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neither

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neither [ 'naiðə, 'ni:ðə] a.(两者)都不的

neither...nor... 既不…也不…

neither ['naiðə, 'ni:ðə] 两者都不,也不

Neither of the men spoke.
两个人都没说过话。

Eternity has neither a beginning nor an end.
永恒既没有起点,也没有终点。

Neither his colleagues nor his boss accepts his idea.
他的同事和老板都不接受他的主张。

The discussion went on for hours as neither side would give in.
讨论延续了几个小时,因为哪一方都不肯让步。

Which do you prefer, fishing or mountain-climbing?
钓鱼和登山,你更喜欢哪一个?
Neither.
一个都不喜欢。

Neither of the men spoke. 两个人都没说过话。

Neither you nor he is wrong. 你没错,他也没错。

He neither smokes nor drinks. 他既不抽烟也不喝酒。

Neither would it prevent cruise missiles or bombers, whose flights are within the Earth’s atmosphere, from hitting their targets.
它也不能防止轨道在地球大气层以内的洲际导弹和轰炸机命中目标。

Neither Ayat nor the Rassoul brothers noticed, however, that most of the pieces they were selling were of a type not previously seen in the marketplace—pieces whose existence had been suspected but which had not yet been discovered by archaeologists.
阿雅特和罗索尔兄弟都不知道他们销售的大部分都是以前在市场上面没有人见过的东西——只被人们猜想过它的存在,但从来没有考古学家真正发现过。

Neither chair is comfortable.
两把椅子坐起来都不舒服。

Neither of my sisters drinks coffee.
我的两个姐妹都不喝咖啡。

He hasn't got a ticket and neither have I.
他没有票,我也没有。

He can neither read nor write.
他既不会读也不会写。

你没怎么变。
You haven't changed much.
You haven't changed much. (你没怎么变。)
Neither have you. (你也没变。)

我想不起来他叫什么名字了。
I can't remember his name.
I can't remember his name. (我想不起来他叫什么名字了。)
Neither can I. (我也想不起来了。)
I can't recall his name. His name escapes me.

我也不……
Neither do I. *用于对对方“我不……”的话的回应,表示“我也不……”的意见时。比“Me, neither.”要正式。
Tom doesn't want to go. (汤姆不想去。)
Neither do I. (我也不想去。)
Me, neither. *说法比较随便。正式的工作场合最好不用。

A horse is neither better nor worse for his trappings.
相马不可凭马的装饰。

He may well be contented who need neither borrow nor flatter.
一个既不用借债又不用奉承人的人,可以称得上心满意足。

He who follows two hares is sure to catch neither.
追逐两只兔,两头都落空。

If there be neither snow nor rain, then will be dear all sorts of grain.
雨雪不调,五谷价高。

If you run after two heares, you will catch neither.
两头落空。

Love is neither bought nor sold.
爱情不能买卖。

Money is neither good nor bad, but all depends on what use is made of it.
金钱本身无好坏,要看怎样利用它。

A What about that group? They’re speaking English, aren’t they?
A 那群人呢?他们在说英语,是吗?
B Yes. Let me try and listen to the accents.
B 是的。让我来听听他们的口音。
A British? American? What do you think?
A 英国人?还是美国人?你怎么看?
B No neither. They’re not British or American. I think they’re from Australia or New Zealand.
B 都不是。他们既不是英国 人也不是美国人。我想他们是澳大利亚人或者是新西兰人。
A So many tourists! Beijing and China are really popular these days, especially with the Olympics coming.
A 这么多的游客。北京和中国现在都非常受欢迎,尤其是奥运会要召开了。

A Let’s go for lunch.
A 咱们去吃午饭吧。
B Good idea. What would you like to eat?
B 好主意。你想吃什么呢?
A Just something simple. I don’t like a big lunch.
A 简简单单就好。我不太喜欢午餐吃很多。
B Neither do I. It makes me sleepy in the afternoon.
B 我也是。如果吃多了,我经常下午打瞌睡。
A Let’s have something light – like a salad.
A 咱们吃点清淡的吧,比如撒拉。

Time cures sorrows and squabbles because we all change, and are no longer the same persons. Neither the offender nor the offended is the same.
Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher
时间可以去除忧虑和争吵,因为我们大家都在改变,不再与从前一样。触犯者和被触犯者都已经不是从前的那个人了。
法国数学家、哲学家帕斯卡尔.B.

Eternal truths will be neither true nor eternal unless they have fresh meaning for every new social situation.
Franklin Roosevelt, Averican president
永恒的真理如果不在新的社会形势下赋予新的意义,要么就不是真理,要么不是永恒的。
美国总统罗斯福.F.

Neither beliver nor reject anything, because any other person has rejected of believed it . Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error,. Use it.
Thomas Jefferson, American president
不要因为别的人相信或否定了什么东西,你也就去相信它或否定它。上帝赠予你一个用来判断真理和谬误的头脑。那你就去运用它吧/
美国总统杰斐逊.T.

neither…nor (既)不…也不,(既)非…也非

- make neither head nor tail of...对……摸不着头脑
Tim scribbled a note to me during the lecture. But I couldn't make head or tail of it.

既不 neither

皆不 neither

两不 neither

两者都不 neither

不卑不亢 [bù bēi bú kàng] /(saying) neither servile or overbearing/

不即不离 [bù jí bù lí] /be neither too familiar nor too distant/keep sb at arm's length/

不亢不卑 [bù kàng bù bēi] /neither haughty nor humble/neither overbearing nor servile/neither supercilious nor obsequious/

不伦不类 [bù lún bù lèi] /neither fish nor fowl/nondescript/

不三不四 [bù sān bù sì] /dubious/shady/neither one thing nor the other/neither fish nor fowl/nondescript/

不学无术 [bù xué wú shù] /have neither learning nor skill/be ignorant and incompetent/

不着边际 [bù zhuó biān jì] /not to the point/wide of the mark/neither here nor there/irrelevant/

二者 [èr zhě] /both [of them]/neither/

也不 [yě bù] /neither/nor/

"I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner — amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
“我只是路过,和这个美国人聊了聊。很快,他就请我到他家吃饭——这真令人惊奇。”来美国的旅客谈论此类事件很普遍,但并非总能得到正确理解。很多美国人不经意表现的友好不应被看做是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看成是文化传统的历史发展结果。

Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's.
显然,要将所有A型孩子变成B型孩子既不现实也不可取。
The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment.
这个世界需要各种性格的人,一个重要职责是使孩子的性格适合将来可能从事的工作。
It is top management.
这才是最好的管理理念。

{adj: advisable} worthy of being recommended or suggested; prudent or wise
"such action is neither necessary nor advisable"
"extreme caution is advisable"
"it is advisable to telephone first"
<-> inadvisable

{adj: apathetic, indifferent} marked by a lack of interest
"an apathetic audience"
"the universe is neither hostile nor friendly; it is simply indifferent"

{adj: aweless, awless, disrespectful} neither feeling nor showing respect

{adj: center} of or belonging to neither the right nor the left politically or intellectually
<-> right, left

{adj: centrist, middle-of-the-road} supporting or pursuing a course of action that is neither liberal nor conservative

{adj: compatible} capable of forming a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is altered by chemical interaction

{adj: cool} neither warm nor very cold; giving relief from heat
"a cool autumn day"
"a cool room"
"cool summer dresses"
"cool drinks"
"a cool breeze"
<-> warm

{adj: equipoised} lacking lateral dominance; being neither right-handed nor left-handed

{adj: global, planetary, world, worldwide, world-wide} involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope
"global war"
"global monetary policy"
"neither national nor continental but planetary"
"a world crisis"
"of worldwide significance"

{adj: impassive, stolid} having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited
"her impassive remoteness"
"he remained impassive, showing neither interest in nor concern for our plight"- Nordhoff & Hall
"a silent stolid creature who took it all as a matter of course"-Virginia Woolf
"her face showed nothing but stolid indifference"

{adj: in-between, mediate, middle} being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series
"adolescence is an awkward in-between age"
"in a mediate position"
"the middle point on a line"

{adj: indifferent, so-so} being neither good nor bad
"an indifferent performance"
"a gifted painter but an indifferent actor"
"her work at the office is passable"
"a so-so golfer"
"feeling only so-so"
"prepared a tolerable dinner"
"a tolerable working knowledge of French"

{adj: indifferent} neither too great nor too little
"a couple of indifferent hills to climb"

{adj: infinite, non-finite} of verbs; having neither person nor number nor mood (as a participle or gerund or infinitive)
"infinite verb form"
<-> finite

{adj: natural} (of a key) containing no sharps or flats; (of a note) being neither raised nor lowered by one chromatic semitone
"a natural scale"
"B natural"
<-> sharp, flat

{adj: natural} existing in or in conformity with nature or the observable world; neither supernatural nor magical
"a perfectly natural explanation"
<-> supernatural

{adj: neutral} neither moral nor immoral; neither good nor evil, right nor wrong

{adj: oblique} slanting or inclined in direction or course or position--neither parallel nor perpendicular nor right-angled
"the oblique rays of the winter sun"
"acute and obtuse angles are oblique angles"
"the axis of an oblique cone is not perpendicular to its base"
<-> parallel, perpendicular

{adj: open} (set theory) of an interval that contains neither of its endpoints
<-> closed

{adj: politic} marked by artful prudence, expedience, and shrewdness
"it is neither polite nor politic to get into other people's quarrels"
"a politic decision"
"a politic manager"
"a politic old scoundrel"
"a shrewd and politic reply"
<-> impolitic

{adj: separative} (of a word) referring singly and without exception to the members of a group
"whereas `each,' `every,' `either,' `neither,' and `none' are distributive or referring to a single member of a group, `which' in `which of the men' is separative"

{adj: solid} of definite shape and volume; firm; neither liquid nor gaseous
"ice is water in the solid state"
<-> liquid, gaseous

{adj: substantial, real, material} having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary
"the substantial world"
"a mere dream, neither substantial nor practical"
"most ponderous and substantial things"- Shakespeare
<-> insubstantial

{adj: uninviting} neither attractive nor tempting
<-> inviting

{adj: unromantic} neither expressive of nor exciting sexual love or romance

{adv: indecisively} without finality; inconclusively
"the battle ended indecisively; neither side had clearly won but neither side admitted defeat"
<-> decisively

{n: Blighia, genus Blighia} small genus of western African evergreen trees and shrubs bearing fleshy capsular three-seeded fruits edible when neither unripe nor overripe

{n: O, type O, group O} the blood group whose red cells carry neither the A nor B antigens
"people with type O blood are universal donors"

{n: Plethodontidae, family Plethodontidae} small mostly terrestrial New World salamanders having neither lungs nor gills as adults

{n: Russula, genus Russula} large genus of fungi with stout stems and white spores and neither annulus nor volva; brittle caps of red or purple or yellow or green or blue; differs from genus Lactarius in lacking milky juice

{n: agnosticism} a religious orientation of doubt; a denial of ultimate knowledge of the existence of God
"agnosticism holds that you can neither prove nor disprove God's existence"

{n: association area, association cortex} cortical areas that are neither motor or sensory but are thought to be involved in higher processing of information

{n: bowline, bowline knot} a loop knot that neither slips nor jams

{n: dead letter, dead mail} mail that can neither be delivered nor returned

{n: despite} contemptuous disregard
"she wanted neither favor nor despite"

{n: double-blind procedure, double-blind experiment, double-blind study} an experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment
"a double-blind procedure is used to guard against both experimenter bias and placebo effects"

{n: gas} a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely

{n: marital communications privilege, husband-wife privilege} neither spouse can divulge confidential communications from the other while they were married

{n: middlebrow} someone who is neither a highbrow nor a lowbrow

{n: naked mole rat} fetal-looking colonial rodent of East Africa; neither mole nor rat; they feed on tubers and have a social structure similar to that of honeybees and termites

{n: neuter} a gender that refers chiefly (but not exclusively) to inanimate objects (neither masculine nor feminine)

{n: obliqueness} the property of being neither parallel nor perpendicular, but at a slanting angle

{n: principal axis, optic axis} a line that passes through the center of curvature of a lens so that light is neither reflected nor refracted

{n: situation, state of affairs} the general state of things; the combination of circumstances at a given time
"the present international situation is dangerous"
"wondered how such a state of affairs had come about"
"eternal truths will be neither true nor eternal unless they have fresh meaning for every new social situation"- Franklin D.Roosevelt

{n: soliton, soliton wave, solitary wave} (physics) a quantum of energy or quasiparticle that can be propagated as a traveling wave in nonlinear systems and is neither preceded nor followed by another such disturbance; does not obey the superposition principle and does not dissipate
"soliton waves can travel long distances with little loss of energy or structure"

{n: television, telecasting, TV, video} broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects
"she is a star of screen and video"
"Television is a medium because it is neither rare nor well done" - Ernie Kovacs

{n: trench warfare} a struggle (usually prolonged) between competing entities in which neither side is able to win
"the hope that his superior campaigning skills would make a difference evaporated in the realization that electioneering had become a form of trench warfare"

{n: use immunity, testimonial immunity} an exemption that displaces the privilege against self-incrimination; neither compelled testimony or any fruits of it can be used against the witness who therefore can no longer fear self-incrimination

{v: break even} attain a level at which there is neither gain nor loss, as in business, gambling, or a competitive sport

{v: break even} make neither profit nor loss
<-> profit

Neither in medicine, nor in law, government, or the social sciences can there be comfort in the old saying, " What you don't know can't hurt you. "
不管在医学领域,还是在法律界、政府部门或者在社会科学方面,从下面这句古老的谚语中都找不到慰藉的成分: "不知者不为其所害。 "

Previously sealed autopsy results prove that neither alcoholism nor Parkinson's disease killed Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Eugene O'Neill.
以前封存的尸检结果证实了既非酒精中毒,也非帕金森氏病夺去了这位诺贝尔文学奖和普利策文学奖得主-剧作家尤金·奥尼尔的生命。

For the world which seems to lie before us, Like a land of dreams, so various, so beautiful, so new, Has really neither joy nor love, nor light. "
因为我们面前的世界似乎在说谎,像梦幻奇境,那么变化无穷,美丽新奇,但既没有欢乐,也没有爱恋和光明。 "

Awkward and proud, he hadn't known how, and neither had I.
由于尴尬和自尊,他不知道该怎么做,我也同样束手无策。

But while the might of Microsoft and its success with Windows in the PC operating system arena can not be ignored, neither can Nokia's knack of picking winning technology.
尽管不可忽视微软公司的实力及其 "视窗 "在个人电脑操作系统领域所取得的成功,但诺基亚获得致胜技术的诀窍也同样不可轻视。

" I didn't foresee the Internet, " he says.
他说:我没有预见到互联网的出现。
" But then neither did the computer industry.
不过当时连电脑业界的人士也料想不到。
Not that that tells us very much, of course the computer industry didn't even foresee that the century was going to end. "
当然,这并不能说明多大的问题──电脑业甚至连二十世纪的终结都没有考虑到。

Neither did I. Oddly enough though, a great number of people have been connecting always-on digital cameras to the Net, beaming back pictures even full-motion video of themselves as they putter around on their computers and about their homes.
我没有这样想。说来奇怪,许多人将老开开的数码相接上网络,一边在电脑上和家中消磨时间,一边翻看以前的照片和录像。

For those with neither the time nor the space to garden for real, RealGarden( www.realgarden.com) provides an electronic alternative.
对那些既没有时间也没有地方从事实际园艺活动的人来说,真实花园网站( www.realgarden.com )提供了一电子替代品。

And neither did the big consultants.
那些大咨询公司也不例外。

Out of desperation you shove a few banknotes into his hand, hoping that you 're neither given too much or too little.
最终,你近乎绝望地把几张钞票塞进他手里,心中暗暗希望你给的小费不多也不少。

( Shaq admits he dipped into both but finished neither. ) The works are nuanced and complex.
(奥尼尔承认这两本书他都看了,但都没看完。)虽然两本书的含义微妙而深刻,

" Neither do I. I don't want to look like I 'm satisfied. "
我也一样。我不想让别人以为我已满足于以前的成绩。

Jeff has neither memory of nor interest in his biological father. " I 've never been curious about him.
杰夫对他的生父没有任何印象,而且一点也不感兴趣。我从来都对他不感兴趣。

Films with no stars usually make money with charm and sentiment; Blair Witch has neither.
没有影星演出的电影一般要借助魅力与伤感来赚取利润。《厄夜丛林》并不具备这两个因素。

In brief, her works neither elevate nor instruct.
简而言之,她的作品既不美化,亦不说教。

In some ways, her most ambitious works are closer to architecture than to traditional sculpture, but then neither Louise Nevelson nor her art fits into any neat category.
在某些方面,她最为雄心勃勃的作品更接近于环境艺术品,而与传统雕塑相去甚远。
但这样一来,无论是路易丝·奈维尔森还是她的作品,都无法被归纳到任何泾渭分明的范畴中。

软硬适中 neither too hard nor too soft

HS09061000
Cinnamon & cinnamon-tree flowers, neither crushed & ground
未磨肉桂及肉桂花

HS6501
Hat-forms, hat bodies and hoods of felt, neither blocked to shape nor with made brims; platea
毡呢帽坯、帽身、帽兜和圆帽片及制帽毡呢筒

HS6502
Hat-shapes, plaited or made by ass embling strips of any material, neither blocked to shape,
编结的帽坯或用任何材料条带拼制而成的帽胚

HS9020
Other breathing appliances and gas masks, excluding protective masks having neither mechanica
其他呼吸器具及防毒面具

F41.2
Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder
This category should be used when symptoms of anxiety and depression are both present, but
neither is clearly predominant, and neither type of symptom is present to the extent that
justifies a diagnosis if considered separately. When both anxiety and depressive symptoms
are present and severe enough to justify individual diagnoses, both diagnoses should be
recorded and this category should not be used.
Anxiety depression (mild or not persistent)
焦虑与忧郁混合症
这项目在焦虑和忧郁的症状均存在时可用之 , 而二
者之一没有任何一项之症状是较明显的 , 但若分开
考虑也没有任何一种症状的程度较重而符合於诊断
标准。当忧郁和焦虑徵候群均存在且严重到符合个
别诊断时 , 两个诊断应该都要记录 , 就不用这个项
目。
焦虑性忧郁症 ( 轻度或不持续性 )

F41.3
Other mixed anxiety disorders
Symptoms of anxiety mixed with features of other disorders in F42- F48. Neither type of
symptom is severe enough to justify a diagnosis if considered separately.
其他混合焦虑症
焦虑症状与 F42-F48 等类疾病混合存在。若分开考虑 ,
没有一类症状有足够严重度 , 可以单独做诊断。

F43
Reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders
This category differs from others in that it includes disorders identifiable on the basis
of not only symptoms and course but also the existence of one or other of two causative
influences: an exceptionally stressful life event producing an acute stress reaction, or a
significant life change leading to continued unpleasant circumstances that result in an
adjustment disorder. Although less severe psychosocial stress ("life events")
may precipitate the onset or contribute to the presentation of a very wide range of
disorders classified elsewhere in this chapter, its etiological importance is not always
clear and in each case will be found to depend on individual, often idiosyncratic,
vulnerability, i.e. the life events are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the
occurrence and form of the disorder. In contrast, the disorders brought together here are
thought to arise always as a direct consequence of acute severe stress or continued
trauma. The stressful events or the continuing unpleasant circumstances are the primary
and overriding causal factor and the disorder would not have occurred without their
impact. The disorders in this section can thus be regarded as maladaptive responses to
severe or continued stress, in that they interfere with successful coping mechanisms and
therefore lead to problems of social functioning.
严重压力之反应与适应障碍症
此一类诊断与其他类不同乃在於要确认此种疾病 ,
不仅要基於症状学和病程 , 而且也要基於一两个影
响的原因 - 包含一个非比寻常的压力事件产生压力
反应 , 或是一个显着的生活改变导致继续不适意的
环境因而引起适应障碍症。虽然较不严重的心理社
会压力 ( 生活事件 ) 会发生或促发在本章中处处所
提的较广范围之疾病表现 , 然而此类压力在病因学
上的重要性并不一定清楚 , 而每个个案上的特异性
与脆弱性是较为重要的。它们并不必然也不充分能
够解释疾病的发生及型式 * 相对地 , 本项疾病被认为
是直接导因於急性严重的压力或持续创伤所致之後
果。此种压力事件或持续的不愉快情境是主要的或
具决定性的因子 , 如果没有此种冲击疾病必然不会
发生。本节之疾病可以说是对严重或持续压力之不
良反应 , 此情况会干扰个体应付事情之机转 , 以致
引起社会性功能之障碍。 

F43.1
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Arises as a delayed or protracted response to a stressful event or situation (of either
brief or long duration) of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature, which is
likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone. Predisposing factors, such as
personality traits (e.g. compulsive, asthenic) or previous history of neurotic illness,
may lower the threshold for the development of the syndrome or aggravate its course, but
they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain its occurrence. Typical features
include episodes of repeated reliving of the trauma in intrusive memories
("flashbacks"), dreams or nightmares, occurring against the persisting
background of a sense of "numbness" and emotional blunting, detachment from
other people, unresponsiveness to surroundings, anhedonia, and avoidance of activities and
situations reminiscent of the trauma. There is usually a state of autonomic hyperarousal
with hypervigilance, an enhanced startle reaction, and insomnia. Anxiety and depression
are commonly associated with the above symptoms and signs, and suicidal ideation is not
infrequent. The onset follows the trauma with a latency period that may range from a few
weeks to months. The course is fluctuating but recovery can be expected in the majority of
cases. In a small proportion of cases the condition may follow a chronic course over many
years, with eventual transition to an enduring personality change (F62.0).
Traumatic neurosis
创伤後障碍症
源自於对某一压力事件或某种长、短期存在之压力
情境 , 以迟缓或且拖延的反应来表现。这类事件或
情境具有异常之威胁性或是大灾难的性质 , 它几乎
可使任何人痛苦。如果有某一些人格特质因素存在
的话 ( 如个性上较强迫性格或柔弱 ) , 或过去有精
神官能症 , 可能会使此种症候发生的临界点降低或
使其病程恶化 , 但它仍不足以完全解释此症候的发
生。典型症状包含 : 过去创伤的情节会一再侵入记
忆而重现 (flashbacks) , 常做梦或梦魔 , 一直感觉 ” 麻
木 ” 及情感迟钝 , 和别人疏离 , 对环境没有反应 ,
快乐感缺失 , 及逃避会使其回忆创伤的种种活动和
情境。自律神经经常属於过度激发状态 , 伴随有过
度警戒、易有惊吓反应及失眠。忧郁和焦虑常与以
上的症状、徵候在一起 , 自杀的念头也不少见。创
伤之後到疾病产生之间的潜伏期有数周到数月之久
, 但很少超过六个月。病程起起伏伏 , 但大部分的
个案都能预期会恢复。不过少部分个案会慢性化而
历经好多年 , 以致形成人格的永久改变。 (见F62.0)
创伤性精神官能症。

F45.3
Somatoform autonomic dysfunction
Symptoms are presented by the patient as if they were due to a physical disorder of a
system or organ that is largely or completely under autonomic innervation and control,
i.e. the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital systems. The
symptoms are usually of two types, neither of which indicates a physical disorder of the
organ or system concerned. First, there are complaints based upon objective signs of
autonomic arousal, such as palpitations, sweating, flushing, tremor, and expression of
fear and distress about the possibility of a physical disorder. Second, there are
subjective complaints of a nonspecific or changing nature such as fleeting aches and
pains, sensations of burning, heaviness, tightness, and feelings of being bloated or
distended, which are referred by the patient to a specific organ or Cardiac neurosis
Da Costa's syndrome
Gastric neurosis
Neurocirculatory asthenia
Psychogenic forms of:
. aerophagy
. cough
. diarrhoea
. dyspepsia
. dysuria
. flatulence
. hiccough
. hyperventilation
. increased frequency of micturition
. irritable bowel syndrome
. pylorospasm
Excludes: psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases
classified elsewhere (F54)
自主神经功能拟身体障碍症 :
这类病人的症状表现与大多或完全由自律神经控制
的系统或器官产生的身体疾患很像 , 例如心脏血管
、胃肠、呼吸系统及泌尿生殖系统。这些症状分成
两型 , 均无具身体器质障碍 : 第一、自主神经高亢
表现之客观身体徵象 , 如心悸、盗汗、脸红、及颤
抖等 , 这些症状被患者认定有身体疾病 , 有感到害
怕与困扰。第二、属於比较非特异性、非特定性的
症状 , 如短暂的疼痛感、发烧感、沈重感、紧绷及
膨胀扩大感 ; 而病人大多会指出某一系统或器官引
起的疾病。
心脏精神官能症
Da Costa 氏徵候群
胃精神官能症
神经循环虚弱
心因性 :
. 吞气症
. 咳嗽
. 下痢
. 消化不良
. 解尿困难
. 肠气
. 打嗝
. 过度换气症
. 频尿
. 肠道快速蠕动症
. 幽门痉挛
不包含 : 与他处已归类疾患相关的心理及行为因素
(F54) 。

INFECTIOUS ARTHROPATHIES (M00-M03)
Note: This block comprises arthropathies due to microbiological agents. Distinction is
made between the following types of etiological relationship:
(a) direct infection of joint, where organisms invade synovial tissue and microbial
antigen is present in the joint;
(b) indirect infection, which may be of two types: a reactive arthropathy, where microbial
infection of the body is estab- lished but neither organisms nor antigens can be
identified in the joint, and a postinfective arthropathy, where microbial antigen is
present but recovery of an organism is inconstant and evidence of local multiplication is
lacking.
感染性关节病变 (M00-M03)
注 : 这部份由肇因於微生物因子之关节病变组成。
由下列病原学关系之型式以示区别 :
(a) 直接关节感染 , 其病原体侵犯滑膜组织而且微生
物抗原存在於关节中 ;
(b) 间接感染 , 其可分为两种型式 : 一种反应性关节
病变 , 其身体之微生物感染被确立 , 但既无生物也
无抗原能在关节中被确认 , 及一种感染後关节病变
, 其微生物抗原存在但病原体的复原为不定的且无
局部增殖的证据。


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