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strain [ 'strein] vt.拉紧 vi.尽力

strain every nerve 竭尽全力

strained [ 'streind] adj.不自然的,不友好的

HIV 菌种 HIV strains/ strains of HIV

HIV strains/ strains of HIV HIV 菌种

Axial strain 轴向应变

the stresses and strains of modern life

All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs.

I can't stand it. *stand “容忍,忍耐”。
Tom is very rude. (汤姆太粗鲁了。)
Yeah, I can't stand it. (就是,我真受不了他。)
I can't take it (anymore).
I can't bare it (anymore).
I can't take the strain.
I can't stand it any longer.
I can't put up with it any longer! *put up with...“忍受……”。

悲歌 [bēi gē] /sad melody/stirring strains/elegy/dirge/threnody/sing with solemn fervor/

吃力 [chī lì] /entail strenuous effort/be a strain/

费力 [fèi lì] /great effort/to strain (oneself)/

紧张 [jǐn zhāng] /critical/tension/nervous/intense/strained/tense/

拉紧 [lā jǐn] /strain/tense/tighten/

渌 [lù] /clear (water)/strain liquids/

漉 [lù] /strain liquids/

滤 [lǜ] /to strain/to filter/

抒 [shū] /to strain/pour out/

醑 [xǔ] /spiritus/strain spirits/

钊 [zhāo] /encourage/to cut/to strain/

I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.
Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life Kelsey used to advocate and I once enjoyed: 12-hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on "quality time".

{adj: accommodational} of or relating to the accommodation of the lens of the eye
"accommodational strain"

{adj: agonistic, strained} struggling for effect
"agonistic poses"

{adj: arduous, straining, strenuous} taxing to the utmost; testing powers of endurance
"his final, straining burst of speed"
"a strenuous task"
"your willingness after these six arduous days to remain here"- F.D.Roosevelt

{adj: bearing} (of a structural member) withstanding a weight or strain
<-> nonbearing

{adj: caprine} being or pertaining to or resembling a goat or goats
"caprine creatures"
"a caprine strain of virus"
"a caprine voice"

{adj: casual, effortless} not showing effort or strain
"a difficult feat performed with casual mastery"
"careless grace"

{adj: chained, enchained, in chains} bound with chains
"enchained demons strained in anger to gnaw on his bones"
"prisoners in chains"

{adj: constrained, forced, strained} lacking spontaneity; not natural
"a constrained smile"
"forced heartiness"
"a strained smile"

{adj: contorted, distorted, twisted} strained or wrenched out of normal shape
"old trees with contorted branches"
"scorched and distorted fragments of steel"
"trapped under twisted steel girders"

{adj: crossbred, interbred} bred of parents of different races or strains

{adj: crossbred} bred from a mixture of breeds or strains
<-> purebred

{adj: halting} fragmentary or halting from emotional strain
"uttered a few broken words of sorrow"

{adj: labored, laboured, strained} lacking natural ease
"a labored style of debating"

{adj: purebred} bred for many generation from member of a recognized breed or strain
<-> crossbred

{adj: ragged} worn out from stress or strain
"run ragged"

{adj: relaxed} without strain or anxiety
"gave the impression of being quite relaxed"
"a relaxed and informal discussion"
<-> tense

{adj: strained} under great stress
"her voice was strained as she asked the question"

{adj: stressed, distressed, in a bad way} suffering severe physical strain or distress
"he dropped out of the race, clearly distressed and having difficulty breathing"
"the victim was in a bad way and needed immediate attention"

{adj: undiluted} not diluted
"undiluted milk"
"an undiluted racial strain"
<-> diluted

{adj: unrelaxed} nor relaxed
"his life was drawing to a close in baffled zeal and unrelaxed strain"- U.B.Phillips

{adv: intently} with strained or eager attention
"listened intently"
"stood watching intently"

{n: Africanized bee, Africanized honey bee, killer bee, Apis mellifera scutellata, Apis mellifera adansonii} a strain of bees that originated in Brazil in the 1950s as a cross between an aggressive African bee and a honeybee; retains most of the traits of the African bee; now spread as far north as Texas

{n: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus globigii, grass bacillus, hay bacillus} a species of bacillus found in soil and decomposing organic matter; some strains produce antibiotics

{n: Hooke's law} (physics) the principle that (within the elastic limit) the stress applied to a solid is proportional to the strain produced

{n: Pacific bonito, Sarda lineolata} probably a northern strain of Chile bonito

{n: aplomb, assuredness, cool, poise, sang-froid} great coolness and composure under strain
"keep your cool"

{n: breed, strain, stock} a special variety of domesticated animals within a species
"he experimented on a particular breed of white rats"
"he created a new strain of sheep"

{n: breed, strain} a lineage or race of people

{n: catachresis} strained or paradoxical use of words either in error (as `blatant' to mean `flagrant') or deliberately (as in a mixed metaphor: `blind mouths')

{n: cenogenesis, kenogenesis, caenogenesis, cainogenesis, kainogenesis} introduction during embryonic development of characters or structure not present in the earlier evolutionary history of the strain or species (as addition of the placenta in mammalian evolution)
<-> palingenesis

{n: clear liquid diet} a diet of fluids with minimal residues (fat-free broth or strained fruit juices or gelatin); cannot be used for more than one day postoperative

{n: cotton strain} feeds primarily on cotton

{n: detente} the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)

{n: distortion, overrefinement, straining, torture, twisting} the act of distorting something so it seems to mean something it was not intended to mean

{n: form, variant, strain, var.} (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups
"a new strain of microorganisms"

{n: hitch} a knot that can be undone by pulling against the strain that holds it

{n: indication, indicant} something that serves to indicate or suggest
"an indication of foul play"
"indications of strain"
"symptoms are the prime indicants of disease"

{n: liquid diet} a diet of foods that can be served in liquid or strained form (plus custards or puddings); prescribed after certain kinds of surgery

{n: lumbago, lumbar pain} backache affecting the lumbar region or lower back; can be caused by muscle strain or arthritis or vascular insufficiency or a ruptured intervertebral disc

{n: nafcillin, Nafcil} a penicillinase-resistant form of penicillin (trade name Nafcil) used (usually in the form of its sodium salt) to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci

{n: orphenadrine, Norflex} a skeletal muscle relaxant (trade name Norflex) used to treat severe muscle strain and Parkinsonism

{n: overstrain} too much strain

{n: palingenesis, recapitulation} emergence during embryonic development of various characters or structures that appeared during the evolutionary history of the strain or species
<-> cenogenesis

{n: pease pudding} a pudding made with strained split peas mixed with egg

{n: pneumococcal vaccine, Pneumovax} vaccine (trade name Pneumovax) effective against the 23 most common strains of pneumococcus

{n: pull, pulling} the act of pulling; applying force to move something toward or with you
"the pull up the hill had him breathing harder"
"his strenuous pulling strained his back"

{n: puree} food prepared by cooking and straining or processed in a blender

{n: quality} an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone
"the quality of mercy is not strained"--Shakespeare

{n: rest, ease, repose, relaxation} freedom from activity (work or strain or responsibility)
"took his repose by the swimming pool"

{n: sign, mark} a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened)
"he showed signs of strain"
"they welcomed the signs of spring"

{n: song, strain} the act of singing
"with a shout and a song they marched up to the gates"

{n: sound, auditory sensation} the subjective sensation of hearing something
"he strained to hear the faint sounds"

{n: staphylococcal enterotoxin} a soluble exotoxin produced by some strains of staphylococcus; a cause of food poisoning

{n: strain gauge, strain gage} a gauge for measuring strain in a surface

{n: strain, mental strain, nervous strain} (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress
"his responsibilities were a constant strain"
"the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him"

{n: strain, straining} an intense or violent exertion

{n: strain} (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces

{n: strain} injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain

{n: streptodornase} an enzyme produced by some hemolytic strains of streptococcus that dissolves fibrinous secretions from infections; used medicinally (often in combination with streptokinase)

{n: streptokinase} an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism

{n: streptolysin} any of several hemolysins derived from strains of streptococcus

{n: stress incontinence} urinary incontinence that occurs when involuntary pressure is put on the bladder by coughing or laughing or sneezing or lifting or straining

{n: stress, strain} difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension
"she endured the stresses and strains of life"
"he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger"- R.J.Samuelson

{n: stress} (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body
"the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area"

{n: striving, nisus, pains, strain} an effortful attempt to attain a goal

{n: superbug, Bemisia tabaci, poinsettia strain} a strain accidentally imported into Florida from the Middle East then spread to California where it is a very serious pest feeding on almost all vegetable crops and poinsettias

{n: tenor, strain} the general meaning or substance of an utterance
"although I disagreed with him I could follow the tenor of his argument"

{n: tension, tenseness, stress} (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense
"he suffered from fatigue and emotional tension"
"stress is a vasoconstrictor"

{n: tension, tensity, tenseness, tautness} the physical condition of being stretched or strained
"it places great tension on the leg muscles"
"he could feel the tenseness of her body"

{n: tomato sauce} sauce made with a puree of tomatoes (or strained tomatoes) with savory vegetables and other seasonings; can be used on pasta

{n: tune, melody, air, strain, melodic line, line, melodic phrase} a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence
"she was humming an air from Beethoven"

{n: weakness} the property of lacking physical or mental strength; liability to failure under pressure or stress or strain
"his weakness increased as he became older"
"the weakness of the span was overlooked until it collapsed"
<-> strength

{n: wrench, twist, pull} a sharp strain on muscles or ligaments
"the wrench to his knee occurred as he fell"
"he was sidelined with a hamstring pull"

{v: bear down} exert a force or cause a strain upon
"This tax bears down on the lower middle class"

{v: bear up} endure cheerfully
"She bore up under the enormous strain"

{v: bruise} break up into small pieces for food preparation
"bruise the berries with a wooden spoon and strain them"

{v: crick} twist the head into a strained position

{v: deform, distort, strain} alter the shape of (something) by stress
"His body was deformed by leprosy"

{v: extend oneself} strain to the utmost

{v: filter, filtrate, strain, separate out, filter out} remove by passing through a filter
"filter out the impurities"

{v: gag, heave, retch} make an unsuccessful effort to vomit ; strain to vomit

{v: kill oneself, overexert oneself} strain oneself more than is healthy

{v: overstrain, overextend} strain excessively
"He overextended himself when he accepted the additional assignment"

{v: pull, overstretch} strain abnormally
"I pulled a muscle in my leg when I jumped up"
"The athlete pulled a tendon in the competition"

{v: puree, strain} rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender
"puree the vegetables for the baby"

{v: relax, unstrain, unlax, loosen up, unwind, make relaxed} cause to feel relaxed
"A hot bath always relaxes me"
<-> strain, tense

{v: rubberneck} strain to watch ; stare curiously
"The cars slowed down and the drivers rubbernecked after the accident"

{v: screw up} twist into a strained configuration
"screw up one's face"

{v: sift, sieve, strain} separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements
"sift the flour"

{v: strain, extend} use to the utmost ; exert vigorously or to full capacity
"He really extended himself when he climbed Kilimanjaro"
"Don't strain your mind too much"

{v: strain, tense} stretch or force to the limit
"strain the rope"

{v: strive, reach, strain} to exert much effort or energy
"straining our ears to hear"

{v: tell on} produce an affect or strain on somebody
"Each step told on his tired legs"

{v: tense, strain, tense up} make tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious

{v: tire, wear upon, tire out, wear, weary, jade, wear out, outwear, wear down, fag out, fag, fatigue} exhaust or tire through overuse or great strain or stress
"We wore ourselves out on this hike"
<-> refresh

{v: try, strain, stress} test the limits of
"You are trying my patience!"

{v: tug} pull or strain hard at
"Each oar was tugged by several men"

{v: unbend} release from mental strain, tension, or formality
"unbend the mind from absorbing too much information"

I strain for news of people who are taking it.

Now researchers are trying to transplant the defective human gene into mice in an effort to create a strain of mice that develop both plaques and tangles.

As biotechnology becomes more sophisticated and powerful, and as the genetic code of more organisms is identified, biologists will learn how to mix genes of different microbes to create unnatural strains that can be turned into deadly, effective weapons.

Colds are considered incurable today because it would take months to come up with a vaccine for every new strain.

But colds mutate even while they 're infecting you, and new strains pop up so often that by the time drug makers create a vaccine against one variation, the serum is already out of date.

Scientists at the University of Ghent, in Belgium, have a found a protein called M2 that seems to be present in every known flu strain.
比利时根特大学的科学工作者已发现一种叫 M2的蛋白质,它似乎出现在每一种已知的不同类型的流感中。

The leguminous plants—among them crop plants such as soybeans, peas, alfalfa, and clover—have solved the nitrogen supply problem by entering into a symbiotic relationship with the bacterial genus Rhizobium; as a matter of fact, there is a specific strain of Rhizobium for each species of legume.

The classic formula for the piano rag disposes three to five themes in sixteen-bar strains, often organized with repeats.

The rag opens with a bright, memorable strain or theme, followed by a similar theme, leading to a trio of marked lyrical character, with the structure concluded by a lyrical strain that parallels the rhythmic developments of the earlier themes.

Typically, each strain is divided into two 8-bar segments that are essentially alike, so the rhythmic-melodic unit of ragtime is only eight bars of 2/4 measure.

Humans have difficulty resisting colds because rhinoviruses are so diverse, including at least 100 strains.

The strains differ most in the molecular structure of the proteins in their capsids.

Since disease-fighting antibodies bind to the capsid, an antibody developed to protect against one rhinovirus strain is useless against other strains.

Different antibodies must be produced for each strain.

A defense against rhinoviruses might nonetheless succeed by exploiting hidden similarities among the rhinovirus strains.

For example, most rhinovirus strains bind to the same kind of molecule (delta-receptors) on a cell's surface when they attack human cells.

Rossman showed that protein sequences common to all rhinovirus strains lie at the base of a deep "canyon" scoring each face of the capsid.

By appropriate breeding, Watanabe obtained a strain of rabbits that had very high cholesterol levels.

However, we have found that among many strains of rats these "normal" rules of transplantation are not obeyed by liver transplants.

Our hypothesis is that {1} many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response (using lymphocytes) to outstrip the liver's relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage and that {2} the systemic unresponsiveness observed is due to concentration of the recipient's donor-specific lymphocytes at the site of the liver transplant.
我们的假设是:{1} 许多种老鼠纯粹就是无法(利用淋巴细胞)发起一场足够强功的摧毁性免疫应答(immune-response),以压倒肝脏相对较强的保护自身免遭免疫应答损害的能力;
{2} 所观察到的系统性无应答状态,是由于受移植者的供者特异性淋巴细胞集结在肝脏移植物所在的部位所致。

Delegates at a global conference on avian influenza have called for at least $100 million in new funding to fight the disease before it has a chance to mutate into a human strain. The call came as Vietnam reported two new possible cases of bird flu in humans.

The message at the closing session of a global conference on bird flu was clear: if the world wants to stop the deadly H5N1 strain from turning into a disastrous human pandemic, it must act quickly to stop the virus in poultry.

FAO official Samuel Jutzi stresses that H5N1 could turn into a virulent human strain at any time.

Vietnam has suffered more H5N1 cases than any other country, with 13 people killed by the disease since December. A total of 45 people from Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia have died from the H5N1 strain in little more than a year.

Straining cloth of a kind used in oil presses, etc

Strain reliefs

Strain gauges

Temporomandibular joint disorders
Costen's complex or syndrome
Derangement of temporomandibular joint
Snapping jaw
Temporomandibular joint-pain-dysfunction syndrome
Excludes: current temporomandibular joint:
. dislocation (S03.0)
. strain (S03.4)
Costen 氏症候丛或症候群
颞颚关节 - 疼痛 - 机能障碍症候群
不包含 : 再发性颞颚关节 :
. 脱臼 (S03.0)
. 拉伤 (S03.4)

Low back pain
Loin pain
Low back strain
Lumbago NOS
Excludes: lumbago:
. due to intervertebral disc displacement (M51.2)
. with sciatica (M54.4)
不包含 : 下列腰痛 :
. 肇因於椎间盘移位者 (M51.2)
. 并坐骨神经痛 (M54.4)

Muscle strain
Excludes: current injury-see injury of muscle by body region
不包含 : 最近的伤害 - 请参考身体部位之肌肉伤害

Dislocation, sprain and strain including:
avulsion—of joint (capsule) . ligament
laceration—of joint (capsule) . ligament
sprain—of joint (capsule) . ligament
strain—of joint (capsule) . ligament
traumatic: —of joint (capsule) . ligament
. haemarthrosis—of joint (capsule) . ligament
. rupture—of joint (capsule) . ligament
. subluxation—of joint (capsule) . ligament
. tear—of joint (capsule) . ligament
脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤包含 :
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — 撕脱伤
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — 裂伤
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — 扭伤
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — 拉伤
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — 外伤性 :
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — . 关节积血
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — . 破裂
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — . 松脱 ( 不完全脱位 )
关节 ( 囊 ) 、韧带的 — —. 撕开

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of head
头部的关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤

Sprain and strain of jaw
Temporomandibular (joint)(ligament)
颞颔的 ( 关节 ) ( 韧带 )  

Sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of other and unspecified parts
of head

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments at neck level
Excludes: rupture or displacement (nontraumatic) of cervical intervertebral disc (M50.-)
颈部关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤   
不包含 : 颈部椎间盘的破裂或异位 ( 非外伤性 )

Sprain and strain of cervical spine
Anterior longitudinal (ligament), cervical
Atlanto-axial (joints)
Atlanto-occipital (joints)
Whiplash injury
前纵行 ( 韧带 ) , 颈椎部的
寰枢椎间 ( 关节 )
寰椎枕骨间 ( 关节 )

Sprain and strain of thyroid region
Cricoarytenoid (joint)(ligament)
Cricothyroid (joint)(ligament)
Thyroid cartilage
环状与杓状软骨间 ( 关节 ) ( 韧带 )
环状与甲状软骨间 ( 关节 ) ( 韧带 )

Sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of other and unspecified parts
of neck

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of thorax
Excludes: dislocation, sprain and strain of sternoclavicular joint (S43.2, S43.6)
rupture or displacement (nontraumatic) of thoracic intervertebral disc (M51.-)
胸部区域的关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤
不包含 : 胸锁骨间关节的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤 (S43.2, S43.6)

Sprain and strain of thoracic spine

Sprain and strain of ribs and sternum

Sprain and strain of other and unspecified parts of thorax

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of lumbar spine
and pelvis
Excludes: dislocation, sprain and strain of joint and ligaments of hip(S73.-)
obstetric damage to pelvic joints and ligaments (O71.6)
rupture or displacement (nontraumatic) of lumbar intervertebral disc (M51.-)
腰部脊柱和骨盆的关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤
不包含 : 髋部的关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤
产科方面对於骨盆的关节和韧带所造成的损伤 (O71.6)
腰部椎间盘的破裂或移位 ( 非外伤性 ) (M51.-)

Sprain and strain of lumbar spine

Sprain and strain of sacroiliac joint

Sprain and strain of other and unspecified parts of lumbar spine and

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of shoulder
肩带区关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤和拉伤

Sprain and strain of shoulder joint
Coracohumeral (ligament)
Rotator cuff (capsule)
喙突与肱骨间的 ( 韧带 )
旋转肌环 ( 包被 )

Sprain and strain of acromioclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular ligament

Sprain and strain of sternoclavicular joint

Sprain and strain of other and unspecified parts of shoulder girdle
Sprain and strain of shoulder girdle NOS
肩带的扭伤和拉伤 , 其他未明示者

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of elbow
肘部关节和韧带脱位 , 扭伤及拉伤

Sprain and strain of elbow

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments at wrist and hand
手腕和手部关节及韧带的脱位 , 扭伤及拉伤

Sprain and strain of wrist
Carpal (joint)
Radiocarpal (joint) (ligament)

Sprain and strain of finger(s)
Interphalangeal (joint), hand
Metacarpophalangeal (joint)
Phalanx, hand

Sprain and strain of other and unspecified parts of hand

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joint and ligaments of hip
髋关节和韧带的脱位 , 扭伤及拉伤

Sprain and strain of hip

Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of knee
Excludes: derangement of:
. knee, internal (M23.-)
. patella (M22.0-M22.3)
dislocation of knee:
. old (M24.3)
. pathological (M24.3)
. recurrent (M24.4)
膝关节和韧带脱位 , 扭伤及拉伤
不包含 : 结构异常涉及 :
. 膝关节内部 (M23.-)
. 膑骨区 (M22.0-M22.3)
膝脱位 :
. 陈旧性 (M24.3)
. 病理性 (M24.3)
. 再发性 (M24.4)


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