英语学习词典
  

reference

Try Other Sites  百度 Dict.cn Hjenglish  Cambridge M-W OneLook Google





reference [ 'refərəns] n.参考;出处;提及

reference [ 'refərəns] n.参考文献;参照系

reference ['refərəns] 引用

RBW Reference Bandwidth 参考带宽

PRM Protocol REference Model 协议参考模型

sample for reference 参考样品

use one's name as a reference 让某人推荐

Recommendation, Letter of (也称"Personal Recommendation","Personal Endorsement"
或"Personal Reference"(推荐信):由了解申请人品质、学习水平、工作水平的教授或
雇主撰写的评价申请人资格的信。

Recommendation, Letter of (也称“Personal Recommendation”,“Personal Endorsement” 或“Personal Reference”(推荐信):由了解申请人品质、学习水平、工作水平的教授或雇主撰写的评价申请人资格的信。

REF (reference)参考、查价

参考书的负面效应 My View on the Negative Effects of Reference Books

reference group 参照群体

code reference number 参考代号

for reference 提交参考;以供参考

terms of reference 职权;职责范围

Reference 参考,推荐信,介绍书

reference number 参考数字

reference price 参考价格

参比室
reference cell

座椅基准点
seating reference point (SgRP)

仪表参考平面
reference plane of instrument panel

We live in reference to past experience and not to future events, however inevitable.
我们参照过去的经验而非未来的事件生活,不管那些事件如何必然发生。

He made no reference to his illness till after the lesson.
他到下课后才提到他生病了。

That student used the Internet as a reference for his term paper.
那学生用因特网查找参考资料撰写学期论文。

In the reference library there are reference books, from which you can get information.
阅览室里有许多参考书,在那儿你能查到资料。

My former boss said that I could use him as a reference.
我以前的老板说他愿意作我的推荐人。

The boy had excellent references from men for whom he had worked.
那青年有前几任雇主为他写的很好的推荐信。

Is this reference book of any use to me?
这本参考书对我有用处吗?

This reference book is very useful to our study.
这本参考书对我们的研究很有用。

We handle export of microwave ovens and would take the liberty to send you our price list for your reference.
我们经营微波炉出口业务,现冒昧给你方寄去我方报价单供参考。

Reference block 参考试块

Reference beam 参考光束

Reference block 对比试块

Reference block method 对比试块法

Reference coil 参考线圈

Reference line method 基准线法

Reference standard 参考标准

If you wish to succeed, you should use perdistence as your good friend, experiece as your
reference, prudence as your brother and hope as your sentry.
Thomas Edison, American inventor
如果你希望成功,当以恒心为良友、以经验为参谋、以谨慎为兄弟、以希望为哨兵。
美国发明家爱迪生

use one's name as a reference 让某人推荐

参考手册 reference manual

参考 reference; refer to; referrence; consult

参考的 referenced

参考手册 reference manual

参照 refer to; reference; consult

备查 [bèi chá] /for future reference/

备考 [bèi kǎo] /(an appendix, note, etc.) for reference/

参考 [cān kǎo] /consultation/reference/to consult/to refer/

参考书 [cān kǎo shū] /reference/

参照 [cān zhào] /(v) consult; refer to as a reference/

查阅 [chá yuè] /(v) look up in a reference source; refer to/

沉闷 [chén mèn] /(adj) (used in reference to weather) oppressive; heavy/(adj) depressed; not happy/

定点 [dìng diǎn] /fixed point or location/point of reference/(math.) fixed point/to determine a location/

工具书 [gōng jù shū] /(n) trade book; reference book/

借鉴 [jiè jiàn] /(v) utilize others work; use as a source of reference/

老汉 [lǎo hàn] /(n) old man/(n) I (self reference by an old man)/

论及 [lùn jí] /make reference to/write about/

汹涌 [xiōng yǒng] /(v) (used in reference to an ocean, river, lake, etc.) violently surge up/(adj) turbulent/

职称 [zhí chēng] /(n) title; name (in reference to technical positions)/

The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference.
热点的重要性不仅限于它们作为参照体系的作用。
It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe.
现在看来,它们还对推动板块在地球表面漂移这一地球物理过程有重要影响。

This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references.
你的简历实际上是对你的职业生涯的简单描述,它包括教育、经验和证明人。
Such an account is valuable.
这个描述是很有价值的,
It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews.
在填写标准的申请表格时它可提供参考,在面试时更是起极大的作用。
While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
在与你谈话时,你未来的雇主将根据你的教育、你的经验和你其他的资历来确定雇用你是否值得,因此你必须把你的“商品”和能力以有序而合理连贯的方式陈列出来。

{adj: allusive} characterized by indirect references
"allusive speech is characterized by allusions"

{adj: ambiguous} having no intrinsic or objective meaning; not organized in conventional patterns
"an ambiguous situation with no frame of reference"
"ambiguous inkblots"

{adj: anaphoric} relating to anaphora
"anaphoric reference"

{adj: deictic} relating to or characteristic of a word whose reference depends on the circumstances of its use
"deictic pronouns"

{adj: federal} national; especially in reference to the government of the United States as distinct from that of its member units
"the Federal Bureau of Investigation"
"federal courts"
"the federal highway program"
"federal property"

{adj: fiducial} used as a fixed standard of reference for comparison or measurement
"a fiducial point"

{adj: inferior} lower than a given reference point
"inferior alveolar artery"

{adj: limiting} strictly limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase
"the restrictive clause in `Each made a list of the books that had influenced him' limits the books on the list to only those particular ones defined by the clause"

{adj: maxillofacial} of or relating to the upper jaw and face (particularly with reference to specialized surgery of the maxilla)
"maxillofacial surgery"

{adj: nonrestrictive} not limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase
"the nonrestrictive clause in `I always buy his books, which have influenced me greatly,' refers to his books generally and adds an additional fact about them"

{adj: orienting, orientating} positioning with respect to a reference system or determining your bearings physically or intellectually
"noticed the bee's momentary orienting pause before heading back to the hive"
"an orienting program for new employees"
<-> disorienting

{adj: pointed} direct and obvious in meaning or reference; often unpleasant
"a pointed critique"
"a pointed allusion to what was going on"
"another pointed look in their direction"

{adj: pronominal} relating to pronouns
"pronominal reference"

{adj: referenced} supported with written references or citations
"a carefully referenced biography"

{adj: referent} having reference
"judgments referent to the indictment"

{adj: standard} established or widely recognized as a model of authority or excellence
"a standard reference work"
<-> nonstandard

{adj: synchronous} (digital communication) pertaining to a transmission technique that requires a common clock signal (a timing reference) between the communicating devices in order to coordinate their transmissions
<-> asynchronous

{adj: tardive} late-occurring (especially with reference to symptoms of a disease)
"tardive dyskinesia"

{adj: topical} of interest at the present time
"a topical reference"
"a topical and timely study of civil liberty"

{adj: true} determined with reference to the earth's axis rather than the magnetic poles
"true north is geographic north"

{adv: ibid., ib., ibidem} in the same place (used when citing a reference)

{adv: in vacuo} in isolation and without reference to anything else

{adv: mortally} in such a manner that death ensues (also in reference to hatred, jealousy, fear, etc.)
"a being of whom the forest Indians are said to be mortally afraid, with a hoof shaped like the heel of a bottle"

{adv: per annum, p.a., per year, each year, annually} by the year; every year (usually with reference to a sum of money paid or received)
"he earned $100,000 per annum"
"we issue six volumes per annum"

{adv: primitively, originally, in the beginning} with reference to the origin or beginning

{adv: still} with reference to action or condition; without change, interruption, or cessation
"it's still warm outside"
"will you still love me when we're old and grey?"
<-> no longer

{adv: subsequently, later, afterwards, afterward, after, later on} happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
"he apologized subsequently"
"he's going to the store but he'll be back here later"
"it didn't happen until afterward"
"two hours after that"

{adv: unwittingly, inadvertently, unknowingly} without knowledge or intention
"he unwittingly deleted the references"
<-> advertently, knowingly, wittingly

{adv: wittingly, knowingly} with full knowledge and deliberation
"he wittingly deleted the references"
<-> unknowingly, unwittingly

{n: Bailey, Nathan Bailey, Nathaniel Bailey} English lexicographer who was the first to treat etymology consistently; his work was used as a reference by Samuel Johnson (died in 1742)

{n: Coriolis effect} (physics) an effect whereby a body moving in a rotating frame of reference experiences the Coriolis force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation; on Earth the Coriolis effect deflects moving bodies to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere

{n: Coriolis force} (physics) a force due to the earth's rotation; acts on a body in motion (airplane or projectile) in a rotating reference frame; in a rotating frame of reference Newton's second law of motion can be made to apply if in addition to the real forces acting on a body a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force are introduced

{n: abstractionism, unrealism} a representation having no reference to concrete objects or specific examples

{n: accounting principle, accounting standard} a principle that governs current accounting practice and that is used as a reference to determine the appropriate treatment of complex transactions

{n: allusion} passing reference or indirect mention

{n: allusiveness} a quality characterized by indirect reference

{n: anatomical reference, anatomical} an expression that relates to anatomy

{n: annual, yearly, yearbook} a reference book that is published regularly once every year

{n: article} (grammar) a determiner that may indicate the specificity of reference of a noun phrase

{n: aspersion, slur} a disparaging remark
"in the 19th century any reference to female sexuality was considered a vile aspersion"
"it is difficult for a woman to understand a man's sensitivity to any slur on his virility"

{n: attitude} position of aircraft or spacecraft relative to a frame of reference (the horizon or direction of motion)

{n: benchmark, bench mark} a surveyor's mark on a permanent object of predetermined position and elevation used as a reference point

{n: boy} a friendly informal reference to a grown man
"he likes to play golf with the boys"

{n: celestial guidance} a method of controlling the flight of a missile or spacecraft by reference to the positions of celestial bodies

{n: character, reference, character reference} a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability
"requests for character references are all to often answered evasively"

{n: citation, cite, acknowledgment, credit, reference, mention, quotation} a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
"the student's essay failed to list several important citations"
"the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"
"the article includes mention of similar clinical cases"

{n: coordinate axis} one of the fixed reference lines of a coordinate system

{n: coordinate system, frame of reference, reference system, reference frame} a system that uses coordinates to establish position

{n: cross-reference, cross-index} a reference at one place in a work to information at another place in the same work

{n: dagger, obelisk} a character used in printing to indicate a cross reference or footnote

{n: decibel, dB} a logarithmic unit of sound intensity; 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of the sound intensity to some reference intensity

{n: definite article} a determiner (as `the' in English) that indicates specificity of reference

{n: deism, free thought} the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation

{n: dictionary, lexicon} a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them

{n: double dagger, double obelisk, diesis} a character used in printing to indicate a cross reference or footnote

{n: elevation} distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level)
"there was snow at the higher elevations"

{n: encyclopedia, cyclopedia, encyclopaedia, cyclopaedia} a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

{n: epoch, date of reference} (astronomy) the precise date that is the point of reference for which information (as coordinates of a celestial body) is referred

{n: eudemonism, endaemonism} an ethical system that evaluates actions by reference to personal well-being through a life based on reason

{n: exceedance} (geology) the probability that an earthquake will generate a level of ground motion that exceeds a specified reference level during a given exposure time
"the concept of exceedance can be applied to any type of environmental risk modeling"

{n: focus} a fixed reference point on the concave side of a conic section

{n: frame of reference} a system of assumptions and standards that sanction behavior and give it meaning

{n: girl} a friendly informal reference to a grown woman
"Mrs. Smith was just one of the girls"

{n: graph, graphical record} a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes

{n: grid, reference grid} a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating points on an image

{n: guide word, guideword, catchword} a word printed at the top of the page of a dictionary or other reference book to indicate the first or last item on that page

{n: handbook, enchiridion, vade mecum} a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location

{n: hydrography} the science of the measurement and description and mapping of the surface waters of the earth with special reference to navigation

{n: indefinite article} a determiner (as `a' or `some' in English) that indicates nonspecific reference

{n: index} a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number

{n: inertial reference frame, inertial frame} a coordinate system in which Newton's first law of motion is valid

{n: intension, connotation} what you must know in order to determine the reference of an expression

{n: kinematics} the branch of mechanics concerned with motion without reference to force or mass

{n: land, ground, soil} material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
"the land had never been plowed"
"good agricultural soil"

{n: library} a collection of literary documents or records kept for reference or borrowing

{n: linkage editor} an editor program that creates one module from several by resolving cross-references among the modules

{n: lodestar, loadstar} guiding star; a star that is used as a reference point in navigation of astronomy

{n: measuring stick, measure, measuring rod} measuring instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals; used as a reference in making measurements

{n: mechanics} the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference

{n: mention, reference} a remark that calls attention to something or someone
"she made frequent mention of her promotion"
"there was no mention of it"
"the speaker made several references to his wife"

{n: number one} a reference to yourself or myself etc.; `take care of number one' means to put your own interests first

{n: ostrich} a person who refuses to face reality or recognize the truth (a reference to the popular notion that the ostrich hides from danger by burying its head in the sand)

{n: potential unit} a measure of the potential energy of a unit charge at a given point in a circuit relative to a reference point (ground)

{n: priestcraft} a derogatory reference to priests who use their influence to control secular or political affairs

{n: principle of equivalence} (physics) the principle that an observer has no way of distinguishing whether his laboratory is in a uniform gravitational field or is in an accelerated frame of reference

{n: question} an informal reference to a marriage proposal
"he was ready to pop the question"

{n: reference book, reference, reference work, book of facts} a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts
"he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic"

{n: reference manual} a manual containing information organized in a summary manner

{n: reference point, point of reference, reference} an indicator that orients you generally
"it is used as a reference for comparing the heating and the electrical energy involved"

{n: reference, consultation} the act of referring or consulting
"reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer"

{n: reference, denotation, extension} the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to
"the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos"

{n: reference, source} a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to
"he carried an armful of references back to his desk"
"he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation"

{n: reference} the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to
"he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"

{n: referent} something referred to; the object of a reference

{n: reseau} a network of fine lines used by astronomers as a reference for measurements on star photographs

{n: rest energy} the energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest in an inertial frame of reference; equal to the rest mass times the square of the speed of light

{n: retrospection} reference to things past
"the story begins with no introductory retrospections"

{n: rosebud} (a literary reference to) a pretty young girl

{n: scale, scale of measurement, graduated table, ordered series} an ordered reference standard
"judging on a scale of 1 to 10"

{n: side} a place within a region identified relative to a center or reference location
"they always sat on the right side of the church"
"he never left my side"

{n: standard, criterion, measure, touchstone} a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated
"the schools comply with federal standards"
"they set the measure for all subsequent work"

{n: synchronic linguistics} the study of a language without reference to its historical context

{n: target, mark} a reference point to shoot at
"his arrow hit the mark"

{n: wordbook} a reference book containing words (usually with their meanings)

{v: allude, touch, advert} make a more or less disguised reference to
"He alluded to the problem but did not mention it"

{v: cross-index} make an index that refers from one point to the next
"These references are cross-indexed"

{v: document} support or supply with references
"Can you document your claims?"

{v: fly contact} fly a plane by using visible landmarks or points of reference

{v: front, look, face} be oriented in a certain direction, often with respect to another reference point ; be opposite to
"The house looks north"
"My backyard look onto the pond"
"The building faces the park"
<-> back

{v: mention, advert, bring up, cite, name, refer} make reference to
"His name was mentioned in connection with the invention"

{v: naturalize} explain with reference to nature

{v: orient, orientate} determine one's position with reference to another point
<-> disorient

{v: plagiarize, plagiarise, lift} take without referencing from someone else's writing or speech ; of intellectual property

{v: reference, cite} refer to
"he referenced his colleagues' work"

{v: slip in, stick in, sneak in, insert} insert casually
"She slipped in a reference to her own work"

She tackles the topics which come her way large and small, intense and light-hearted with equal parts of serious advice, reference to social and psychological experts, and a good helping of wit.
安处理她所遇到的任何问题-无论是大是小,激烈的还是轻松的-时,都会参照社会及心理专家的意见提出同样严肃的建议,同时又不乏机智。

Even the attempts to supplant it pay IQ the tribute of accepting its frame of reference.
甚至各种取代 "智商 "的尝试也都以它作为参照。

Appended to it was a PS from William: " Keep wearing the shirts "--a reference to his colourful liner in apparel.
信下面还附有威廉的一句话: "继续穿那些衬衫 "指的是他喜欢穿的那些五颜六色的衣服。

( www.geocities.com/Athens/Marathon/5150/dictionary/ ) does: it's a collection of sound effects from comic books, each one rigorously defined and cross referenced.
(网址: www.geocities.comAthens )就是这样。该网站从各种连环漫画册中收集了许多声音词汇,对每个词都做了认真注解,并提供参照词汇对照。

As you begin your circumnavigation, the sphere becomes a reference for the relative sizes of objects in the universe.
开始环球旅行之后,球就会变成宇宙中各物的参照物。

His work was based on a comprehensive survey of references in the ancient sources to Amazonian and other societies with matrilineal customs—societies in which descent and property rights are traced through the female line.
他的研究所依据的是对古代史料来源中的参考材料进行的综合考虑,而这些参考材料则涉及到亚马孙和其他带有母系(matrilineal)习俗的社会——在这些社会内,亲缘关系和财产所有权均经由女性这条线来追溯。

Jean Wagner's most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as secular, frame of reference.
詹·瓦格纳(Jean Wagner)对美国黑人诗歌研究作出的最经久不衰的贡献是他的如下主张,即美国黑人诗歌应该被置于一个宗教的而不仅仅是世俗的参照框架中予以分析。

Palestinian militant groups say their attacks forced the Israeli pullout. While President Abbas made reference to those killed in the last five years of violence and those imprisoned by the Israelis, he put the emphasis on improving people's daily lives.
巴勒斯坦武装组织说, 是他们的袭击行动迫使以色列撤离。巴勒斯坦领导人阿巴斯则在讲话中提到了在过去5年中死于暴力和被以色列关押的巴勒斯坦人,但是他讲话的重点在于改进人民的日常生活。

Republican Senator John McCain had an equally upbeat view of Mr. Bush's performance."I think that where the president gained an advantage was on his continued reference, and [a] legitimate one, to his steadfastness and his unwavering commitment to winning this war on terror," he said.
共和党参议员麦凯恩对布什的表现表示了同样的乐观。他说:“我认为布什总统占优势的地方是他不止一次,当然,也是很合理的指出他的坚持和他始终不变的要赢得反恐战争胜利的决心。”

for your reference 供您参考

REF (reference)参考、查价

REF. REFERENCE 参考, 参照

reference standard lamp 参考标准灯

re. With reference to 关于

Ref. Reference 参考(号)

参考样品 reference sample

参考价 reference price

查阅服务 Reference service

与地理相关的数据 Geo-referenced data

与地学有关的信息 Geo-referenced information

参比柱 reference column

就…,关于
About; Regarding; Concerning; As to; As regards; With regard to; In regard to;(of); Respecting; Relative to; Anent; In connection with; Referring to; With reference to; In reference to; Re.

spsc-41121604
Reference pipette tips
基准吸管头

spsc-43232500
Educational or reference software
教育和参考书软件

spsc-55101524
Reference books
参考书

spsc-55110000
Electronic reference material
电子参考材料

spsc-55111600
Electronic Software reference material
电子软件参考材料

spsc-60101726
Technology reference guides
技术叁考指导

spsc-60101801
Bible reference guides
圣经参考指导

spsc-60101907
Alphabet reference guides
字母叁考指导

spsc-60102503
Basic operations reference guides
基本操作参考指导

spsc-60102913
Money reference guides
货币参考指导

spsc-60102917
Time reference guides
时间参考指导

spsc-60103110
Geometry reference guides
几何参考指导

spsc-60103203
Algebra or pre algebra reference guides
代数和代数预科参考指导

spsc-60103302
Precalculus or calculus reference guides
微积分预科和微积分参考指导

spsc-60103404
Geography reference guides
地理学参考指导

spsc-60103503
Government reference guides
政府参考指导

spsc-60103922
Biology reference guides
生物学叁考指导

spsc-80111702
Reference or background check services
介绍人和人员背景核查

B22.7
HIV disease resulting in multiple diseases classified elsewhere
Note: For use of this category, reference should be made to the morbidity and mortality
coding rules and guidelines in Volume 2.
人类免疫缺乏病毒疾病导致的归类於他处之多发性
疾病
注 : 使用本参考目录应注意第二册译码规则及导引
中的罹病率及死亡率

SEQUELAE OF INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC
DISEASES (B90-B94)
Note : These categories are to be used to indicate conditions in categories A00-B89 as the
cause of sequelae, which are themselves classified elsewhere. The "sequelae"
include conditions specified as such; they also include late effects of diseases
classifiable to the above categories if there is evidence that the disease itself is no
longer present. For use of these categories, reference should be made to the morbidity or
mortality coding rules and guidelines in Volume 2.
感染症及寄生虫疾病後遗症 ( B90-B94 )
注 : 本分类码被用於 A00-B89 类情况之後遗症 , 及晚期
效应 ( 当疾病本身已不存在时 ) 。欲使用此分类码
请参考第二册罹病率及死亡率编码原则及指引。

7.
Use of the Alphabetical Index in coding neoplasms
In addition to site, morphology and behaviour must also be taken into consideration when
coding neoplasms, and reference should always be made first to the Alphabetical Index
entry for the morphological description.
The introductory pages of Volume 3 include general instructions about the correct use of
the Alphabetical Index. The specific instructions and examples pertaining to neoplasms
should be consulted to ensure correct use of the categories and subcategories in Chapter
Ⅱ.
利用字母的索引来登录肿瘤
除了部位外 , 当登录肿瘤时 , 形态和其肿瘤行为也
必须加以考虑 , 当归类肿瘤时 , 首先必须参考字母
索引的形态描述。
第叁册的前言包含正确使用字母索引的一般指引 ,
关於肿瘤的特殊指引必需查看以确定正确使用第二
章的类别及次类别。    

C97
Malignant neoplasms of independent (primary) multiple sites
Note: For use of this category, reference should be made to the mortality coding rules and
guidelines in Volume 2.
独立性 ( 原发性 ) 多发部位的恶性肿瘤
注 : 利用此分类 , 可参考第二册内的死亡率登录原
则及指示

MALNUTRITION (E40-E46)
Note: The degree of malnutrition is usually measured in terms of weight, expressed in
standard deviations from the mean of the relevant reference population. When one or more
previous measurements are available, lack of weight gain in children, or evidence of
weight loss in children or adults, is usually indicative of malnutrition. When only one
measurement is available, the diagnosis is based on probabilities and is not definitive
without other clinical or laboratory tests. In the exceptional circumstances that no
measurement of weight is available, reliance should be placed on clinical evidence. If an
observed weight is below the mean value of the reference population, there is a high
probability of severe malnutrition if there is an observed value situated 3 or more
standard deviations below the mean value of the reference population; a high probability
of moderate malnutrition for an observed value located between 2 and less than 3 standard
deviations below this mean; and a high probability of mild malnutrition for an observed
value located between 1 and less than 2 standard deviations below this mean.
Excludes: intestinal malabsorption (K90.-)
nutritional anaemias (D50-D53)
sequelae of protein-energy malnutrition (E64.0)
slim disease (B22.2)
starvation (T73.0)
营养不良 (E40-E46)
注 : 营养不良的程度 , 通常以体重与关联参考人口
相比较 , 以低多少标准差来表示。曾经一次或多次
量体重时 , 如果小孩没有增加体重 , 或如果小孩或
成人体重减少 , 通常表示营养不良。只有一项数据
时 , 只能根据或然率诊断 , 如无其他临床或实验室
检查佐证 , 则无法确定。如有特殊情况没有体重值
时 , 只能依赖临床证据。如果所测体重在参考人口
的平均值以下 3 个或更多标准差时 , 有严重的营养不
良的可能性很高 ; 如果比该平均值低於 2 至 3 个标准
差时 , 中度营养不良的可能性很高 ; 测得数值比该
平均值低 1 至 2 个标准差时 , 轻度营养不良的可能性
很高。
不包含 : 肠吸收不良 (K90.-)
营养性贫血 (D50-D53)
蛋白质及热量短缺性营养不良的後遗症 (E64.0)
纤弱性疾病 (B22.2)
绝食 (T73.0)

E43
Unspecified severe protein-energy malnutrition
Severe loss of weight [wasting] in children or adults, or lack of weight gain in children
leading to an observed weight that is at least 3 standard deviations below the mean value
for the reference population (or a similar loss expressed through other statistical
approaches). When only one measurement is available, there is a high probability of severe
wasting when the observed weight is 3 or more standard deviations below the mean of the
reference population.
Starvation oedema
未明示的严重蛋白质及热量缺乏性营养不良
儿童或成人严重减轻体重 ( 消瘦 ) , 或儿童体重不
增 , 导致所测体重值降到比参考人口之平均值至少
低了 3 个标准差 ( 或用其他统计学方法显示类似程度
的体重减幅 ) 。如果只有一个观察值 , 而且比参考
人口之平均值低 3 个或更多标准差时 , 严重消瘦的可
能性高。
饥饿性水肿

E44.0
Moderate protein-energy malnutrition
Weight loss in children or adults, or lack of weight gain in children leading to an
observed weight that is 2 or more but less than 3 standard deviations below the mean value
for the reference population (or a similar loss expressed through other statistical
approaches). When only one measurement is available, there is a high probability of
moderate protein-energy malnutrition when the observed weight is 2 or more but less than 3
standard deviations below the mean of the reference population.
中度蛋白质及热量缺乏性营养不良
儿童或成人体重减轻 , 或儿童体重不增 , 导致所测
体重值比参考人口的平均值低 2 至 3 个标准差 ( 或用
其他统计学方法显示类似程度的体重减幅 ) 。如果
只有一个观察值 , 而且比参考人口之平均值低 2 至 3
个标准差时 , 中度蛋白质及热量缺乏性营养不良的
可能性高。

E44.1
Mild protein-energy malnutrition
Weight loss in children or adults, or lack of weight gain in children leading to an
observed weight that is 1 or more but less than 2 standard deviations below the mean value
for the reference population (or a similar loss expressed through other statistical
approaches). When only one measurement is available, there is a high probability of mild
protein-energy malnutrition when the observed weight is 1 or more but less than 2 standard
deviations below the mean of the reference population.
轻度蛋白质及热量缺乏性营养不良
儿童或成人体重减轻 , 或儿童体重不增 , 导致所测
体重值比参考人口的平均值低 1 至 2 个标准差 ( 或用
其他统计学方法显示类似程度的体重减幅 ) 。如果
只有一个观察值 , 而且比参考人口之平均值低 1 至 2


The results are stopped at 500th line.
223 paragraphs, 500 lines displayed.    Top
(Alt+Z : Reinput words.)
(You can doubleclick on the English words you are searching for.)