{n: differential diagnosis} a systematic method of diagnosing a disorder (e.g., headache) that lacks unique symptoms or signs

{n: diuresis} increased secretion of urine; if not due to increased liquid intake or to the action of a diuretic drug it can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus

{n: effect} a symptom caused by an illness or a drug
"the effects of sleep loss"
"the effect of the anesthetic"

{n: enanthem, enanthema} eruption on a mucous membrane (as the inside of the mouth) occurring as a symptom of a disease

{n: encephalitis, cephalitis, phrenitis} inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)

{n: eosinophilia} a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood

{n: eruption} symptom consisting of a breaking out and becoming visible

{n: exanthem, exanthema, skin eruption} eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease

{n: false pregnancy, pseudocyesis} physiological state in which a woman exhibits symptoms of pregnancy but is not pregnant

{n: fever, febrility, febricity, pyrexia, feverishness} a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection

{n: flare} a sudden recurrence or worsening of symptoms
"a colitis flare"
"infection can cause a lupus flare"

{n: focal infection} bacterial infection limited to a specific organ or region especially one causing symptoms elsewhere

{n: folie a deux} the simultaneous occurrence of symptoms of a mental disorder (as delusions) in two persons who are closely related (as siblings or man and wife)

{n: functional disorder} disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
<-> organic disorder

{n: generalized anxiety disorder, GAD, anxiety reaction} an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months

{n: gonorrhea, gonorrhoea, clap} a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra

{n: hallucination} illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder

{n: hematuria, haematuria} the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease

{n: hemorrhagic fever, haemorrhagic fever, viral hemorrhagic fever, viral haemorrhagic fever, VHF} a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage

{n: hemosiderosis, haemosiderosis} abnormal deposit of hemosiderin; often a symptom of thalassemia or hemochromatosis

{n: hexestrol} estrogen compound used to treat menstrual irregularities and menopausal symptoms and to prevent pregnancy

{n: hiccup, hiccough, singultus} (usually plural) the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis producing an audible sound; sometimes a symptom of indigestion
"how do you cure the hiccups?"

{n: homeopathy, homoeopathy} a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
<-> allopathy

{n: hydrocephalus, hydrocephaly} an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological

{n: hydrophobia} a symptom of rabies in humans consisting of an aversion to swallowing liquids

{n: hypochondria, hypochondriasis} chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments

{n: hypochondriac} a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments

{n: hysterocatalepsy} hysteria with cataleptic symptoms

{n: imminent abortion, threatened abortion} the appearance of symptoms that signal the impending loss of the products of conception

{n: incubation period} the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease

{n: incubation} (pathology) the phase in the development of an infection between the time a pathogen enters the body and the time the first symptoms appear

{n: indication, indicant} something that serves to indicate or suggest
"an indication of foul play"
"indications of strain"
"symptoms are the prime indicants of disease"

{n: jaundice, icterus} yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia

{n: keratomalacia} softening and drying and ulceration of the cornea resulting from vitamin A deficiency; symptom of cystic fibrosis or sprue

{n: kuru} a progressive disease of the central nervous system marked by increasing lack of coordination and advancing to paralysis and death within a year of the appearance of symptoms; thought to have been transmitted by cannibalistic consumption of diseased brain tissue since the disease virtually disappeared when cannibalism was abandoned

{n: late blight} blight in which symptoms appear late in the growing season especially a disease of solanaceous plants caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans

{n: latent diabetes, chemical diabetes} a mild form of diabetes mellitus in which there are no overt symptoms but there are abnormal responses to some diagnostic procedures

{n: latent period} the time that elapses before the presence of a disease is manifested by symptoms

{n: lead colic, painter's colic} symptom of chronic lead poisoning and associated with obstinate constipation

{n: listeriosis, listeria meningitis} an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms

{n: liver cancer, cancer of the liver} malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort

{n: lysis} recuperation in which the symptoms of an acute disease gradually subside

{n: major depressive episode} (psychiatry) a state of depression with all the classic symptoms (anhedonia and lethargy and sleep disturbance and despondency and morbid thoughts and feelings of worthlessness and sometimes attempted suicide) but with no known organic dysfunction

{n: malabsorption syndrome} a pattern of symptoms including loss of appetite and bloating and weight loss and muscle pain and steatorrhea; associated with celiac disease and sprue and cystic fibrosis

{n: medical diagnosis} identification a disease from its symptoms

{n: medicine, medication, medicament, medicinal drug} (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease

{n: meningism} symptoms that mimic those of meningitis but without inflammation of the meninges

{n: meningitis} infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea

{n: menorrhagia, hypermenorrhea} abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation; can be a symptom of uterine tumors and can lead to anemia if prolonged

{n: mimesis} any disease that shows symptoms characteristic of another disease

{n: monocytosis} increase in the number of monocytes in the blood; symptom of monocytic leukemia

{n: morning sickness} nausea early in the day; a characteristic symptom in the early months of pregnancy

{n: naphazoline, Privine, Sudafed} vasoconstrictor (trade names Privine and Sudafed) used in nasal sprays to treat symptoms of nasal congestion and in eyedrops to treat eye irritation

{n: naprapathy} a drugless method of treatment based on the belief that disease symptoms arise from problems with ligaments and connective tissues

{n: nasal decongestant} a decongestant that provides temporary relief of nasal symptoms of the common cold and rhinitis and upper respiratory infections

{n: numbness} partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction

{n: ochronosis} an accumulation of dark pigment in cartilage and other connective tissue; usually a symptom of alkaptonuria or phenol poisoning

{n: oliguria} abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body

{n: pain, hurting} a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder
"the patient developed severe pain and distension"

{n: paranoid schizophrenia, paranoic type schizophrenia, paraphrenic schizophrenia, paraphrenia} a form of schizophrenia characterized by delusions (of persecution or grandeur or jealousy); symptoms may include anger and anxiety and aloofness and doubts about gender identity; unlike other types of schizophrenia the patients are usually presentable and (if delusions are not acted on) may function in an apparently normal manner

{n: pelvic inflammatory disease, PID} inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge

{n: pimple, hickey, zit} a small inflamed elevation of the skin; a pustule or papule; common symptom in acne

{n: posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD} an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images

{n: prodrome, prodroma} an early symptom that a disease is developing or that an attack is about to occur

{n: psychosomatic disorder} a mental disorder that causes somatic symptoms

{n: pulmonary anthrax, inhalation anthrax, anthrax pneumonia, ragpicker's disease, ragsorter's disease, woolsorter's pneumonia, woolsorter's disease} a form of anthrax infection acquired by inhalation of dust containing Bacillus anthracis; initial symptoms (chill and cough and dyspnea and rapid pulse) are followed by extreme cardiovascular collapse

{n: purulence, purulency} symptom of being purulent (containing or forming pus)

{n: pyuria} presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection

{n: rebound tenderness} pain felt when a hand pressing on the abdomen is suddenly released; a symptom of peritoneal inflammation

{n: recrudescence} a return of something after a period of abatement
"a recrudescence of racism"
"a recrudescence of the symptoms"

{n: scalenus syndrome} discomfort and vascular symptoms and loss of sensation in a shoulder and arm; caused by a scalene muscle compressing the subclavian artery and part of the brachial plexus

{n: schistosomiasis, bilharzia, bilharziasis} an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected

{n: schizotypal personality, schizoid} characterized by symptoms similar to but less severe than schizophrenia

{n: sleeping sickness, sleepy sickness, epidemic encephalitis, lethargic encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica} an encephalitis that was epidemic between 1915 and 1926; symptoms include paralysis of the extrinsic eye muscle and extreme muscular weakness

{n: slow virus} a virus that remains dormant in the body for a long time before symptoms appear
"kuru is caused by a slow virus"

{n: sneeze, sneezing, sternutation} a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose

{n: specificity} the quality of being specific rather than general
"add a desirable note of specificity to the discussion"
"the specificity of the symptoms of the disease"

{n: spina bifida, rachischisis, schistorrhachis} a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis

{n: sprue, tropical sprue} a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non-tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation

{n: steatorrhea} the presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces which are frothy and foul smelling and floating; a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism and malabsorption syndrome

{n: subacute bacterial endocarditis} a chronic bacterial infection of the endocardium and heart valves; symptoms develop slowly

{n: symptom} (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease

{n: symptom} anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence

{n: syndrome} a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease

{n: syphilis, syph, pox} a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)

{n: tetralogy of Fallot, Fallot's tetralogy, Fallot's syndrome} a congenital heart defect producing cyanosis; characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle

{n: tinnitus} a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears; a symptom of an ear infection or Meniere's disease

{n: transient ischemic attack, TIA} brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage

{n: uratemia} presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid salts in the blood; symptom of gout

{n: uraturia} presence of abnormally large amounts of uric acid in the urine; symptom of gout

{n: uricaciduria} presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid in the urine; symptom of gout

{n: withdrawal symptom} any physical or psychological disturbance (as sweating or depression) experienced by a drug addict when deprived of the drug

{v: bespeak, betoken, indicate, point, signal} be a signal for or a symptom of
"These symptoms indicate a serious illness"
"Her behavior points to a severe neurosis"
"The economic indicators signal that the euro is undervalued"

Up to 40 per cent of women suffer from the disruptive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome( PMS), including mood swings, bloating, food cravings and pain.
多达四成的妇女深受经前综合症之苦,这些引起体内紊乱的症状包括情绪不稳、肿胀、嗜食和疼痛。

Participants taking 1,200 mg of calcium daily found their symptoms diminished by 48 per cent, compared with 30 per cent in the place-bo group.
钙日摄入量达 1200毫克的受试者发现其症状得以缓解的为 48%,相比之下,安慰剂服用组则为 30%。

Price says it is important to look under the microscope and not assume that a person s symptoms are due to alcohol.
普赖斯还说,重要的是应在显微镜下查看而不能推断是由于酒精导致了患者的症状。

More importantly, a false negative may prevent an ill person from getting re-tested until symptoms appear.
更可虑的是,假阴性会使得一个真正有病的人于症状出现之前不去进行重测。

Possibly the only way to prevent Alzheimer's is to stop the plaques from forming decades before any symptoms appear.
也许,防止阿耳茨海默氏病的唯一方法是:在病症出现几十年前就采取措施,谨防斑的形成。

They 've already started preliminary clinical trials in human volunteers of the first anti-Alzheimer's compounds designed to treat the cause, not just the symptoms, of the disease.
这些科学家已经开始在志愿者身上进行首批抗阿耳茨海默氏病药物初步临床试验,这些药物不仅用於查明症状,而且要治愈这疾玻

While the enzyme clearly plays a role in the 10% of cases that develop in middle age, it's not so obvious that blocking gamma secretase will help the 90% of Alzheimer's patients developing symptoms after age 65.
虽然这在占病例总数 10%的中年患者中作用比较明显,但抑制伽马分泌素减能能的做法对占病例总数 90%的 65岁以上的患者是否有益尚不清楚。

That serendipity has not been lost on two of Europe's biggest drug companies, which have begun battling it out for market share with new high-tech drugs designed to combat the flu virus itself, rather than just its symptoms.
欧洲两家最大的制药公司抓住了这次赚大钱的会,为了抢夺市场份额,它们争相推出了新的高科技药物,这些药物不仅可以缓解感冒的症状,还可以消灭流感病毒。

Both medicines have to be taken within 48 hours of the onset of flu symptoms to be effective, and are said by the companies to be able to cut the duration of the illness by up to 40%, as well as easing the symptoms.
这两药物都必须在流感发作后 48小时之内服用才能产生疗效;两家制药公司都声称各自的产品可以使流感持续的时间缩短 40%,还可以缓解流感症状。

Clinicians will be able to delay onset by several years and lessen the severity of symptoms.
临床治疗可以使这种疾病的发作期推迟若干年,并且减缓症状的恶化。

Bad breath isn't an illness. It's only a symptom of something else, frequently an illness such as diabetes, or a kidney disorder. It may also be an infection of the sinuses or bronchial tubes or gums.
其实口臭算不上是病,它不过是另外一样东西的症候,但那样东西通常是一种疾病,例如糖尿病或肾炎,还可能是鼻窦炎、支气管炎或牙龈炎。

Result: they all experienced similar jet-lag symptoms, and all recovered after about six days.
结果如下:服用者都出现了类似的时差反应,六天之后恢复了正常。

Two FDA-approved drugs are currently available for treating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease-donepezil, marketed under the brand name Aricept, and tacrine( Cognex).
目前可以在市场上买到两种经食品与药物管理局批准生产的药物,用于治疗老年痴呆症──一种是 donepezil ,商标为 Aricept ,另一种是 tacrine ,商标为 Cognex 。

Moreover, when the antibody was given to chimpanzees, it inhibited rhinoviral growth, and in humans it lessened both the severity and duration of cold symptoms.
此外,当该抗体被提供给黑猩猩时,它遏制住了鼻病毒的生长;而人体内,抗体则减少了感冒症状的严重程度以及所持续的时间。

spsc-60105624
Teen depression symptoms instructional materials
青少年抑郁症指导材料

Chapter III 第叁章
Diseases of the blood and blood forming organs and certain disorders involving the
immune mechanism (D50-D89)
血液和造血器官及涉及免疫机转的疾患 (D50-D89)
Excludes: autoimmune disease (systemic) NOS (M35.9)
certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P96)
complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O00-O99)
congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)
endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90)
human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease (B20-B24)
injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-T98)
neoplasms (C00-D48)
symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
(R00-R99)
不包含 : 自体免疫疾病 ( 全身的 ) , 其他未明示者
(M35.9)
源於周产期的某些情况 (P00-P96)
怀孕、生产以及产褥期之并发症 (O00-O99)
先天性畸形、异形与染色体异常 (Q00-Q99)
内分泌、营养和代谢性疾病 (E00-E90)
人类免疫缺乏病毒 (HIV) 疾病 (B20-B24)
损伤 , 中毒和某些其他外界原因之後果 (S00-T98)
肿瘤 (C00-D48)
未分类他处之症状、症候和异常临床、实验室发现
(R00-R99)

Chapter IV 第四章
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90)
内分泌、营养及新陈代谢疾病 (E00-E90)
Note: All neoplasms, whether functionally active or not, are
classified in Chapter Ⅱ. Appropriate codes in this chapter (i.e. E05.8, E07.0, E16-E31,
E34.-) may be used, if desired, as additional codes to indicate either functional activity
by neoplasms and ectopic endocrine tissue or hyperfunction and hypofunction of endocrine
glands associated with neoplasms and other conditions classified elsewhere.
注 : 不管有无 ( 内分泌 ) 功能 , 所有肿瘤皆归类於
第二章 , 本章有适当的释码可以使用 (如E05.8,E07.0,E16-E31,E34.-)
如有需要 , 可使用附码确认是由肿瘤及异位内分泌
腺所引起的功能活动或是与肿瘤及他处归类的病况
有关的内分泌腺的功能亢进或功能低下。
Excludes: complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the
puerperium (O00-O09)
symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
(R00-R99)
transitory endocrine and metabolic disorders specific to fetus and newborn (P70-P74)
不包含 : 怀孕、生产及产褥期的并发症 (O00-O99)
症状、候与他处未归类之临床及实验室异常所见
(R00-R99)
胎儿及新生儿特有的短暂性内分泌及新陈代谢疾患
(P70-P74)

Chapter V  第五章
Mental and behavioural disorders(F00-F99)
精神与行为障碍 (F00-F99)
Includes: disorders of psychological development
包含 : 心理发展之疾病
Excludes: symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and
laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R99)
不包含 : 症状、徵候和异常临床及实验室发现 , 他
处未归类者 (R00-R99)

F02.2*
Dementia in Huntington's disease (G10+)
A dementia occurring as part of a widespread degeneration of the brain. The disorder is
transmitted by a single autosomal dominant gene. Symptoms typically emerge in the third
and fourth decade. Progression is slow, leading to death usually within 10 to 15 years.
Dementia in Huntington's chorea
发生於亨丁顿氏病之痴呆 (G10+)  
痴呆之发生乃脑部广泛性退化的一部份。亨丁顿氏
病是藉单一之显性体染色基因来遗传。症状典型地
出现於 20 及 30 多岁时。进展缓慢 , 通常在 10 到 15 年间
导致死亡。 
发生於亨丁顿氏舞蹈病之痴呆 

F06.1
Organic catatonic disorder
A disorder of diminished (stupor) or increased (excitement) psychomotor activity
associated with catatonic symptoms. The extremes of psychomotor disturbance may alternate.

F06.7
Mild cognitive disorder
A disorder characterized by impairment of memory, learning difficulties, and reduced
ability to concentrate on a task for more than brief periods. There is often a marked
feeling of mental fatigue when mental tasks are attempted, and new learning is found to be
subjectively difficult even when objectively successful. None of these symptoms is so
severe that a diagnosis of either dementia (F00-F03) or delirium (F05.-) can be made. This
diagnosis should be made only in association with a specified physical disorder, and
should not be made in the presence of any of the mental or behavioural disorders
classified to F10-F99. The disorder may precede accompany, or follow a wide variety of
infections and physical disorders both cerebral and systemic, but direct evidence of
cerebral involvement is not necessarily present. It can be differentiated from
postencephalitic syndrome (F07.1) and postconcussional syndrome (F07.2) by its different
etiology, more restricted range of generally milder symptoms , and usually shorter
duration.
轻度认知障碍症 
主要表徵为记忆障碍 , 学习或注意力集中困难。当
要用脑力时 , 会有明显的脑力疲倦之感觉 ( 无力感
) , 要学习新东西时 , 甚至客观上学习的很成功 ,
但主观上一直觉得学习得不好 , 而有学习之困难。
这些症状均属轻微程度 , 所以无法作痴呆 (F00-F03) 或
谵妄 (F05.-) 之诊断。这个诊断只当有连带之身体疾
病才能诊断 , 若有 F10-F99 种种精神疾病同存时 , 即不
能作此诊断。此疾病发生於种种发炎或其他身体疾
病之前後或同时发生 , 这些同存身体疾病包含脑之
疾病 , 但这些种种身体疾病不一定有直接证据可以
显现脑部之障碍。此疾病应与脑炎後徵候群 (F07.1)
与脑震汤後徵候群 (F07.2) 做区分 , 其鉴别之重点是
病因不同、程度较轻、症状范围较狭窄、期间较短
。 

F07.2
Postconcussional syndrome
A syndrome that occurs following head trauma (usually sufficiently severe to result in
loss of consciousness) and includes a number of disparate symptoms such as headache,
dizziness, fatigue, irritability, difficulty in concentration and performing mental tasks,
impairment of memory, insomnia, and reduced tolerance to stress, emotional excitement, or
alcohol.
Postcontusional syndrome (encephalopathy)
Post-traumatic brain syndrome, nonpsychotic
脑震汤後徵候群 
此徵候群发生於头部创伤 ( 通常严重到造成意识丧
失 ) 之後 , 并包含一些不同的症状 , 诸如头痛、头
晕 ( 通常缺乏真正眩晕的现象 ) , 疲倦 , 易激怒性
, 专心操作心智事务产生困难 , 记忆缺损 , 失眠 ,
以及对压力、情绪兴奋、或酒精之忍受力降低。 
脑挫伤後徵候群 ( 脑病变 )  
创伤後脑徵候群 , 非精神病性 

This block contains a wide variety of disorders that differ
in severity and clinical form but that are all attributable to the use of one or more
psychoactive substances, which may or may not have been medically prescribed. The third
character of the code identifies the substance involved, and the fourth character
specifies the clinical state. The codes should be used, as required, for each substance
specified, but it should be noted that not all fourth-character codes are applicable to
all substances.
Identification of the psychoactive substance should be based on as many sources of
information as possible. These include self-report data, analysis of blood and other body
fluids, characteristic physical and psychological symptoms, clinical signs and behaviour,
and other evidence such as a drug being in the patient's possession or reports from
informed third parties. Many drug users take more than one type of psychoactive substance.
The main diagnosis should be classified, whenever possible, according to the substance or
class of substances that has caused or contributed most to the presenting clinical
syndrome. Other diagnoses should be coded when other psychoactive substances have been
taken in intoxicating amounts (common fourth character .0) or to the extent of causing
harm (common fourth character .1), dependence (common fourth character .2) or other
disorders (common fourth character .3-.9).
Only in cases in which patterns of psychoactive substance-taking are chaotic and
indiscriminate, or in which the contributions of different psychoactive substances are
inextricably mixed, should the diagnosis of disorders resulting from multiple drug use
(F19.-) be used.
Excludes: abuse of non-dependence-producing substances (F55)
The following fourth-character subdivisions are for use with categories F10-F19:
本节包含了几种不同严重程度与临床型态的疾病 ,
这些疾病均因由於使用一种或更多的精神作用物质
所引起。这些药物可能由医师处方或自行使用。本
节用第 3 码代表特定的物质 , 第 4 码表示临床状况
; 这些号码可用来代表特定物质所造成的精神状态
, 但需注意不是所有的号码都能应用在每个物质上

对於精神作用物质使用与否的界定要尽可能运用多
种的临床资讯 , 这些包含患者自我陈述的资料 , 血
液与其他体液检体的客观分析 , 特殊之身体与心理
症状、临床候、行为表现、以及其他资料 , 如在病
人身上发现药物 , 或第叁者提供的报告。许多药物
使用者服用不止一种的药品 , 但在主要的诊断方面
仍应依据与临床状况最相关的药物 ( 或同一类的药
物 ) 加以分类。当其他精神作用物质之使用量引起
中毒 (第 4 码 .0) , 引起伤害 (第 4 码.1) , 依赖 (第 4 码.2)
或其他障碍 (第 4 码.3-.9) 时 , 也要把其他精神作用物
质相关之诊断加以记述。
只有当精神作用物质的使用型态非常混乱且不易分
辨 , 或者使用的不同药物对临床表现之影响相当的
复杂时 , 才诊断为由於使用多种药物引起之精神疾
病 (F19.-)
不包含 : 非成瘾性药物的滥用 (F55)
下面第 4 码之分类要与 F10-F19 之各类别诊断一起使用


.3
Withdrawal state
A group of symptoms of variable clustering and severity occurring on absolute or relative
withdrawal of a psychoactive substance after persistent use of that substance. The onset
and course of the withdrawal state are time-limited and are related to the type of
psychoactive substance and dose being used immediately before cessation or reduction of
use. The withdrawal state may be complicated by convulsions.
戒断状态
重覆使用精神作用物质 , 一旦完全不用或减低使用
量时 , 会因而产生不同型态及不同严重度的症状 ,
此即为戒断症状。戒断状态的发生及病程是有时间
性的 , 且和精神作用物质的种类及戒断前的最後用
量有关。戒断状态可能会并发痉挛现象。

F20
Schizophrenia
The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic
distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted.
Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain
cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. The most important psychopathological
phenomena include thought echo; thought insertion or withdrawal; thought broadcasting;
delusional perception and delusions of control; influence or passivity; hallucinatory
voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person; thought disorders and
negative symptoms .
The course of schizophrenic disorders can be either continuous, or episodic with
progressive or stable deficit, or there can be one or more episodes with complete or
incomplete remission. The diagnosis of schizophrenia should not be made in the presence of
extensive depressive or manic symptoms unless it is clear that schizophrenic symptoms
antedate the affective disturbance. Nor should schizophrenia be diagnosed in the presence
of overt brain disease or during states of drug intoxication or withdrawal. Similar
disorders developing in the presence of epilepsy or other brain disease should be
classified under F06.2, and those induced by psychoactive substances under F10-F19 with
common fourth character .5.
Excludes: schizophrenia:
. acute (undifferentiated) (F23.2)
. cyclic (F25.2)
sehizophrenie reaction (F23.2)
schizotypal disorder (F21)
精神分裂症 
精神分裂性疾病一般的特徵是思考及知觉的基本、
特有的歪曲 , 以及不适当的或迟钝的情感。虽然一
些认知的缺陷在疾病的过程中呈现出来 , 通常维持
清楚的意识及心智的能力。最重要的精神病理现象
包含思想回声、思想插入或剥夺、思想广播、妄想
性知觉、被控制、被影响或被动等妄想、以第叁人
称批评或讨论病人的听幻觉、思考流程障碍与负性
症状。
精神分裂症之病程 , 有的是持续性、有的是阵发性
合并进行性或稳定性之退化、有的是一次或多次阵
发性 , 且完全或不完全之康复。若同时有显着的忧
郁或躁症症状 , 除非精神分裂的症状於情感障碍之
前发生 , 否则不作精神分裂症的诊断。若病人有明
显脑部疾患或正处於药物中毒或戒断时期 , 则不作
精神分裂症之诊断若有精神分裂症的疾病出现於癫
痫或其他脑部疾患时 , 归类於 F06.2 , 若是由精神作用
物质引起 , 则归类於 F10-F19 中第四码.5 者。 
不包含 : 精神分裂症 :
. 急性 ( 未分化的 ) (F23.2)  
. 循环性 (F25.2)  
精神分裂反应 (F23.2)  
准精神分裂症 (F21)  

F20.0
Paranoid schizophrenia  
Paranoid schizophrenia is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid delusions,
usually accompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and
perceptual disturbances. Disturbances of affect, volition and speech, and catatonic
symptoms, are either absent or relatively inconspicuous.
Paraphrenic schizophrenia
Excludes: involutional paranoid state (F22.8)
paranoia (F22.0)
妄想型精神分裂症 
妄想型精神分裂症最明显的临床症状是固着的妄想
, 通常是被害妄想 , 常伴随幻觉 , 特别是幻听 , 及
其他知觉障得。情感、意志和语言之障碍及紧张症


The results are stopped at 500th line.
193 paragraphs, 500 lines displayed.    Top
(Alt+Z : Reinput words.)
(You can doubleclick on the English words you are searching for.)