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substance

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substance [ 'sʌbstəns] n.物质;实质;本旨

substance [ 'sʌbstəns] n.财产;内容,本旨

substance ['sʌbstəns] n. 物质;实质

摆花架子 a metaphor for presenting an attractive facade but in reality lacking substance

Man can survive only when he has the substance; man can live only when he has ideal.
人有了物质才能生存,有了理想才能生活。

But these beliefs about peptide hormones were questioned as laboratory after laboratory found that antiserums to peptide hormones, when injected into the brain, bind in places other than the hypothalamus, indicating that either the hormones or substances that cross-react with the antiserums are present.
但是这些对于肽激素的信仿,被一个又一个的实验室质疑,他们发现抗血清被注入大脑后,并不在下丘脑那里才凝固,显示出肽激素和与抗血清反作用的物质都不存在。

Grasp the shadow and let go the substance.
舍本逐末。

本质 substance; essence; essentiality; hypostasis; inbeing; quiddity

资产 capital; assets; substance; asset

夹杂 [jiā zá] /(v) mingle together; mix together; have two dissimilar substances mixed together/

内容 [nèi róng] /content/substance/details/

气体 [qì tǐ] /gas (i.e. gaseous substance)/

实体 [shí tǐ] /entity/substance/

实质 [shí zhì] /substance/

坨 [tuó] /lump/spherical substance/

物体 [wù tǐ] /object/body/substance/

物质 [wù zhì] /matter/substance/material/materialistic/

有机物 [yǒu jī wù] /organic substance/organic matter/

炸药 [zhà yào] /explosive (substance)/

质 [zhì] /hostage/substance/nature/quality/

致癌物质 [zhì ái wù zhì] /carcinogen/cancer causing substance/

Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug.
从专业角度说,除食品外,任何能改变我们生理和心理机能的物质都是药物。

Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts.
很多人错误地认为“药物”这个词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。
They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs.
他们没有意识到诸如酒精、烟草这些我们熟悉的物质也是药物。
This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists.
这也是现在许多内科医生和心理学家使用“物质”这个更加中性的词的原因。
The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.
他们常用“物质滥用”而不用“药物滥用”来清楚表明滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.
我们生活在一个物质(药物)在医疗和社交方面的使用都很广泛的社会里:用来缓解头痛的阿斯匹林,用来应酬的酒,早晨用来提神的咖啡,还有定神用的香烟。

When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses?
使用这些物质得到了社会认可,且显然具有积极的作用,但什么时候就变成滥用了呢?

First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions.
首先,大多数物质的过量使用都会产生负面影响,如中毒或严重的感知错乱。
Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence.
反复使用一种物质可以导致成瘾或对该物质的依赖。

Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
依赖的最初表现是不断增长的耐药量,要产生预期的效果需要的药剂量越来越大,而一旦中断使用就会出现难受的停药症状。

Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances.
影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物(物质)属于对神经起显著作用的物质,
Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogen.
它们通常分为兴奋剂、镇静剂和幻觉剂。
Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down.
Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations.
兴奋剂主要起到加速或激活中枢神经系统的作用,而镇静剂则相反:减缓它的活动。幻觉剂主要影响人的感知,通过多种方式对感知加以扭曲或改变,其中包括产生幻觉。
These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mind-manifestation") because they seemed to radically alter one's state of consciousness.
这些物质常被认为能“引起幻觉”(psychedelic一词源于希腊语,意为“心灵显现”),因为它们似乎能改变人的意识状态。

He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery.
他是对抗菌物质进行了长达9年的实验才有了这项发明的。

{adj: abused} used improperly or excessively especially drugs
"an abused substance"

{adj: accumulative, cumulative} increasing by successive addition
"the benefits are cumulative"
"the eventual accumulative effect of these substances"

{adj: achromatinic} (of substance of a cell nucleus) not readily colored by stains
<-> chromatinic

{adj: assimilating, assimilative, assimilatory} capable of taking (gas,light, or liquids into a solution)
"an assimilative substance

{adj: autoimmune} of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body

{adj: backed} used of film that is coated on the side opposite the emulsion with a substance to absorb light

{adj: bone} consisting of or made up of bone
"a bony substance"
"the bony framework of the body"

{adj: bound} held with another element, substance or material in chemical or physical union
<-> free

{adj: built, reinforced} (used of soaps or cleaning agents) having a substance (an abrasive or filler) added to increase effectiveness
"the built liquid detergents"

{adj: butyraceous} having the qualities of butter or yielding or containing a substance like butter

{adj: cardboard, unlifelike} without substance
"cardboard caricatures of historical figures"

{adj: caustic, corrosive, erosive, vitriolic, mordant} of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

{adj: chemical} of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
"chemical fertilizer"

{adj: chromatinic} (of substance of a cell nucleus) readily colored by stains
<-> achromatinic

{adj: coarse, harsh} of textures that are rough to the touch or substances consisting of relatively large particles
"coarse meal"
"coarse sand"
"a coarse weave"
<-> fine

{adj: compound} consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or elements or parts
"soap is a compound substance"
"housetop is a compound word"
"a blackberry is a compound fruit"

{adj: consubstantial} regarded as the same in substance or essence (as of the three persons of the Trinity)

{adj: convertible, transformable, translatable, transmutable} capable of being changed in substance as if by alchemy
"is lead really transmutable into gold?"
"ideas translatable into reality"

{adj: corneous, hornlike, horny} made of horn (or of a substance resembling horn)

{adj: corporeal, material} having material or physical form or substance
"that which is created is of necessity corporeal and visible and tangible" - Benjamin Jowett
<-> incorporeal

{adj: cytotoxic} of or relating to substances that are toxic to cells

{adj: doped} treated or impregnated with a foreign substance

{adj: dry} used of solid substances in contrast with liquid ones
"dry weight"

{adj: evaporable, vaporific, vapourific, vaporizable, vapourisable, volatilizable, volatilisable} (used of substances) capable of being volatilized

{adj: fictile, moldable, plastic} capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material)
"plastic substances such as wax or clay"

{adj: fine} of textures that are smooth to the touch or substances consisting of relatively small particles
"wood with a fine grain"
"fine powdery snow"
"fine rain"
"batiste is a cotton fabric with a fine weave"
"covered with a fine film of dust"
<-> coarse

{adj: fleshed out, full-clad} given substance or detail; completed
"did not spring full-clad from his imagination"
"a plan fleshed out with statistics and details"

{adj: flimsy, slight, tenuous, thin} having little substance or significance
"a flimsy excuse"
"slight evidence"
"a tenuous argument"
"a thin plot"

{adj: form-only} being a matter of form only; lacking substance
"a form-only requirement that is usually ignored"

{adj: homogenized, homogenised} formed by blending unlike elements especially by reducing one element to particles and dispersing them throughout another substance

{adj: immunosuppressive} of or relating to a substance that lowers the body's normal immune response and induces immunosuppression

{adj: incorporeal, immaterial} without material form or substance
"an incorporeal spirit"
<-> corporeal

{adj: inorganic} relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis
"hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are called inorganic substances"
<-> organic

{adj: insoluble, indissoluble} (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved
<-> soluble

{adj: insubstantial, unsubstantial, unreal} lacking material form or substance; unreal
"as insubstantial as a dream"
"an insubstantial mirage on the horizon"
<-> substantial

{adj: intangible, nonphysical} lacking substance or reality; incapable of being touched or seen
"that intangible thing--the soul"

{adj: intangible} (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value
"intangible assets such as good will"
<-> tangible

{adj: intoxicated, drunk, inebriated} stupefied or excited by a chemical substance (especially alcohol)
"a noisy crowd of intoxicated sailors"
"helplessly inebriated"
<-> sober

{adj: liquid} existing as or having characteristics of a liquid; especially tending to flow
"water and milk and blood are liquid substances"
<-> gaseous, solid

{adj: lyophilized, lyophilised, freeze-dried} used of tissue or blood or serum or other biological substances; dried by freezing in a high vacuum

{adj: massive} being the same substance throughout
"massive silver"

{adj: metamorphic} characterized by metamorphosis or change in physical form or substance
<-> nonmetamorphic

{adj: metaphysical} without material form or substance
"metaphysical forces"

{adj: mind-altering} producing mood changes or distorted perception
"hallucinogenic drugs are mind-altering substances"

{adj: molar} containing one mole of a substance
"molar weight"

{adj: mucoid, mucoidal} relating to or resembling mucus
"a mucoid substance"

{adj: mutable, changeable} capable of or tending to change in form or quality or nature
"a mutable substance"
"the mutable ways of fortune"
"mutable weather patterns"
"a mutable foreign policy"
<-> immutable

{adj: myelinic} of or relating to the substance that forms a sheath around the axon of some nerve fibers

{adj: nonionic, nonpolar} not ionic
"a nonionic substance"
<-> ionic

{adj: occluded, sorbed} (of a substance) taken into and retained in another substance
"the sorbed oil mass"
"large volumes of occluded hydrogen in palladium"

{adj: painted} lacking substance or vitality as if produced by painting
"in public he wore a painted smile"

{adj: photoconductive} of or relating to photoconductivity
"selenium is a photoconductive substance"

{adj: physical} having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses
"a physical manifestation"
"surrounded by tangible objects"

{adj: plastered, slicked} (of hair) made smooth by applying a sticky or glossy substance
"black hair plastered with pomade"

{adj: poor} lacking in specific resources, qualities or substances
"a poor land"
"the area was poor in timber and coal"
"food poor in nutritive value"
<-> rich

{adj: pyroligneous, pyrolignic} of a substance produced by the effect of heat on wood, especially by destructive distillation

{adj: qualitative} involving distinctions based on qualities
"qualitative change"
"qualitative data"
"qualitative analysis determines the chemical constituents of a substance or mixture"
<-> quantitative

{adj: quantitative} expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement
"export wheat without quantitative limitations"
"quantitative analysis determines the amounts and proportions of the chemical constituents of a substance or mixture"
<-> qualitative

{adj: quick-drying} of a liquid substance that dries quickly

{adj: refrigerant, refrigerating} causing cooling or freezing
"a refrigerant substance such as ice or solid carbon dioxide"

{adj: rich} having an abundant supply of desirable qualities or substances (especially natural resources)
"blessed with a land rich in minerals"
"rich in ideas"
"rich with cultural interest"
<-> poor

{adj: saturated, concentrated} being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature; unable to dissolve still more of a substance
"a saturated solution"
<-> unsaturated

{adj: shadowy, wraithlike} lacking in substance
"strange fancies of unreal and shadowy worlds"- W.A.Butler
"dim shadowy forms"
"a wraithlike column of smoke"

{adj: simple} having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved
"a simple problem"
"simple mechanisms"
"a simple design"
"a simple substance"
<-> complex

{adj: slimed, slimy} covered with or resembling slime
"a slimy substance covered the rocks"

{adj: sober} not affected by a chemical substance (especially alcohol)
<-> intoxicated

{adj: solid} entirely of one substance with no holes inside
"a solid block of wood"
<-> hollow

{adj: solid} of one substance or character throughout
"solid gold"
"carved out of solid rock"

{adj: soluble} (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
<-> insoluble

{adj: spiritual} lacking material body or form or substance
"spiritual beings"
"the vital transcendental soul belonging to the spiritual realm"-Lewis Mumford

{adj: spray-dried} dried by bringing a sprayed substance (e.g. milk or soap) into contact with hot air and recovering it in the form of a powder

{adj: sternutatory, sternutative} causing sneezing
"pepper is a sternutatory substance"

{adj: substantial, real, material} having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary
"the substantial world"
"a mere dream, neither substantial nor practical"
"most ponderous and substantial things"- Shakespeare
<-> insubstantial

{adj: superficial, trivial} of little substance or significance
"a few superficial editorial changes"
"only trivial objections"

{adj: tangible} (of especially business assets) having physical substance and intrinsic monetary value
"tangible property like real estate"
"tangible assets such as machinery"
<-> intangible

{adj: teratogenic} of or relating to substances or agents that can interfere with normal embryonic development

{adj: time-release} of or relating to a preparation that gradually releases an active substance (especially a drug) over a period of time

{adj: toxic} of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison
"suffering from exposure to toxic substances"
<-> nontoxic

{adj: translatable} capable of being put into another form or style or language
"substances readily translatable to the American home table"
"his books are eminently translatable"
<-> untranslatable

{adj: unreal} lacking in reality or substance or genuineness; not corresponding to acknowledged facts or criteria
"ghosts and other unreal entities"
"unreal propaganda serving as news"
<-> real

{adj: unsaturated} not saturated; capable of dissolving more of a substance at a given temperature
"an unsaturated salt solution"
<-> saturated

{adj: watery} relating to or resembling or consisting of water
"a watery substance"
"a watery color"

{adv: chemically} with respect to chemistry
"chemically different substances"

{adv: metabolically} involving metabolism
"metabolically important substances"

{adv: nonspecifically} without specificity
"nonspecifically staining substances"

{adv: qualitatively} in a qualitative manner
"this discoloration qualitatively suggests that the substance is low in inorganic iron"

{n: Anaximander} a presocratic Greek philosopher and student of Thales who believed the universal substance to be infinity rather than something resembling ordinary objects (611-547 BC)

{n: Athanasianism} the theological doctrine taught by Athanasius that Christ the Son is of the same substance as God the Father
<-> Arianism

{n: Avogadro's number, Avogadro number} the number of molecules in a mole of a substance (approximately 602,250,000,000,000,000,000,000)

{n: Curie temperature, Curie point} the temperature above which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes paramagnetic

{n: Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Enforcement Agency, DEA} federal agency responsible for enforcing laws and regulations governing narcotics and controlled substances; goal is to immobilize drug trafficking organizations

{n: Mohs scale} a scale of hardness of solids; talc is 0 and diamond is 10; ordering is determined by which substance can scratch another substance

{n: Parmenides} a presocratic Greek philosopher born in Italy; held the metaphysical view that being is the basic substance and ultimate reality of which all things are composed; said that motion and change are sensory illusions (5th century BC)

{n: Picris, genus Picris} genus of weedy Old World yellow-flowered herbs usually containing a bitter-tasting substance: bitterweed

{n: Rubia, genus Rubia} type genus of the Rubiaceae; Old World herbs and subshrubs grown for their medicinal properties and for dye substances extracted from their roots

{n: Sida, genus Sida} large genus of tropical subshrubs or herbs some of which yield fibers of mucilaginous substances

{n: United States dry unit} a unit of measurement of capacity for dry substances officially adopted in the United States Customary System

{n: abrasive, abradant, abrasive material} a substance that abrades or wears down

{n: absorbent material, absorbent} a material having capacity or tendency to absorb another substance

{n: absorption band} a dark band in the spectrum of white light that has been transmitted through a substance that exhibits absorption at selective wavelengths

{n: absorption coefficient, coefficient of absorption, absorptance} a measure of the rate of decrease in the intensity of electromagnetic radiation (as light) as it passes through a given substance; the fraction of incident radiant energy absorbed per unit mass or thickness of an absorber
"absorptance equals 1 minus transmittance"

{n: absorption, soaking up} (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

{n: active transport} transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy

{n: activity} (chemistry) the capacity of a substance to take part in a chemical reaction
"catalytic activity"

{n: addict} someone who is physiologically dependent on a substance; abrupt deprivation of the substance produces withdrawal symptoms

{n: adhesive material, adhesive agent, adhesive} a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

{n: adsorbent, adsorbent material} a material having capacity or tendency to adsorb another substance

{n: adulterant, adulterator} any substance that adulterates (lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance)
"it is necessary to remove the adulterants before use"

{n: adulteration} the act of adulterating (especially the illicit substitution of one substance for another)

{n: adulterator} a changer who lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance

{n: aerosol, aerosol container, aerosol can, aerosol bomb, spray can} a dispenser that holds a substance under pressure and that can release it as a fine spray (usually by means of a propellant gas)

{n: agent} a substance that exerts some force or effect

{n: agglutinogen} any substance that acts as an antigen to cause agglutinin production

{n: allergen} any substance that can cause an allergy

{n: alundum} a substance made of fused alumina

{n: ambergris} waxy substance secreted by the sperm whale and found floating at sea or washed ashore; used in perfume

{n: aminopyrine, amidopyrine} a white crystalline substance used as an analgesic and antipyretic

{n: amyloid} a non-nitrogenous food substance consisting chiefly of starch; any substance resembling starch

{n: anabolism, constructive metabolism} the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
<-> catabolism

{n: anaphylactic shock} a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure

{n: anaphylaxis} hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance

{n: angiocardiogram} a series of X rays representing the action of the heart and its blood vessels after the injection of a radiopaque substance

{n: angiogram} an X-ray representation of blood vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance
"angiograms are produced by angiography"

{n: angiotensin, angiotonin, Hypertensin} any of several vasoconstrictor substances (trade name Hypertensin) that cause narrowing of blood vessels

{n: animal oil} any oil obtained from animal substances

{n: ant cow} excretes a honeylike substance eaten by ants

{n: antagonism} (biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure

{n: antibiotic, antibiotic drug} a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
"when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs"

{n: anticatalyst} (chemistry) a substance that retards a chemical reaction or diminishes the activity of a catalyst
<-> catalyst

{n: anticholinergic, anticholinergic drug} a substance that opposes or blocks the action of acetylcholine

{n: antigen} any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)

{n: antioxidant} substance that inhibits oxidation or inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen or peroxides

{n: antiperspirant} an astringent substance applied to the skin to reduce perspiration

{n: antipruritic} a substance that relieves or prevents itching

{n: antiseptic} a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues

{n: applicator, applier} a device for applying a substance

{n: asphalt, mineral pitch} a dark bituminous substance found in natural beds and as residue from petroleum distillation; consists mainly of hydrocarbons

{n: assay} a quantitative or qualitative test of a substance (especially an ore or a drug) to determine its components; frequently used to test for the presence or concentration of infectious agents or antibodies etc.

{n: assay} a substance that is undergoing an analysis of its components

{n: assay} a written report of the results of an analysis of the composition of some substance

{n: astringency, astringence} a sharp astringent taste; the taste experience when a substance causes the mouth to pucker

{n: atomic cocktail} an oral dose of radioactive substance used in treatment and diagnosis of cancer

{n: autoclave, sterilizer, steriliser} a device for heating substances above their boiling point; used to manufacture chemicals or to sterilize surgical instruments

{n: autophyte, autophytic plant, autotroph, autotrophic organism} plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances

{n: bacteriochlorophyll} a substance in photosensitive bacteria that is related to but different from chlorophyll of higher plants

{n: bagger} a machine for putting objects or substances into bags

{n: balata, gutta balata} when dried yields a hard substance used e.g. in golf balls

{n: balm} any of various aromatic resinous substances used for healing and soothing

{n: basivertebral vein, vena basivertebralis} one of a number of veins draining the spongy substance of the vertebrae and emptying into the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus

{n: behavior, behaviour} the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances
"the behavior of small particles can be studied in experiments"

{n: bioassay, bio-assay} appraisal of the biological activity of a substance by testing its effect on an organism and comparing the result with some agreed standard

{n: bioremediation} the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) that can break down the undesirable substances

{n: blasting cap} a small tube filled with detonating substances; used to detonate high explosives

{n: body substance} the substance of the body

{n: bombardment} the act (or an instance) of subjecting a body or substance to the impact of high-energy particles (as electrons or alpha rays)

{n: bone black, bone char, animal black, animal charcoal} black substance containing char in the form of carbonized bone; used as a black pigment

{n: bone, osseous tissue} the porous calcified substance from which bones are made

{n: bounce, bounciness} the quality of a substance that is able to rebound

{n: buffered aspirin, Bufferin} aspirin coated with a substance capable of neutralizing acid (trade name Bufferin)

{n: builder, detergent builder} a substance added to soaps or detergents to increase their cleansing action

{n: butterfat} the fatty substance of milk from which butter is made

{n: cake, bar} a block of solid substance (such as soap or wax)
"a bar of chocolate"

{n: calcium hydroxide, lime, slaked lime, hydrated lime, calcium hydrate, caustic lime, lime hydrate} a caustic substance produced by heating limestone

{n: cancer juice} a milky substance found in certain cancerous growths

{n: candied apple, candy apple, taffy apple, caramel apple, toffee apple} an apple that is covered with a candy-like substance (usually caramelized sugar)

{n: carbohydrate, saccharide, sugar} an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

{n: carbon black, lampblack, soot, smut, crock} a black colloidal substance consisting wholly or principally of amorphous carbon and used to make pigments and ink

{n: carbon dioxide, CO2, carbonic acid gas} a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis

{n: carbon paper, carbon} a thin paper coated on one side with a dark waxy substance (often containing carbon); used to transfer characters from the original to an under sheet of paper

{n: carcinogen} any substance that produces cancer

{n: carrier} an inactive substance that is a vehicle for a radioactive tracer of the same substance and that assists in its recovery after some chemical reaction

{n: catabolism, katabolism, dissimilation, destructive metabolism} breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
<-> anabolism

{n: catalyst, accelerator} (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
<-> anticatalyst

{n: catechin} a tannic acid that is extracted from black catechu as a white crystalline substance

{n: caustic} any chemical substance that burns or destroys living tissue

{n: cautery, cauterant} an instrument or substance used to destroy tissue for medical reasons (eg removal of a wart) by burning it with a hot iron or an electric current or a caustic or by freezing it

{n: celluloid} highly flammable substance made from cellulose nitrate and camphor; used in e.g. motion-picture and X-ray film; its use has decreased with the development of nonflammable thermoplastics

{n: cementum, cement} a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth

{n: centrifugation} the process of separating substances by the use of a centrifuge

{n: cephalosporin, Mefoxin} one of several broad spectrum antibiotic substances obtained from fungi and related to penicillin (trade names Mefoxin); addition of side chains has produced semisynthetic antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity

{n: chalk} a piece of calcite or a similar substance, usually in the shape of a crayon, that is used to write or draw on blackboards or other flat surfaces

{n: char} a charred substance

{n: chemical analysis, qualitative analysis} the act of decomposing a substance into its constituent elements

{n: chemical element, element} any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

{n: chemical energy} that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction

{n: chemical irritant} a substance producing irritation

{n: chemical process, chemical change, chemical action} (chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved

{n: chemical reaction, reaction} (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
"there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water"

{n: chemical reactor} an apparatus for holding substances that are undergoing a chemical reaction

{n: chemical weapon} chemical substances that can be delivered using munitions and dispersal devices to cause death or severe harm to people and animals and plants

{n: chemical, chemical substance} produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules

{n: chemistry, chemical science} the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

{n: chicle, chicle gum} gum-like substance from the sapodilla

{n: chitin} a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi

{n: chondrin} a substance that resembles gelatin and is obtained by boiling cartilage in water

{n: chromatin, chromatin granule} the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes

{n: club drug} a controlled substance that is usually taken by young people at dance clubs and raves

{n: coating, finish, finishing} a decorative texture or appearance of a surface (or the substance that gives it that appearance)
"the boat had a metallic finish"
"he applied a coat of a clear finish"
"when the finish is too thin it is difficult to apply evenly"

{n: cofactor} a substance (as a coenzyme) that must join with another to produce a given result

{n: colophony} translucent brittle substance produced from pine oleoresin; used especially in varnishes and inks and on the bows of stringed instruments

{n: colorimeter, tintometer} a measuring instrument used in colorimetric analysis to determine the quantity of a substance from the color it yields with specific reagents

{n: coloring, colouring, food coloring, food colouring, food color, food colour} a digestible substance used to give color to food
"food color made from vegetable dyes"

{n: column, chromatography column} a vertical glass tube used in column chromatography; a mixture is poured in the top and washed through a stationary substance where components of the mixture are adsorbed selectively to form colored bands

{n: combustible, combustible material} a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power

{n: combustion, burning} a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

{n: comestible, edible, eatable, pabulum, victual, victuals} any substance that can be used as food

{n: compound, chemical compound} (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

{n: concentration} (chemistry) the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume (expressed as moles/cubic meter)

{n: concentration} strengthening the amount of a substance in a unit amount of another substance (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing the other substance
<-> dilution

{n: conditioner} a substance used in washing (clothing or hair) to make things softer

{n: conductor} a substance that readily conducts e.g. electricity and heat
<-> insulator

{n: conjugated protein, compound protein} a protein complex combining amino acids with other substances

{n: consubstantiation} the doctrine of the High Anglican Church that after the consecration of the Eucharist the substance of the body and blood of Christ coexists with the substance of the consecrated bread and wine

{n: contaminant, contamination} a substance that contaminates

{n: contamination, pollution} the act of contaminating or polluting; including (either intentionally or accidentally) unwanted substances or factors
<-> decontamination

{n: content} the proportion of a substance that is contained in a mixture or alloy etc.

{n: contrast medium, contrast material} a substance that is opaque to x-rays; when administered it allows a radiologist to examine the organ or tissue it fills

{n: controlled substance} a drug or chemical substance whose possession and use are controlled by law

{n: converter, convertor} a device for changing one substance or form or state into another

{n: corrosive} a substance having the tendency to cause corrosion (such a strong acids or alkali)

{n: coupon} a test sample of some substance

{n: cream, ointment, emollient} toiletry consisting of any of various substances in the form of a thick liquid that have a soothing and moisturizing effect when applied to the skin

{n: crucible steel} steel made by the mixture of molten wrought iron, charcoal, and other substances in a crucible

{n: cryocautery} application of a substance that destroys tissue by freezing it

{n: crystal, crystallization} a rock formed by the solidification of a substance; has regularly repeating internal structure; external plane faces

{n: culture medium, medium} (bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms

{n: cytolysin} a substance that partly or completely destroys animal cells

{n: cytotoxin} any substance that has a toxic effect on cells

{n: decay, radioactive decay, disintegration} the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation

{n: decoction} (pharmacology) the extraction by boiling of water-soluble drug substances

{n: decomposition, decomposition reaction, chemical decomposition reaction} (chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance

{n: defective pleading} any pleading that fails to conform in form or substance to minimum standards of accuracy or sufficiency

{n: delphinium} any plant of the genus Delphinium having palmately divided leaves and showy spikes of variously colored spurred flowers; some contain extremely poisonous substances

{n: denaturant} any substance that serves as a denaturing agent

{n: densitometry} measuring the optical density of a substance by shining light on it and measuring its transmission

{n: dentifrice} a substance for cleaning the teeth; applied with a toothbrush

{n: desiccant, drying agent, drier, sicative} a substance that promotes drying (e.g., calcium oxide absorbs water and is used to remove moisture)

{n: destructive distillation} heating a solid substance in a closed container and collecting the volatile products

{n: detoxification} a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances

{n: dextrin} any of various polysaccharides obtained by hydrolysis of starch; a tasteless and odorless gummy substance that is used as a thickening agent and in adhesives and in dietary supplements

{n: dialysis} separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes

{n: dialyzer, dialysis machine} a medical instrument for separating substances in solution by unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes

{n: diamagnet} a substance that exhibits diamagnetism

{n: digestion} the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body

{n: digestive} any substance that promotes digestion

{n: dimorphism} (chemistry) the property of certain substances that enables them to exist in two distinct crystalline forms

{n: discharge, emission, expelling} any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body
"the discharge of pus"

{n: discharge, emission} a substance that is emitted or released

{n: dispersed phase, dispersed particles} (of colloids) a substance in the colloidal state

{n: dispersing phase, dispersion medium, dispersing medium} (of colloids) a substance in which another is colloidally dispersed

{n: displacement, displacement reaction} (chemistry) a reaction in which an elementary substance displaces and sets free a constituent element from a compound

{n: diuretic drug, diuretic, water pill} any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine

{n: dose, dosage} the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time

{n: double salt} a solution of two simple salts that forms a single substance on crystallization

{n: dragon's blood} a dark red resinous substance derived from various trees and used in photoengraving

{n: dronabinol} psychoactive substance present in marijuana; used therapeutically to control nausea associated with cancer therapy

{n: drug of abuse, street drug} a drug that is taken for nonmedicinal reasons (usually for mind-altering effects); drug abuse can lead to physical and mental damage and (with some substances) dependence and addiction

{n: drug user, substance abuser, user} a person who takes drugs

{n: drug} a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic

{n: duct, epithelial duct, canal, channel} a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance
"the tear duct was obstructed"
"the alimentary canal"
"poison is released through a channel in the snake's fangs"

{n: dye, dyestuff} a usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair

{n: eburnation} a change that occurs in degenerative joint disease in which bone is converted into a dense smooth substance resembling ivory

{n: ectoplasm} (spiritualism) a substance supposed to emanate from the body of the medium during a trance

{n: egg white, white, albumen, ovalbumin} the white part of an egg; the nutritive and protective gelatinous substance surrounding the yolk consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water
"she separated the whites from the yolks of several eggs"

{n: electrodeposition} the deposition of a substance on an electrode by the action of electricity (especially by electrolysis)

{n: element} one of four substances thought in ancient and medieval cosmology to constitute the physical universe
"the alchemists believed that there were four elements"

{n: elixir of life} a hypothetical substance believed to maintain life indefinitely; once sought by alchemists

{n: elixir} a substance believed to cure all ills

{n: enamel, tooth enamel} hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth

{n: enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay, ELISA} an assay that relies on an enzymatic conversion reaction and is used to detect the presence of specific substances (such as enzymes or viruses or antibodies or bacteria)

{n: epidural injection} injection of an anesthetic substance into the epidural space of the spinal cord in order to produce epidural anesthesia

{n: essence} any substance possessing to a high degree the predominant properties of a plant or drug or other natural product from which it is extracted

{n: eutectic} a mixture of substances having a minimum melting point

{n: excretory organ, urinary organ} an organ that separates waste substances from the blood and discharges them

{n: explosive} a chemical substance that undergoes a rapid chemical change (with the production of gas) on being heated or struck

{n: exudate, exudation} a substance that oozes out from plant pores

{n: eyeshadow} makeup consisting of a cosmetic substance used to darken the eyes

{n: fat} a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids (mostly triglycerides)
"pizza has too much fat"

{n: feebleness, tenuity} the quality of lacking intensity or substance
"a shrill yet sweet tenuity of voice"- Nathaniel Hawthorne

{n: ferment} a substance capable of bringing about fermentation

{n: fertilizer, fertiliser, plant food} any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to make soil more fertile


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