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philosopher

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philosopher [ fi'lɔsəfə] n.哲学家

我给你的忠告是:结婚吧!如果你找到一个好妻子,你是幸福的;如果妻子不贤,你则会成为哲学家。
My advice to you is to get married. If you find a good wife, you’ll be happy; if not, you’ll become a philosopher.

The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.
哲学家们只是以不同的方式解释世界,而问题在于改变世界。

In the very books in which philosophers bid us scorn fame, they inscribe their names.
正是在教导我们蔑视名声的书籍中,哲人们题下了自己的大名。

It's not good for a society to have more philosophers than plumbers.
一个社会里哲学家多于管道工可不是件好事。

To a society both philosophers and plumbers are important.
对一个社会来说,哲学家和管道工同样重要。

If you would go up high, then use your own legs! Do not let yourselves carried aloft; do not seat yourselves on other people's backs and heads.
F. W. Nietzsche, German Philosopher
如果你想走到高处,就要使用自己的两条腿!不要让别人把你抬到高处;不要坐在别人的背上和头上。

It enables men to construct an intellectual vision of a new world, and it preserves the zest of life by the suggestion of satisfying purpose.
Alfred North Whitehead, British philosopher and mathematician  
想象能使人理智地观察一个新世界,想象可以通过暗示令人满意的目标来使人保持对生活的热情。
英国哲学家。数学家怀特海. A. N.
It is at our mother's knee that we acquire our noblest and truest and highest ideals, but there is seldom any money in them.
Mark Twain. American writer
就是在我们母亲的膝上,我们获得了我们的最高尚、最真诚和最远大的理想,但是里面很少有任何金钱。
美国作家马克?吐温

One cannot help being old, but one can resist being aged.
H.L.Samusel.British philosopher and writer
一个人无法不变老。但是他可以抵制衰朽。
英国哲学家、作家塞缪尔。H.L.

Apply yourself to true riches; it is shameful to depend upon silver and gold for a happy life.
Lrcius Annaeus Seneca, Ancient Roman Philosopher
要争取真正的财富,靠金银谋取幸福是不光彩的。
古罗马哲学家西尼加.L.A.

Beggars do not envy millionaires, though of course they will envy other beggars who are more successful.
Betrand Russell, British philosopher
乞丐并不羡慕百万富翁,尽管他们一定会羡慕比他们乞讨得多的乞丐。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

Economy is in itself a source of great revenue.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Ancient Roman Philosopher
节约本身就是最大的收入.
罗马哲学家西尼加,L.A.

Money is a good servant and a bad master.
Francis Bacon, British Philosopher
金钱是善仆,也是恶主。
英国哲学家培根.F.

To be without some of the things you want is an indispensable part of happiness.
B. Russell, British philosopher
得不到渴望得到的一些东西是幸福的一个必不可少的组成部分。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

Time cures sorrows and squabbles because we all change, and are no longer the same persons. Neither the offender nor the offended is the same.
Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher
时间可以去除忧虑和争吵,因为我们大家都在改变,不再与从前一样。触犯者和被触犯者都已经不是从前的那个人了。
法国数学家、哲学家帕斯卡尔.B.

A smile is ever the most bright and beautiful with a tear upon it. What is the dawn without its dew? The tear, by the smile is made precious above the smile itself.
Susanne K.Langer, American Philosopher and educator
笑容带上泪珠总是最鲜艳、最娇美的。正如没有露水,还算什么清晨?而泪珠带上了笑容,就变得甚至比笑容还珍贵。
美国哲学家、教育家兰格。S.K

It is a curious fact that in bad days we can very vividly recall the good time that is now no more; but that in good days we have only a very cold and imperfect memory of the bad.
Arthur Schopenharer, German philosopher
奇怪得很,人们在倒楣的时候,总会清晰地回忆已经逝去快乐时光,但是在得意的时候,对恶运时光只保有一种淡漠而不完全的记忆。
德国哲学家叔本华.A.

Labor is often the father of pleasure.
French Philosopher and historian
劳动常常是快乐之父。
法国哲学家、历史学家伏尔泰

Rest is a good thing, but boredom is its brother.
Voltaire, French philosopher
休息是件好事情,无聊却是其兄弟。
法国哲学家伏尔泰

The foundation of true happiness is in the conscience.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca, ancient Roman Philosopher
真正的愉快之根本在于良心。
古罗马哲学家西尼加.L.A.

Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience.
Francis Bacon,British Philosopher
旅游对年轻人是一种教育,对老年人是一种体验。
英国哲学家培根.F.

Beauty is like a rich stone, best plain set.
Francis Bacon, Btitish Philosopher
美貌就像宝石,不用装饰最好。
英国哲学家培根.F.

All men are liable to error; and most men are, in many points, by passion or interest, under temptation to it.
John Locke, British Philosopher
人都会犯错误,在许多情况下,大多数仍是由于欲望或兴趣的引诱而犯错误的。
英国哲学家洛克.J.

Morality is not really the doctrine of how to make ourselves happy but of how we are to be worthy of happiness.
Immanuel Kant, German Philosopher
道德确实不是指导人们如何使自己幸福的教条,而是指导人们如何配享有幸福的学说。
德国哲学家康德.I.

Morality is the herd instinct in the individual.
German Philosopher
道德是个人心目中的群居本能。
德国哲学家尼采.F.

Custom, then is the great guide of human life.
David Hume, British philosopher
风俗是人生的伟大向导。
英国哲学家休谟.D.

Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly controlling my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind.
Bertrand Russell, British philosopher
有三种质朴而又十分强烈的激情一直支配着我的人生——对爱之渴望,——对知识的求索,——对人类苦难的无限怜悯。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them.
D.Hume, British Philosopher
事物的美存在于仔细观察者心目中。
英国哲学家休谟.D.

Grammar must be learned through language, and not language through grammar.
Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
必须从语言中学习语法,而不是从语法中学习语言。
德国哲学家赫尔德.J.G.

Histories make men wise; poems witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.
Francis Bacon, British Philosopher
历史使人明智;诗词使人灵秀;数学使人周密;自然哲学使人深刻;伦理使人庄重;逻辑辞学使人善辩。
英国哲学家培根.F.

It is not shame for a man to learn that which he knows not, whatever his age.
Soctates, Ancient Greek Philosopher
一个人不论年龄多大,都要学习自己不懂的东西。这不是羞耻。
古腊哲学家苏格拉底

It is only when we see without any preconception, any image, that we are able to be in direct contact with anything in life.
Jiddu Krishnamurti, Indian religious philosopher
只有当我们不带任何先入之见、不带任何主观想象去观察的时候,我们才能与生活中的事物建立直接的联系。
印度宗教哲学家克里希纳幕尔蒂.J.

Live to learn, not learn to live.
Francis Bacon, British philosopher
活着就要学习,学习不是为了活着。
英国哲学家培根.F.

Maxims are the condensed good sense of nations.
James Mackingtosh, British philosopher
格言是民族意识的结晶。
英国哲学家麦金托什.J.

Reading good books is like having a conversation with the hihgly worthy persons of the past who wrote them; indeed, it is like having a prepared conversation in which those persons disclose to us only their thinking.
Renes Descartes, French Philosopher and mathematician
读好书,好像是在同昔日那些极其令人敬重的著书者们交谈;的确,那很像是在享受一篇经过准备的谈话,作者们在那种谈话之中,只向我们吐露他们的见解。
法国哲学家、数学家笛卡尔.R.

One of the symptoms of approaching nervous breakdown is the belief that one's .work is terribly important, and that to take a holiday would bring all kinds of disaster, If I were a medical man , I should precribe a holiday to many patient who consicered his work important.
Bernard Russell, British philosopher
神经即将崩溃的症状之一是相信自己的工作极端重要,休假将会带来种种灾难。如果我是医生,我给这样的病人开的药方是:休假。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

Work banishes those three great evils: boredom, vice ,and poverty.
Voltaire, French Philosopher 
工作撵跑三个魔鬼:无聊,堕落和贫穷。
法国哲学家伏尔泰

Don't try to win a friend by presenting gifts. You should instead contribute your sincere love and learn how to win others 'heart through appropriate ways.
Socrates, Ancient Greek philosopher
不要靠馈赠去获得朋友,你必须奉献你诚挚的爱,学会怎样用正当的方法来赢得别人的心。
古希腊哲学家苏格拉底

Every man is a poet when he is in love Plato.
ancient Creek philosopher  
每个恋爱中的人都是诗人。
古希腊哲学家柏拉图

Happy are the families where the government of parents is the reign of affection, and obedience of the children the submission to love.
Francis Bacon, British philosopher
幸福的家庭,父母靠慈爱当家,孩子也是出于对父母的爱而顺从大人。
英国哲学家培根.F.

The family is one of nature's masterpieses.
George Santayana, American Philosopher and poet
家庭是大自然创造的杰作之一。
美国哲学家、诗人桑塔亚那.G.

The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them.
Bretrand Rrssell, British philosopher
父亲们最根本的缺点在于想要自己的孩子为自己争光。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

It is a strange desire to seek power and to lose liberty, or to seek power over others and to lose power over a man's self.
Francis Bacon, British Philosopher
为追求权力而失去自由,为追求统治别人的权力而失去自身的权力,这是一种不可思议的欲望。
英国哲学家培根.F.

God is a circle whose centre is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere.
Empedocles, Ancient Greek Philosopher
上帝是个圆,圆心到处可见,圆周无处可寻。
古希腊哲学家恩培多克勒

If God did not exist , it would be necessary to invent Him.
Voltaire, French Philosopher
如果上帝并不存在,也有必要把他创造出来。
法国哲学家伏尔泰

The two great European narcotics:alcohol and Christianity.
Friedrich Nietzxche ,German philosopher
两种最厉害的欧洲麻醉剂是:烈性酒和基督教。
德国哲学家尼采F.

Witiout philosopher man cannot know what he makes ;without religion he cannot know why .
Eril Gill. Uk sculptor
没有哲学,人们不可能知道自己创造了什么;没有宗教,人们不可能理解为什么。
英国雕塑家吉尔.E.

Force , and fraud , are in war the two cardinal virtues.
Thomas Hobbes, British philosopher
实力与计谋是战争的基本力量。
英国哲学家霍布斯.T.

Experience is the father of wisdom and memory the mother.
Charles Bernard, French philosopher  
经验是智慧之父,记忆是知识之母。
法国哲学家贝尔纳.c.

Knowledge is power.
Francis Baco, British philosopher  
知识就是力量。
英国哲学家培根。F。

Not ignorance, but the ignorance of ignorance, is the death of knowledge.
A N. Whitehead, British philosopher  
不是无知本身,而是对无知的无知,才是知识的死亡。
英国哲学家怀特海,A. N  

The good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge are necessary, love is in a sense more fundamental, since it will lead intelligent people to seek knowledge, in order to find out how to benefit those they love. Delight without well-wishing may be cruel; well- wishing without delight easily tends to become cold and little superior.
Bertrand Russell British philosopher  
美好生活由爱来激励,受知识指导。.....尽管爱与知识都必要,但在某种意义上爱更重要。因为爱会引导聪明的人去寻求知识,看看怎样能使他们所爱的人得益。...没有善良的愿望的喜悦可能是残酷;没有喜悦的善良容易变得冷漠和傲视一切。
英国哲学罗素,B.

This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imagination, transforms knowledge.
Alfred Norty Whitehea British philosopher and mathematician
富于想象的思维可以营造出一种令人兴奋的氛围又可以转化为知识。
英国哲学家、数学家怀特海. A. N.

True science teaches, above all, to doubt and be ignorant.
de Unamuno Spanish philosopher  
真正的科学首先是教人怀疑并无知。
西班牙哲学家乌纳诺

When you want knowledge like you want air under water then you will get it.
Scrates.Ancient Greet philosopher Ancien Philosopher  
当你需要知识就像你在水底需要空气时,你准能得到它。
古希腊哲学家苏格拉底

Experience more than sufficiently teaches that men govern nothing with more difficulty than their tongues .
Bendict de spinoza, Dutch philosopher
经验给我们太多的教训,告诉我们人类最难管制的东西,莫过于自己的舌头.
荷兰哲学家斯宾诺沙B  

Experience without learning is better than learning without excperi-ence.
Bertuand Russell, British philosopher and mathematician
有经验而无学问胜于有学问而无经验。
英国哲学家、数学家罗素.B.

Mistakes are an essential part of education.
Bertrand Russell, Bdritish philosopher
从错误中吸取教训是教育极为重要的一部分。
英国哲学家罗素. B . 

The tragedy of the world is that those who are imaginative have but slight experience, and those who are experienced have feeble imaginations.
Alfred North Whitehead, British philosopher and nathematician  
世界的悲剧就在于有想象力又缺乏经验,而有经验的人又缺乏想象力。
英国哲学家、数学家怀特海.A . N.  

The great difficulty in education is to get experience out of ideas.
George Santayana, Spain-born American philosopher and poet
教育之艰苦在于从意念中获得经验。
西班牙裔美国哲学家、诗人桑塔亚那,G.

The sum of behavior is to retain a man's own dignity, without in -truing upon the liberty of others.
Francis Bacon, British philosopher  
人的行为准则是,——维护自己的尊严而又不妨碍他人的自由。
英国哲学家培根. F . 

Almost any situation---good or bad ---is affected by the attitude we bring to .
Lucius Annaus Seneca, Ancient Roman philosopher
差不多任何一种处境——无论是好是坏——都受到我们对待处境的态度的影响。
古罗马哲学家西尼加L A

Light troubles speak; great troubles keep silent.
Lucius Annaeus Seneneca, Ancient Roman Philosopher
小困难,大声叫嚷;大困难,闷声不响。
古罗马哲学家尼加L A

Optimists always picture themselves accomplishing their goals.
Lucius Anaeus Seneca, Ancient Roman philosopher
乐观主义者总是想象自己实现了目标的情景。
古罗马哲学家西尼加L A

Prosperity doth best discover vice, but adversity doth discover virtue.
Francis Bacon, British Philosopher
顺境时显现恶习,逆境时凸现美德
Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation.
John dennedy, American president
从希望中得到欢乐,在苦难中保持坚韧。
美国总统肯尼迪J

Tough--minded optimists approach problems with a can-do philosophy and emerge stronger from tragedies.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Ancient Roman Philosopher
意志坚强的乐观主义者用“世上无难事”人生观来思考问题,越是遭受悲剧打击,越是表现得坚强。
古罗马哲学家西尼加L A

A certain amount of care or pain or trouble is necessary for every man at all times .A ship without a ballast is unstable and will not go straight.
Arthur Schopenhauer.Geman philosopher
一定的忧愁、痛苦或烦恼,对每个人都是时时必需的。一艘船如果没有压舱物,便不会稳定,不能朝着目的地一直前进。
德国哲学家叔本华A

As empty vessels make the loudest sound, so they that have least wit are the greatest babblers.
Plato , Ancient Greek Philosopher
正像空容器发出的声音最大,智力最低者最善于唠叨不休。
古希腊哲学家柏拉图

One must mourn not the death of men but their birth.
Charles Scondat Montesquieu, French thinker and Philosopher
人所悲伤的并不是人类的死亡而是他们的诞生。
法国思想家、哲学家孟德斯鸠

Tears are the silent language of grief.
Voltaire, French philosopher
眼泪是无声的、悲伤的语言。
法国哲学家伏尔泰

Prejudice is the reason of fools .
Voltaire, French Philosopher
偏见是蠢人的推论。
法国哲学家伏尔泰

Avarice , the apur of industry.
David Hume , Bdritish Philosopher
贪婪是工业的兴奋剂。
英国哲学家休谟D

Law is order , and good law is good order.
Aristole, Ancient Greek philosopher 
法律就是秩序,有好的法律才有好的秩序。
古希腊哲学家亚里士多德

Mankind censure injustice, fearing that they may be the victims of it and not because they shrink from commintting it.
Plato, Ancint Grek philosopher 
人类对于不公正的行为加以指责,并非因为他们愿意做出这种行为,而是惟恐自己会成为这种行为的牺牲者。
古希腊哲学家柏拉图

Dancing in all its forms cannot be excluded from the curriculum of all noble education: dancing with the feet, with ideas, with works, and ,need I add that one must also be able to dance with the pen?
Friedrich W.Nietzsche, German philosopher 
所有高尚教育的课程表里都不能没有各种形式的跳舞:用脚跳舞,用思想跳舞,用言语跳舞,不用说,还需用笔跳舞。
德国哲学家尼采F W 

Education has for its object the formation of character.
Herbert Spencer, British philosopher 
教育是以造就人的品质为其目标。
英国哲学家斯宾塞H 

Only the educated are free.
Epictetus, Ancient Greek philosopher 
只有受过教育的人才是自由的。
古希腊哲学家爱比克泰德

Plato is dear to me , but dearer still is truth.
Aristotle, Ancient Greek philosopher
吾爱吾师,吾更爱真理。
古希腊哲学家亚里士多德

The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.
Aristtle, Ancient Greek Philosopher 
教育的根是苦的,但其果实是甜的。
古希腊哲学家亚里士多德

The university imparts information, but it imparts it imaginatively.
Alfred North Whitehead, British philosopher and mathematician 
大学提供信息,但它是富于想象力地提供信息。
英国哲学家、数学家怀特海A N 

Art is the mold of feeling as language is the mold of thought.
Susanne Langer, American philosopher 
艺术是感情的模制品,犹如语言是思想的模制品。
美国哲学家兰格S 

Art is the object of feeling , and the subject of nature.
S.K.langer, American philosopher and educator 
艺术是情感的客观表现。也是本性的主观反映。
美国哲学家、教育家兰格S K 

黑格尔 [hēi gé ěr] /Hegel (philosopher)/

哲学家 [zhé xué jiā] /philosopher/

Anti-science clearly means different things to different people.
显然,反科学对不同的人有不同的含义。
Gross and Levitt find fault primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned science's objectivity.
格罗斯和莱维特主要挑那些质疑科学客观性的社会学家、哲学家和其他学者的毛病。
Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.
而萨根则更关注那些相信鬼怪、上帝造物论和其他与科学世界观相左的人。

Indeed, some observers fear that the anti-science epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless.
的确,一些观察者担心反科学这个词会失去意义。
"The term 'anti-science' can lump together too many, quite different things," notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science, "They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened."
“‘反科学’这个词可以涵盖很多截然不同的东西”,哈佛大学的哲学家杰拉尔德·霍尔顿在其1993年的著作《科学和反科学》中写道:“它们惟一的共同点就是会激怒或威胁那些自以为比别人更有见识的人。”

Kitcher is philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments.
金切尔是位哲学家,这也许能部分说明他的立论为何明确而有说服力。
The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory.
非专业人士起码可以了解支持进化论的各种数据和观点。
The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all.
关于创世纪论者的最后一章对每个人来说都阐述得极为清楚。
On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself."
这部优秀作品的护封上引用了斯蒂芬·杰?古尔德的一句话,“本书赌注是理性”。
And so it does — and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
的确如此——如果理性是创世纪论和进化论之争的惟一裁判,一切问题就已解决了。

{adj: German} of or pertaining to or characteristic of Germany or its people or language
"German philosophers"
"German universities"
"German literature"

{adj: Rousseauan} of or pertaining to or characteristic of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

{adj: baffled, befuddled, bemused, bewildered, confounded, confused, lost, mazed, mixed-up, at sea} perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
"obviously bemused by his questions"
"bewildered and confused"
"a cloudy and confounded philosopher"
"just a mixed-up kid"
"she felt lost on the first day of school"

{adj: experiential, existential} derived from experience or the experience of existence
"the rich experiential content of the teachings of the older philosophers"- Benjamin Farrington
"formal logicians are not concerned with existential matters"- John Dewey

{adj: philosophic, philosophical} of or relating to philosophy or philosophers
"philosophical writing"
"a considerable knowledge of philosophical terminology"

{adj: philosophical, philosophic} characteristic of or imbued with the attitude of a philosopher or based on philosophy
"that breadth of outlook that distinguishes the philosophic mind"
"their differences were philosophical"
<-> nonphilosophical

{adj: philosophical, philosophic} characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment
"philosophical resignation"
"a philosophic attitude toward life"

{adj: professed} professing to be qualified
"a professed philosopher"

{adj: transcendent} beyond and outside the ordinary range of human experience or understanding
"philosophers...often explicitly reject the notion of any transcendent reality beyond thought...and claim to be concerned only with thought itself..."- W.P.Alston
"the unknowable mysteries of life"

{n: Abelard, Peter Abelard, Pierre Abelard} French philosopher and theologian; lover of Heloise (1079-1142)

{n: Anaxagoras} a presocratic Athenian philosopher who maintained that everything is composed of very small particles that were arranged by some eternal intelligence (500-428 BC)

{n: Anaximander} a presocratic Greek philosopher and student of Thales who believed the universal substance to be infinity rather than something resembling ordinary objects (611-547 BC)

{n: Anaximenes} a presocratic Greek philosopher and associate of Anaximander who believed that all things are made of air in different degrees of density (6th century BC)

{n: Antoninus, Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus Annius Verus} Emperor of Rome; nephew and son-in-law and adoptive son of Antonius Pius; Stoic philosopher; the decline of the Roman Empire began under Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

{n: Arendt, Hannah Arendt} United States historian and political philosopher (born in Germany) (1906-1975)

{n: Aristotle} one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great (384-322 BC)

{n: Averroes, ibn-Roshd, Abul-Walid Mohammed ibn-Ahmad Ibn-Mohammed ibn-Roshd} Arabian philosopher born in Spain; wrote detailed commentaries on Aristotle that were admired by the Schoolmen (1126-1198)

{n: Avicenna, ibn-Sina, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina} Arabian physician and influential Islamic philosopher; his interpretation of Aristotle influenced St. Thomas Aquinas; writings on medicine were important for almost 500 years (980-1037)

{n: Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans} English statesman and philosopher; precursor of British empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626)

{n: Bentham, Jeremy Bentham} English philosopher and jurist; founder of utilitarianism (1748-1831)

{n: Bergson, Henri Bergson, Henri Louis Bergson} French philosopher who proposed elan vital as the cause of evolution and development (1859-1941)

{n: Berkeley, Bishop Berkeley, George Berkeley} Irish philosopher and Anglican bishop who opposed the materialism of Thomas Hobbes (1685-1753)

{n: Bloomsbury Group} an inner circle of writers and artists and philosophers who lived in or around Bloomsbury early in the 20th century and were noted for their unconventional lifestyles

{n: Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius} a Roman who was an early Christian philosopher and statesman who was executed for treason; Boethius had a decisive influence on medieval logic (circa 480-524)

{n: Bruno, Giordano Bruno} Italian philosopher who used Copernican principles to develop a pantheistic monistic philosophy; condemned for heresy by the Inquisition and burned at the stake (1548-1600)

{n: Buber, Martin Buber} Israeli religious philosopher (born in Austria); as a Zionist he promoted understanding between Jews and Arabs; his writings affected Christian thinkers as well as Jews (1878-1965)

{n: Cassirer, Ernst Cassirer} German philosopher concerned with concept formation in the human mind and with symbolic forms in human culture generally (1874-1945)

{n: Chuang-tzu} 4th-century Chinese philosopher on whose teachings Lao-tse based Taoism

{n: Cleanthes} ancient Greek philosopher who succeeded Zeno of Citium as the leader of the Stoic school (300-232 BC)

{n: Comte, Auguste Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Comte} French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism; he also established sociology as a systematic field of study

{n: Condorcet, Marquis de Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat} French mathematician and philosopher (1743-1794)

{n: Confucius, Kongfuze, K'ung Futzu, Kong the Master} Chinese philosopher whose ideas and sayings were collected after his death and became the basis of a philosophical doctrine known a Confucianism (circa 551-478 BC)

{n: Cynic} a member of a group of ancient Greek philosophers who advocated the doctrine that virtue is the only good and that the essence of virtue is self-control

{n: Democritus} Greek philosopher who developed an atomistic theory of matter (460-370 BC)

{n: Derrida, Jacques Derrida} French philosopher and critic (born in Algeria); exponent of deconstructionism (1930-2004)

{n: Descartes, Rene Descartes} French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (1596-1650)

{n: Dewey, John Dewey} United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)

{n: Diderot, Denis Diderot} French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France; principal editor of an encyclopedia that disseminated the scientific and philosophical knowledge of the time (1713-1784)

{n: Diogenes} an ancient Greek philosopher and Cynic who rejected social conventions (circa 400-325 BC)

{n: Empedocles} Greek philosopher who taught that all matter is composed of particles of fire and water and air and earth (fifth century BC)

{n: Epictetus} Greek philosopher who was a Stoic (circa 50-130)

{n: Epicurus} Greek philosopher who believed that the world is a random combination of atoms and that pleasure is the highest good (341-270 BC)

{n: Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel} German biologist and philosopher; advocated Darwinism and formulated the theory of recapitulation; was an exponent of materialistic monism (1834-1919)

{n: Hartley, David Hartley} English philosopher who introduced the theory of the association of ideas (1705-1757)

{n: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel} German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)

{n: Heidegger, Martin Heidegger} German philosopher whose views on human existence in a world of objects and on Angst influenced the existential philosophers (1889-1976)

{n: Heraclitus} a presocratic Greek philosopher who said that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion as all things are in perpetual flux (circa 500 BC)

{n: Herbart, Johann Friedrich Herbart} German philosopher (1776-1841)

{n: Herder, Johann Gottfried von Herder} German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803)

{n: Hobbes, Thomas Hobbes} English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)

{n: Hume, David Hume} Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)

{n: Husserl, Edmund Husserl} German philosopher who developed phenomenology (1859-1938)

{n: Hypatia} Greek philosopher and astronomer; she invented the astrolabe (370-415)

{n: James, William James} United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)

{n: Kant, Immanuel Kant} influential German idealist philosopher (1724-1804)

{n: Kierkegaard, Soren Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye Kierkegaard} Danish philosopher who is generally considered. along with Nietzsche, to be a founder of existentialism (1813-1855)

{n: Lao-tzu, Lao-tse, Lao-zi} Chinese philosopher regarded as the founder of Taoism (6th century BC)

{n: Leibniz, Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz} German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton (1646-1716)

{n: Locke, John Locke} English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)

{n: Lucretius, Titus Lucretius Carus} Roman philosopher and poet; in a long didactic poem he tried to provide a scientific explanation of the universe (96-55 BC)

{n: Lully, Raymond Lully, Ramon Lully} Spanish philosopher (1235-1315)

{n: Mach, Ernst Mach} Austrian physicist and philosopher who introduced the Mach number and who founded logical positivism (1838-1916)

{n: Maimonides, Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon} Spanish philosopher considered the greatest Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages who codified Jewish law in the Talmud (1135-1204)

{n: Malebranche, Nicolas de Malebranche} French philosopher (1638-1715)

{n: Marcuse, Herbert Marcuse} United States political philosopher (born in Germany) concerned about the dehumanizing effects of capitalism and modern technology (1898-1979)

{n: Mead, George Herbert Mead} United States philosopher of pragmatism (1863-1931)

{n: Mill, James Mill} Scottish philosopher who expounded Bentham's utilitarianism; father of John Stuart Mill (1773-1836)

{n: Mill, John Mill, John Stuart Mill} English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)

{n: Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat} French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)

{n: Moore, G. E. Moore, George Edward Moore} English philosopher (1873-1958)

{n: Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche} influential German philosopher remembered for his concept of the superman and for his rejection of Christian values; considered, along with Kierkegaard, to be a founder of existentialism (1844-1900)

{n: Occam, William of Occam, Ockham, William of Ockham} English scholastic philosopher and assumed author of Occam's Razor (1285-1349)

{n: Origen} Greek philosopher and theologian who reinterpreted Christian doctrine through the philosophy of Neoplatonism; his work was later condemned as unorthodox (185-254)

{n: Ortega y Gasset, Jose Ortega y Gasset} Spanish philosopher who advocated leadership by an intellectual elite (1883-1955)

{n: Parmenides} a presocratic Greek philosopher born in Italy; held the metaphysical view that being is the basic substance and ultimate reality of which all things are composed; said that motion and change are sensory illusions (5th century BC)

{n: Pascal, Blaise Pascal} French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist; invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (1623-1662)

{n: Peirce, Charles Peirce, Charles Franklin Peirce} United States philosopher and logician; pioneer of pragmatism (1839-1914)

{n: Perry, Ralph Barton Perry} United States philosopher (1876-1957)

{n: Plato} ancient Athenian philosopher; pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle (428-347 BC)

{n: Plotinus} Roman philosopher (born in Egypt) who was the leading representative of Neoplatonism (205-270)

{n: Pythagoras} Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician (circa 580-500 BC)

{n: Quine, W. V. Quine, Willard Van Orman Quine} United States philosopher and logician who championed an empirical view of knowledge that depended on language (1908-2001)

{n: Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan} Indian philosopher and statesman who introduced Indian philosophy to the West (1888-1975)

{n: Reid, Thomas Reid} Scottish philosopher of common sense who opposed the ideas of David Hume (1710-1796)

{n: Rosicrucian} a member of a secret 17th-century society of philosophers and scholars versed in mystical and metaphysical and alchemical lore

{n: Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Rousseau} French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778)

{n: Russell, Bertrand Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell} English philosopher and mathematician who collaborated with Whitehead (1872-1970)

{n: Sartre, Jean-Paul Sartre} French writer and existentialist philosopher (1905-1980)

{n: Scholastic} a Scholastic philosopher or theologian

{n: Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer} German pessimist philosopher (1788-1860)

{n: Schweitzer, Albert Schweitzer} French philosopher and physician and organist who spent most of his life as a medical missionary in Gabon (1875-1965)

{n: Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca} Roman statesman and philosopher who was an advisor to Nero; his nine extant tragedies are modeled on Greek tragedies (circa 4 BC - 65 AD)

{n: Socrates} ancient Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato and Xenophon (470-399 BC)

{n: Sophist} any of a group of Greek philosophers and teachers in the 5th century BC who speculated on a wide range of subjects

{n: Spencer, Herbert Spencer} English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)

{n: Spengler, Oswald Spengler} German philosopher who argued that cultures grow and decay in cycles (1880-1936)

{n: Spinoza, de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza} Dutch philosopher who espoused a pantheistic system (1632-1677)

{n: Stewart, Dugald Stewart} Scottish philosopher and follower of Thomas Reid (1753-1828)

{n: Stoicism} (philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

{n: Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Sir Rabindranath Tagore} Indian writer and philosopher whose poetry (based on traditional Hindu themes) pioneered the use of colloquial Bengali (1861-1941)

{n: Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin} French paleontologist and philosopher (1881-1955)

{n: Thales, Thales of Miletus} a presocratic Greek philosopher and astronomer (who predicted an eclipse in 585 BC) who was said by Aristotle to be the founder of physical science; he held that all things originated in water (624-546 BC)

{n: Theophrastus} Greek philosopher who was a student of Aristotle and who succeeded Aristotle as the leader of the Peripatetics (371-287 BC)

{n: Weil, Simone Weil} French philosopher (1909-1943)

{n: Whitehead, Alfred North Whitehead} English philosopher and mathematician who collaborated with Bertrand Russell (1861-1947)

{n: Williams, Sir Bernanrd Williams, Bernanrd Arthur Owen Williams} English philosopher credited with reviving the field of moral philosophy (1929-2003)

{n: Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein} British philosopher born in Austria; a major influence on logic and logical positivism (1889-1951)

{n: Xenophanes} Greek philosopher (560-478 BC)

{n: Zeno, Zeno of Citium} ancient Greek philosopher who founded the Stoic school (circa 335-263 BC)

{n: Zeno, Zeno of Elea} ancient Greek philosopher who formulated paradoxes that defended the belief that motion and change are illusory (circa 495-430 BC)

{n: alchemist} one who was versed in the practice of alchemy and who sought an elixir of life and a panacea and an alkahest and the philosopher's stone

{n: atomism, atomic theory, atomist theory, atomistic theory} (chemistry) any theory in which all matter is composed of tiny discrete finite indivisible indestructible particles
"the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus held atomic theories of the universe"
<-> holism

{n: empiricist} a philosopher who subscribes to empiricism

{n: epicureanism} a doctrine of hedonism that was defended by several ancient Greek philosophers

{n: esthetician, aesthetician} a philosopher who specializes in the nature of beauty

{n: ethicist, ethician} a philosopher who specializes in ethics

{n: existentialist, existentialist philosopher} a philosopher who emphasizes freedom of choice and personal responsibility but who regards human existence in a hostile universe as unexplainable

{n: gymnosophy} the doctrine of a sect of Hindu philosophers who practiced nudity and asceticism and meditation

{n: historical school} a school of 19th century German economists and legal philosophers who tried to explain modern economic systems in evolutionary or historical terms

{n: mechanist} a philosopher who subscribes to the doctrine of mechanism

{n: moralist} a philosopher who specializes in morals and moral problems

{n: nativist} a philosopher who subscribes to nativism

{n: nominalist} a philosopher who has adopted the doctrine of nominalism

{n: philosopher's stone, philosophers' stone, elixir} a hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold

{n: philosopher} a specialist in philosophy

{n: philosopher} a wise person who is calm and rational; someone who lives a life of reason with equanimity

{n: pluralist} a philosopher who believes that no single explanation can account for all the phenomena of nature

{n: pre-Socratic} any philosopher who lived before Socrates

{n: realist} a philosopher who believes that universals are real and exist independently of anyone thinking of them

{n: zinc oxide, flowers of zinc, philosopher's wool, philosophers' wool} oxide of zinc; a white powder used as a pigment or in cosmetics or glass or inks and in zinc ointment

{v: agree, hold, concur, concord} be in accord ; be in agreement
"We agreed on the terms of the settlement"
"I can't agree with you!"
"I hold with those who say life is sacred"


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