英语学习词典
  

optional

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optional [ 'ɔpʃənl] a.可以任意选择的

optional [ 'ɔpʃənl] adj.可自由选择的

optional ['ɔpʃənl] 任选的

优化组合 optimization grouping; optional regrouping

Practical Training(实习):一个学生在其专业领域内从事的获得批准的全部时间的就业
(full-time employment),可以是在一个教育项目执行期间,也可以是在该项目完成之后。
具有F-1非移民身份的外国学生最多可以从事12个月的实习;J-1"交流学者"最多可以
从事18个月的实习,称为"学业培训"("academic training")。具有M-1非移民身份
的外国学生,只有在他们的教育项目完成之后才能申请实习,每在校正规学习4个月可允许
其从事1个月的实习。持有F-1、J-1和M-1签证的学生都必须具备大学或交流项目主管机
构的推荐书。F-1学生自愿从事实习(optional practical training)和M-1学生完成学业之后
的实习(post-completion practical training)都必须得到移民归化局的批准。

选修课 elective/optional course

optional subsector 可选择的界别分组

optional a.随意的;可自由选择的

It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional.
据说,在英国死亡很紧迫,在加拿大死亡不可避免,在加利福尼亚死亡可以选择。
Small wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century.
难怪,在过去的一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎翻了一番。

{adj: obligatory} morally or legally constraining or binding
"attendance is obligatory"
"an obligatory contribution"
<-> optional

{adj: optional} possible but not necessary; left to personal choice
<-> obligatory

{adv: optionally} in an optional manner
"this rule is applied optionally"
<-> obligatorily

{n: extension, filename extension, file name extension} a string of characters beginning with a period and followed by one to three letters; the optional second part of a PC computer filename
"most applications provide extensions for the files they create"
"most BASIC files use the filename extension .BAS"

{n: punks} a youth subculture closely associated with punk rock music in the late 1970s; in part a reaction to the hippy subculture; dress was optional but intended to shock (plastic garbage bags or old school uniforms) and hair was dyed in bright colors (in Mohican haircuts or sometimes spiked in bright plumes)

选择港(任意港)optional port

选港费optional charges

选港费由买方负担 optional charges to be borne by the Buyers 或 optional charges for Buyers’ account

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS [HIV]
DISEASE (B20-B24)
Note: The fourth-character subcategories of B20-B23 are provided for optional use where it
is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify the specific conditions.
Excludes: asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection status (Z21)
人类免疫缺乏病毒疾病 ( B20-B24 )
注 : B20-B23 的第四码提供理想分类 , 但不可能也不必
一定去注明特殊情况。
不包含 : 无症状的人类免疫缺乏病毒感染状态 ( Z21 )

SITE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL INVOLVEMENT
The following subclassification to indicate the site of invo- lvement is provided for
optional use with appropriate cate- gories in Chapter XIII. As local extensions or
specialty adaptations may vary in the number of characters used, it is suggested that the
supplementary site subclassification be placed in an identifiably separate position (e.g.
in an additio- nal box.) Different subclassifications for use with derangement of knee,
dorsopathies, and biomechanical lesions not elsewhere classified are given on pages 642,
649 and 677 respectively.
骨骼肌肉侵犯之位置下列用以指示侵犯位
置的亚纲被提供於第十叁章中以合适的范围而随意
使用。因局部扩展或特殊顺应在使用的记号数字会
有所不同 , 所以建议附加位置亚纲於一可确认分别
的位置 ( 如 : 以一个附加的框框 ) 。用於膝障碍 , 背
病变及他处未归类的生物机能病灶的不同亚纲分别
呈现於第 642 , 649 及 677 页。
0
Multiple sites
0
多发位置
1
Shoulder region
clavicle
scapula
acromioclavicular joints
glenohumeral joints
sternoclavicular joints
1
肩部
锁骨
肩胛骨
肩峰锁骨关节
关节盂肱骨关节
胸骨锁骨关节
2
Upper arm
humerus
elbow joint
2
上臂
肱骨
肘关节
3
Forearm
radius
ulna
wrist joint
3
前臂
桡骨
尺骨
腕关节
4
Hand
carpus
fingers
metacarpus
joints between these bones
4

腕骨

掌骨
这些骨头之间的关节
5
Pelvic region and thigh
buttock
femur
pelvis
hip (joint)
sacroiliac joint
5
骨盆部及大腿

股骨
骨盆
髋 ( 关节 )
荐骨与肠骨关节
6
Lower leg
fibula
tibia
knee joint
6
小腿
腓骨
胫骨
膝关节
7
Ankle and foot
metatarsus
tarsus
toes
ankle joint
other joints in foot
7
踝及足

跗骨

踝关节
足之其他关节
8
Other
head
neck
ribs
skull
trunk
vertebral column
8
其他


肋骨
头颅
躯干
脊柱
9
Site unspecified
9
未明示位置

M23
Internal derangement of knee
The following supplementary subclassification to indicate the site of involvement is
provided for optional use with appropriate subcategories in M23.-; see also note on page
628




0
Multiple sites
 
 

DORSOPATHIES (M40-M54)
The following supplementary subclassification to indicate the site of involvement is
provided for optional use with appropriate categories in the block on dorsopathies, except
categories M50 and M51; see also note on page 628
0 Multiple sites in spine
1 Occipito-atlanto-axial region
2 Cervical region
3 Cervicothoracic region
4 Thoracic region
5 Thoracolumbar region
6 Lumbar region
7 Lumbosacral region
8 Sacral and sacrococcygeal region
9 Site unspecified
背部病变 (M40-M54)
下列用以指示侵犯位置的补充亚纲被推荐随意使用
, 以在背部病变部份的合适范围 , 而不是 M50 及 M51 之
范围 ; 也可参考第 628 页之注释。
0 脊椎之多处位置
1 枕骨寰轴椎部
2 颈部
3 颈胸部
4 胸部
5 胸腰部
6 腰部
7 腰骨部
8 骨部和骨尾骨部
9 未明示位置

M99
Biomechanical lesions, not elsewhere classified
Note: This category should not be used if the condition can be classified elsewhere.
The following supplementary subclassification to indicate the site of lesions is provided
for optional use with appropriate subcategories in M99.-; see also note on page 628.
0 Head region occipitocervical
1 Cervical region cervicothoracic
2 Thoracic region thoracolumbar
3 Lumbar region lumbosacral
4 Sacral region sacrococcygeal, sacroiliac
5 Pelvic region hip, pubic
6 Lower extremity
7 Upper extremity acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular
8 Rib cage costochondral, costovertebral,
sternochondral
9 Abdomen and other
他处未归类的生物机械式病灶
注 : 这个类目在假若这病况可在他处归类时不可使
用。
下列指示病灶位置之补充亚纲被推荐随意使用 , 以
M99.- 之合适亚类目 ; 也请参考第 628 页之注释。
0 头部枕骨颈的
1 颈部颈胸的
2 胸部胸腰的
3 腰部腰骨的
4 骨部骨尾骨的或骨肠骨的
5 骨盆部髋部或耻骨的
6 下肢
7 上肢肩峰锁骨的 , 胸骨锁头的
8 肋廓肋骨其软骨的 , 肋骨椎骨的 ,   
胸骨其软骨的
9 腹部及其他

S02
Fracture of skull and facial bones
Note: For primary coding of fracture of skull and facial bones with associated
intracranial injury, reference should be made to the morbidity or mortality coding rules
and guidelines in Volume 2.
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
颅骨和颜面骨的骨折
注 : 对於伴有颅内损伤的颅骨和颜面骨骨折的编码
, 应参考第二册内的伤残及死亡编码规则。
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性

S06
Intracranial injury
Note: For primary coding of intracranial injuries with associated fractures, reference
should be made to the morbidity or mortality coding rules and guidelines in Volume 2.
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
intracranial injury and open wound:
0 without open intracranial wound
1 with open intracranial wound
颅内伤害
注 : 关於伴有骨折的颅内伤害的初步编码 , 可参考
第二册中制作的伤残和死亡的编码规则和指引。
当不可能或不欲使用多重编码来认定颅内伤害同时
伴有开放性伤口时 ; 以下之细分码可提供选择使用
於补充性编码位置 :
0 未伴有开放至颅内的开放性伤口
1 伴有开放至颅内的开放性伤口

S12
Fracture of neck
Includes: cervical:
. neural arch
. spine
. spinous process
. transverse process
. vertebra
. vertebral arch
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
颈部的骨折
包含 : 颈椎的 :
. 神经弓
. 脊柱
. 棘状突
. 横突
. 脊椎
. 脊椎弓
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码目的。对於没有标明为
闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性

S22
Fracture of rib(s), sternum and thoracic spine
Includes: thoracic:
. neural arch
. spinous process
. transverse process
. vertebra
. vertebral arch
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
Excludes: fracture of:
. clavicle (S42.0)
. scapula (S42.1)
肋骨 , 胸骨和胸部脊柱的骨折
包括 : 胸部脊柱的 :
. 神经弓
. 棘状突
. 横突
. 脊椎
. 脊椎弓
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性
不包含 : 骨折涉及 :
. 锁骨 (S42.0)
. 肩胛骨 (S42.1)

S26
Injury of heart
Includes: contusion of heart
laceration of heart
puncture of heart
traumatic rupture of heart
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding:
0 without open wound into thoracic cavity
1 with open wound into thoracic cavity
心脏的伤害
包含:心脏的—挫伤
心脏的— 裂伤
心脏的—穿刺伤
心脏的—外伤性破裂
当无法或不希望使用一组以上编码於同一状况时 ,
以下的次分类码 ( 0 或 1 ) 可提供使用於补助性编码位
置。
0 未伴有胸腔的开放性伤口
1 伴有胸腔的开放性伤口

The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in
a supplementary character position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple
coding:
0 without open wound into thoracic cavity
1 with open wound into thoracic cavity
Excludes: injury of:
. cervical oesophagus (S10-S19)
. trachea (cervical) (S10-S19)
当无法或不希望使用一组以上编码於同一状况时 ,
以下的次分类码 ( 0 或 1 ) , 可提供使用於补助性编码
位置。
0 未伴有胸腔的开放性伤口
1 伴有胸腔的开放性伤口
不包含 : 损伤涉及 :
. 颈部食道 (S10-S19)  
. 气管 ( 颈部的 ) (S10-S19)

S32
Fracture of lumbar spine and pelvis
Includes: lumbosacral:
. neural arch
. spinous process
. transverse process
. vertebra
. vertebral arch
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
Excludes: fracture of hip NOS (S72.0)
腰部脊柱和骨盆的骨折
包括 : 腰椎与荐椎的 :
. 神经弓
. 棘状突
. 横突
. 脊椎
. 脊椎弓
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性
不包含 : 髋部的骨折 , 其他未明示者 (S72.0)

S36
Injury of intra-abdominal organs
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding:
0 without open wound into cavity
1 with open wound into cavity
腹内器官的伤害
当无法或不希望使用一组以上编码於同一状况时 ,
以下的次分类码 ( 0 或 1 ) 可提供使用於补助性编码位
置。
0 未伴有通至腔室的开放性伤口
1 伴有通至腔室的开放性伤口

S37
Injury of pelvic organs
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding:
0 without open wound into cavity
1 with open wound into cavity
Excludes: peritoneum and retroperitoneum (S36.8)
骨盆器官的伤害
当无法或不希望使用一组以上编码於同一状况时 ,
以下的次分类码 ( 0 或 1 ) 可提供使用於补助性编码位
置。
0 未伴有通至腔室的开放性伤口
1 伴有通至腔室的开放性伤口
不包含 : 腹膜和後腹腔 (S36.8)

S42
Fracture of shoulder and upper arm
The following subdivisions are provided for optional us in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
肩部和上臂的骨折
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性

S52
Fracture of forearm
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
Excludes: fracture at wrist and hand level (S62.-)
前臂骨折
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性
不包含 : 腕部和手部骨折 (S62.-)

S62
Fracture at wrist and hand level
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
Excludes: fracture of distal parts of ulna and radius (S52.-)
手腕和手部骨折
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性
不包含 : 尺骨和桡骨远端骨折 (S52.-)

The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in
a supplementary character position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple
coding to identify fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open
should be classified as closed.
0 closed
1 open
当无法或不希望以一组以上的分类码来归类骨折及
开放性伤口时 , 以下的细分类码 (0或1) , 可用於补
充性编码 , 以达到单一编码的目的。对於没有标明
为闭锁性或开放性的骨折 , 则归类为闭锁性的。
0 闭锁性
1 开放性

S82
Fracture of lower leg, including ankle
Includes: malleolus
The following subdivisions are provided for optional use in a supplementary character
position where it is not possible or not desired to use multiple coding to identify
fracture and open wound; a fracture not indicated as closed or open should be classified
as closed.
0 closed
1 open
Excludes: fracture of foot, except ankle (S92.-)


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