英语学习词典
  

refer

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refer [ ri'fə:] vt.使求助于 vi.谈到

refer oneself to 依赖,求助于

refer to sb. as 把…称作

refer to 参考,查阅,涉及,提到,把...提交

refer to ...as 把...称作,把...当作

refer to
参考,查阅,涉及,提到,把...提交

refer to ...as
把...称作,把...当作

refer [ri'fə:] vi. 谈到,提到,涉及

refer [ri'fə:] 参考

白色农业 "white agriculture (also called ""white engineering agriculture""; It refers to microbiological agriculture and biological cell agriculture.)"

草根工业 grass root industry (refers to village and township enterprises which take root among farmers and grow like wold grass)

狗仔队
"dog packs; paparazzo (singular), paparazzi(plural) (It refers to those journalists who are hunting the news of celebrities.)"

红帽子企业
red cap enterprise (refers to the reputation a private enterprise enjoys by becoming attached to a government department and doing business in the name of a state-run or collective-run enterprise)

三无企业 "three-no-enterprises (It refers to enterprises with no capital, no plant, and no administrative structure.)"

请给出票人 R/D; refer to drawer

请照会发票人 refer to drawee (R.D.)

You can refer to your close family, especially your mother and father, as your folks.
你可以说你的家人,尤其是父母,是你的亲属。

You can refer to your close family, especially your mother and father, as your folks.
你可以把你的家人,尤其是父母,说成是你的亲属。

When I present my views on the competitive products, I will refer to the patent situation.
专利的情况会在说明竞争产品时一并提出。

When I present my views on the competitive products, I will refer to the patent situation.
专利的情况会在说明竞争产品时一并提出。

@@@ 按照, 根据
according to 根据, 依照; 据...所载
act on/upon 按照...行事; 对...起作用
as far as I know/as far as anyone knows 据我所知; 众所周知
as far as I'm concerned 依我看
as such 照此; 以这种资格/身份, 理应...
as usual 像往常一样, 照常
contrast with 和...形成对照, 对比
door-to-door 挨家挨户地, 按户送地
go by 1.走过; (时间)逝去, 过去
2.依...做, 按...判断
in one's opinion 依某人的看法
live up to 按照...行事; 符合; 不辜负(期望等)
on schedule 按照预定时间, 准时
on the strength of sth. 基于..., 根据...
refer to 谈到; 关系到; 参照
rest on 依赖, 依据
scale up 按比例增加, 相应提高

refer to 参考,查阅;涉及,提到;指的是

refer to…as… 把…称作,把…当作

We sign a contract when we are acting as principals.("principals" refers to the "seller" and the "buyer")
当我们作为货主时都要签订合同。(这里的“货主”指合同中的卖方和买方)

May I refer you to Article 5 of the General Terms and Conditions of the contract?
请您看看合同一般条款的第五条。

May I refer you to the contract stipulation about packing (or shipping….)?
请您看看合同中有关包装(装运)的规定。

参 join; refer

参看 consult; refer to

参考 reference; refer to; referrence; consult

参照 refer to; reference; consult

百家争鸣 [bǎi jiā zhēng míng] /(saying) "let a hundred schools of thought strive"; refers to the rise of philosophies during the Warring States Period/

参考 [cān kǎo] /consultation/reference/to consult/to refer/

参照 [cān zhào] /(v) consult; refer to as a reference/

曾 [céng] /(refers to something that happened previously)/already/at some time in the past/before/once/

曾经 [céng jīng] /(refers to something that happened previously)/once/at one time/

查 [chá] /to research/to check/to investigate/to examine/to refer to/to search/

查阅 [chá yuè] /(v) look up in a reference source; refer to/

大锅饭 [dà guō fàn] /(n) food made in a large wok in a mess hall/(idiom) a term used to refer to equal treatment/

老太婆 [lǎo tài pó] /(n) old woman (often not polite)/(n) term to refer to wife/

其 [qí] /his/her/its/theirs/that/such/it (refers to sth preceding it)/

谈到 [tán dào] /to refer to/to speak about/to talk about/

提交 [tí jiāo] /submit (a report, etc)/refer (a problem) to/

直通车 [zhí tōng chē] /"through train" (refers to the idea of retaining previous legislature after transition to Chinese rule in Hong Kong or Macao)/

If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.
如果你在和一群经理谈话,你就可以评论他们秘书的工作方法紊乱;相反,如果你在和一群秘书谈话,你就可以评论她们老板的工作方法紊乱。

Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts.
很多人错误地认为“药物”这个词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。
They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs.
他们没有意识到诸如酒精、烟草这些我们熟悉的物质也是药物。
This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists.
这也是现在许多内科医生和心理学家使用“物质”这个更加中性的词的原因。
The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.
他们常用“物质滥用”而不用“药物滥用”来清楚表明滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

{adj: audio-lingual} refers to a method of teaching language that focuses on listening and speaking

{adj: blase, worldly} very sophisticated especially because of surfeit; versed in the ways of the world
"the blase traveler refers to the ocean he has crossed as `the pond'"
"the benefits of his worldly wisdom"

{adj: nonrestrictive} not limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase
"the nonrestrictive clause in `I always buy his books, which have influenced me greatly,' refers to his books generally and adds an additional fact about them"

{adj: proto} indicating the first or earliest or original
"`proto' is a combining form in a word like `protolanguage' that refers to the hypothetical ancestor of another language or group of languages"

{adj: transdermal, transdermic, percutaneous, transcutaneous} through the unbroken skin; refers to medications applied directly to the skin (creams or ointments) or in time-release forms (skin patches)
"transdermal estrogen"
"percutaneous absorption"

{adv: passim, throughout} used to refer to cited works

{n: Bolshevik, Marxist, red, bolshie, bolshy} emotionally charged terms used to refer to extreme radicals or revolutionaries

{n: Celestial City, City of God, Heavenly City, Holy City} phrases used to refer to Heaven
"the Celestial City was Christian's goal in Bunyan's `Pilgrim's Progress'"

{n: Europe} the 2nd smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use `Europe' to refer to all of the continent except the British Isles

{n: Frankenstein, Frankenstein's monster} the monster created by Frankenstein in a gothic novel by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (the creator's name is commonly used to refer to his creation)

{n: Mary, Virgin Mary, The Virgin, Blessed Virgin, Madonna} the mother of Jesus; Christians refer to her as the Virgin Mary; she is especially honored by Roman Catholics

{n: Potomac} term sometimes used to refer to Washington, D.C.

{n: above} an earlier section of a written text
"for instructions refer to the above"

{n: amalgam, dental amalgam} an alloy of mercury with another metal (usually silver) used by dentists to fill cavities in teeth; except for iron and platinum all metals dissolve in mercury and chemists refer to the resulting mercury mixtures as amalgams

{n: anaphoric pronoun} a pronoun that refers to an antecedent

{n: arm} a human limb; technically the part of the superior limb between the shoulder and the elbow but commonly used to refer to the whole superior limb

{n: codger, old codger} used affectionately to refer to an eccentric but amusing old man

{n: collective noun} a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things

{n: corpus delicti} the body of evidence that constitute the offence; the objective proof that a crime has been committed (sometimes mistakenly thought to refer to the body of a homicide victim)

{n: dickeybird, dickey-bird, dickybird, dicky-bird} small bird; adults talking to children sometimes use these words to refer to small birds

{n: face} a part of a person that is used to refer to a person
"he looked out at a roomful of faces"
"when he returned to work he met many new faces"

{n: feminine} a gender that refers chiefly (but not exclusively) to females or to objects classified as female

{n: first person} pronouns and verbs used to refer to the speaker or writer of the language in which they occur

{n: forbidden fruit} originally an apple from the tree of knowledge of good and evil in the Garden of Eden; it is now used to refer to anything that is tempting but dangerous (as sexuality)

{n: fornix} generally any arch shaped structure (but often it refers to the arched roof of an anatomical space)

{n: gentile} a Christian
"Christians refer to themselves as gentiles"

{n: golden calf} (Old Testament) an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites to worship; destroyed by Moses; it is now used to refer to anything worshipped undeservedly

{n: hajji} a general term used by foreign soldiers to refer to the Iraqi people
"to American soldiers, the hajji are the alien people from whom the enemy emerges"

{n: hired help} employee hired for domestic or farm work (often used in the singular to refer to several employees collectively)

{n: kludge} a badly assembled collection of parts hastily assembled to serve some particular purpose (often used to refer to computing systems or software that has been badly put together)

{n: law of the land} a phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law); today it refers to fundamental principles of justice commensurate with due process
"the United States Constitution declares itself to be `the supreme law of the land'"

{n: leg} a human limb; commonly used to refer to a whole limb but technically only the part of the limb between the knee and ankle

{n: man} the generic use of the word to refer to any human being
"it was every man for himself"

{n: mark of Cain} the mark that God set upon Cain now refers to a person's sinful nature

{n: masculine} a gender that refers chiefly (but not exclusively) to males or to objects classified as male

{n: mentioner} a speaker who refers to something briefly or incidentally

{n: metaphor} a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

{n: metonym} a word that is used metonymically; a word that denotes one thing but refers to a related thing

{n: neuter} a gender that refers chiefly (but not exclusively) to inanimate objects (neither masculine nor feminine)

{n: noun} a word that can be used to refer to a person or place or thing

{n: peeper} an informal term refering to the eye

{n: plane, sheet} (mathematics) an unbounded two-dimensional shape
"we will refer to the plane of the graph as the X-Y plane"
"any line joining two points on a plane lies wholly on that plane"

{n: preterit, preterite} a term formerly used to refer to the simple past tense

{n: protology} the study of origins and first things
"To Christians, protology refers to God's fundamental purpose for humanity"

{n: reference book, reference, reference work, book of facts} a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts
"he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic"

{n: reference, denotation, extension} the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to
"the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos"

{n: reference} the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to
"he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"

{n: referent} something that refers; a term that refers to another term

{n: second person} pronouns and verbs used to refer to the person addressed by the language in which they occur

{n: shiksa, shikse} a derogatory term used by Jews to refer to non-Jewish women

{n: third person} pronouns and verbs that are used to refer to something other than the speaker or addressee of the language in which they occur

{n: varsity} a British abbreviation of `university'; usually refers to Oxford University or Cambridge University

{n: wog} (offensive British slang) term used by the British to refer to people of color from Africa or Asia

{v: apply} refer (a word or name) to a person or thing
"He applied this racial slur to me!"

{v: consult, refer, look up} seek information from
"You should consult the dictionary"
"refer to your notes"

{v: cross-index} make an index that refers from one point to the next
"These references are cross-indexed"

{v: cross-refer} refer from one entry to another, as in catalogues, books, and lists

{v: denote, refer} have as a meaning
"`multi-' denotes `many' "

{v: euphemize, euphemise} refer to something with a euphemism

{v: hit home, strike home, strike a chord, strike a note} refer to or be relevant or familiar to
"I hope this message hits home!"

{v: lustrate} purify by means of a ritual ; also used in post-Communist countries to refer to the political cleansing of former officials

{v: mention, advert, bring up, cite, name, refer} make reference to
"His name was mentioned in connection with the invention"

{v: name, identify} give the name or identifying characteristics of ; refer to by name or some other identifying characteristic property
"Many senators were named in connection with the scandal"
"The almanac identifies the auspicious months"

{v: namedrop} refer to people that one assumes one's interlocutors admire in order to try to impress them

{v: quote, cite} refer to for illustration or proof
"He said he could quote several instances of this behavior"

{v: refer, pertain, relate, concern, come to, bear on, touch, touch on} have to do with or be relevant to
"There were lots of questions referring to her talk"
"My remark pertained to your earlier comments"

{v: reference, cite} refer to
"he referenced his colleagues' work"

{v: refer} send or direct for treatment, information, or a decision
"refer a patient to a specialist"
"refer a bill to a committee"

{v: refer} think of, regard, or classify under a subsuming principle or with a general group or in relation to another
"This plant can be referred to a known species"

{v: relegate, pass on, submit} refer to another person for decision or judgment
"She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues"

{v: remit, remand, send back} refer (a matter or legal case) to another committe or authority or court for decision

{v: submit, subject} refer for judgment or consideration
"She submitted a proposal to the agency"

{v: think of, have in mind, mean} intend to refer to
"I'm thinking of good food when I talk about France"
"Yes, I meant you when I complained about people who gossip!"

{v: touch on} refer to or discuss briefly

{v: tuck in, tuck away, put away} eat up ; usually refers to a considerable quantity of food
"My son tucked in a whole pizza"

While " Dear Abby " often contains sharper and wittier ripostes to readers, both sisters support basic family values and often refer their readers to psychiatrists, doctors, psychologists or clergymen for further help.
尽管 "亲爱的艾比 "给读者的回信往往更加犀利、机智,但姐妹俩都支持基本的家庭价值观,都经常让她们的读者向精神病学家、医生、心理学家或神职人员作进一步的求助。

There are four kinds of nucleic acids.
共有四种核酸。
I won't try to pronounce their names because my speech synthesizer makes a mess of them.
我就不说它们的名字了,因为我的语音合成器会把它们弄乱的。
But I can refer to them by their initials, C, G, A, and T.
但我可以用它们的首字母来指代,即 C、 G、 A 和 T。

Wedding planners refer to these marriages that follow previous divorces " encore marriages. "
婚庆策划者将这种离婚之后再结婚的现象称为再婚。

Sun CEO Scott McNealy probably shocked a few Detroit executives at a press event when he said he " often refers to the automobile as nothing more than a Java browser with tires. "
在一次新闻发布会上, Sun 公司首席执行官斯科特·麦克尼利称自己经常把汽车说成是一种带轮胎的 Java 浏览器。这让十多位来自底特律的汽车公司主管人员大吃一惊。

If one begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons, it becomes clear that ancient Greek descriptions of such societies were meant not so much to represent observed historical fact—real Amazonian societies—but rather to offer "moral lessons" on the supposed outcome of women's rule in their own society.
如果我们首先作一番审视,古人为何会提及亚马孙人,情况将会变得显而易见,即古希腊对这些社会所作的描述,与其说意欲再现亲眼目睹的历史事实——真正的亚马孙社会——还不如说是要针对女性在他们自己的社会中实行统治所可能产生的后果,提供“道德训导”(moral lesson)。

Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote specific or essential traits of the being they refer to, introducing a mode of poetry as an almost habitual form of expression.
并置的词语被作为隐喻使用,可表达出它们所指代事物的具体或本质的特征,从而引入诗歌的模式作为一种几乎是习以为常的表达方式。



The Bush administration believes Iran is working to develop nuclear weapons and pushed for an IAEA decision to refer the matter to the U.N. Security Council. The European Union, meanwhile, puts forward a package of economic incentives in exchange for an Iranian promise to freeze uranium enrichment.
布什政府认为,伊朗在发展核武器,因此要求国际原子能机构做出决定,把问题提交给联合国安理会。与此同时,欧洲联盟提出了一个一揽子经济鼓励措施,推动伊朗承诺冻结浓缩铀项目。

Mr. Powell said the IAEA board would review the Iranian nuclear program at meetings in September and November. The 35-nation board could, at either meeting, decide to refer the matter to the Security Council.
鲍威尔说,国际原子能机构将在9月和11月召开的理事会上重新审视伊朗的核项目。这个包含三十五个成员国的理事会可能会在这两个会议中的某一个会议上决定将这个议题提交到安理会。

We refer to your telex of 12 August and ours of today regarding the supply of black silk.
As you perhaps know, demand for the above has been heavy since last year.
We are consequently fully committed at the moment and are unable to make you the offer as requested.
We assure you, however, that we shall contact you as soon as fresh supplies become available.
Should your customers require other silks, please let us know.
贵公司8月12日的电传已经收到,现就有关黑色丝绸供货问题电复。
自去年以来,上术货品的需求量极高。
本公司暂未能承接定单,故无法按贵公司要求报价。
他日一旦有新货源,本公司定当即时与贵公司联络。
若贵客户需要其他丝绸货品,亦请告知。

I01
Rheumatic fever with heart involvement
Excludes: chronic diseases of rheumatic origin (I05-I09) unless rheumatic fever is also
present or there is evidence of recrudescence or activity of the rheumatic processs. In
cases where there is doubt as to rheumatic activity at the time of death refer to the
mortality coding rules and guidelines in Volume 2.
风湿热侵及心脏者
不包含 : 慢性风湿性疾病 (I05-I09) 除非风湿热出现或有
风湿性病程活动或後发的证据 , 有些病例死亡时风
湿性的诊断尚有疑问则参考第二章死亡病列码及原
则。

ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE (I20-I25)
Note: For morbidity duration as used in categories I21-I25 refers to the interval elapsing
between onset of the ischaemic episode and admission to a care For mortality statistics
duration refers to the interval elapsing between onset and death
Includes:with mention of hypertension(I10-I15) Use additional code, if desired, to
identify presence of hypertension.
缺血性心脏疾病 (I20-I25)
注意 : 对罹病率 , 间隔为类别 I21-I25 者且被使用於缺
血性发作和住院之间。对死亡率 , 间隔为从发作至
死亡。
包含 : 提及高血压性 (I10-I15) 如有需要 , 使用其他码以
确定高血压。

RE Refer to/Regarding 有关

ROC Refer to our telex 参阅我们的电传


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