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muscular [ 'mʌskjulə] a.肌肉发达的,强健的

He's very muscular.

He seems to be the most muscular guy.他看起来似乎最魁伟。

肌肉发达 [jī ròu fā dá] /muscular/

{adj: apractic, apraxic} having uncoordinated muscular movements, symptomatic of a CNS disorder

{adj: beefy, burly, husky, strapping, buirdly} muscular and heavily built
"a beefy wrestler"
"had a tall burly frame"
"clothing sizes for husky boys"
"a strapping boy of eighteen"
"`buirdly' is a Scottish term"

{adj: brawny, hefty, muscular, powerful, sinewy} (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful
"a hefty athlete"
"a muscular boxer"
"powerful arms"

{adj: convulsive, spasmodic, spastic} affected by involuntary jerky muscular contractions; resembling a spasm
"convulsive motions"
"his body made a spasmodic jerk"
"spastic movements"

{adj: isometric} of or involving muscular contraction in which tension increases while length remains constant
<-> isotonic

{adj: isotonic} of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes
<-> isometric

{adj: mesomorphic, muscular} having a robust muscular body-build characterized by predominance of structures (bone and muscle and connective tissue) developed from the embryonic mesodermal layer
<-> ectomorphic, endomorphic

{adj: muscular} having or suggesting great physical power or force
"the muscular and passionate Fifth Symphony"

{adj: muscular} of or relating to or consisting of muscle
"muscular contraction"

{adj: neuromuscular} affecting or characteristic of both neural and muscular tissue

{adj: relaxant} tending to relax or relieve muscular or nervous tension
"a relaxant drug"

{n: American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire terrier, American pit bull terrier, pit bull terrier} American breed of muscular terriers with a short close-lying stiff coat

{n: Becker muscular dystrophy} a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in in adolescence or adulthood and progresses slowly but will affect all voluntary muscles; characterized by generalized weakness and muscle wasting that affects limb and trunk muscles first; similar to Duchenne's muscular dystrophy but less severe; inheritance is X-linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)

{n: Conn's syndrome} disturbances in saltwater balance and symptoms of weakness and muscular cramps and twitching and convulsions and sometimes paralysis; usually caused by a benign tumor of the cortex of the adrenal gland that leads to excess secretion of aldosterone

{n: Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, pseudohypertrophic dystrophy} the most common form of muscular dystrophy; inheritance is X-linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)

{n: Friedreich's ataxia, herediatry spinal ataxia} sclerosis of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord; characterized by muscular weakness and abnormal gait; occurs in children

{n: Lassa fever} an acute contagious viral disease of central western Africa; characterized by fever and inflammation and muscular pains and difficulty swallowing; can be used as a bioweapon

{n: anastalsis} muscular action of the alimentary tract in a direction opposite to peristalsis
<-> peristalsis

{n: astasia} inability to stand due to muscular incoordination

{n: athletic type, mesomorphy} muscular and big-boned

{n: atonicity, atony, atonia, amyotonia} lack of normal muscular tension or tonus
<-> tonicity

{n: beefcake} a photograph of a muscular man in minimal attire

{n: bladder sphincter, musculus sphincter vesicae} the sphincter muscle of the urinary bladder; made up of a thickened muscular layer of bladder around the urethral opening

{n: brawn, brawniness, muscle, muscularity, sinew, heftiness} possessing muscular strength

{n: buttock, cheek} either of the two large fleshy masses of muscular tissue that form the human rump

{n: calf, sura} the muscular back part of the shank

{n: catatonia} extreme tonus; muscular rigidity; a common symptom in catatonic schizophrenia

{n: cervical disc syndrome, cervical root syndrome} an abnormal condition resulting from compression of spinal nerve roots in the neck region; involves neck pains and muscular weakness and paresthesia

{n: charley horse, charley-horse} a muscular cramp (especially in the thigh or calf) following vigorous exercise

{n: contraction, muscular contraction, muscle contraction} (physiology) a shortening or tensing of a part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber)

{n: diaphragm, midriff} (anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration

{n: distal muscular dystrophy} a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in between 40 and 60 years of age and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles of the hands and forearms and lower legs; inheritance is autosomal dominant

{n: diverticulum} a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)

{n: ergonovine, Ergotrate Maleate} an alkaloid derived from ergot (trade name Ergotrate Maleate) that is less toxic than ergot; induces muscular contraction of the uterus and is administered after childbirth or abortion

{n: fasciculation} muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers

{n: fibrillation} muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination

{n: firmness, soundness} the muscle tone of healthy tissue
"his muscular firmness"
<-> unsoundness

{n: gallbladder} a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion

{n: gastropod, univalve} a class of mollusks typically having a one-piece coiled shell and flattened muscular foot with a head bearing stalked eyes

{n: gizzard, ventriculus, gastric mill} thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food

{n: heart, pump, ticker} the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body
"he stood still, his heart thumping wildly"

{n: hypertonia, hypertonus, hypertonicity} (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypertonic
<-> hypotonia, hypotonicity, hypotonus

{n: hypotonia, hypotonus, hypotonicity} (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
<-> hypertonia, hypertonicity, hypertonus

{n: iris} muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil; it forms the colored portion of the eye

{n: isometrics, isometric exercise} muscle-building exercises (or a system of musclebuilding exercises) involving muscular contractions against resistance without movement (the muscles contracts but the length of the muscle does not change)

{n: kinesthesia, kinaesthesia, feeling of movement} the perception of body position and movement and muscular tensions etc

{n: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy} an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy that appears anywhere from late childhood to middle age; characterized by progressive muscular weakness beginning either in the shoulder or pelvic girdle; usually progresses slowly with cardiopulmonary complications in the later stages

{n: liniment, embrocation} a medicinal liquid that is rubbed into the skin to relieve muscular stiffness and pain

{n: lysinemia} an inborn error of metabolism in which the lack of certain enzymes leads to an inability to metabolize the amino acid lysine; characterized by muscular weakness and mental retardation

{n: mesomorph} a person with a well-developed muscular body

{n: muscle, muscular tissue} animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells

{n: muscular dystrophy, dystrophy} any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles

{n: muscular structure, musculature, muscle system} the muscular system of an organism

{n: muscular tonus, muscle tone} normal tonicity of the muscles
"exercise improves muscle tone"

{n: myasthenia gravis, myasthenia} a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions

{n: myasthenia} any muscular weakness

{n: myenteric plexus, plexus myentericus} a plexus of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell bodies in the muscular coat of the esophagus and stomach and intestines

{n: myocardial inflammation, myocarditis} inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)

{n: myocardium} the middle muscular layer of the heart wall

{n: myotonia} abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction

{n: myotonic muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, myotonia atrophica, Steinert's disease} a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant

{n: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy} a form of muscular dystrophy that usually begins between early adulthood and middle age and first affects muscles of the eyelid and throat; progresses slowly with swallowing problems common as the disease progresses; inheritance is autosomal dominant

{n: paralysis agitans, Parkinsonism, Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, Parkinson's, shaking palsy} a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination

{n: phosphocreatine, creatine phosphate, creatine phosphoric acid} an organic compound of creatine and phosphoric acid; found in the muscles of vertebrates where its hydrolysis releases energy for muscular contraction

{n: poster child} a child afflicted by some disease or deformity whose picture is used on posters to raise money for charitable purposes
"she was the poster child for muscular dystrophy"

{n: prostate gland, prostate} a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen

{n: rigor mortis} muscular stiffening that begins 2 to 4 hours after death and last for about 4 days

{n: rigor mortis} temporary stiffness of joints and muscular rigidity occurring after death

{n: scrapie} a fatal disease of sheep characterized by chronic itching and loss of muscular control and progressive degeneration of the central nervous system

{n: sleeping sickness, sleepy sickness, epidemic encephalitis, lethargic encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica} an encephalitis that was epidemic between 1915 and 1926; symptoms include paralysis of the extrinsic eye muscle and extreme muscular weakness

{n: soft palate, velum} a muscular flap that closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing or speaking

{n: spasm, cramp, muscle spasm} a painful and involuntary muscular contraction

{n: stomach, tummy, tum, breadbasket} an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion

{n: tetanus} a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses

{n: tetany, tetanilla, intermittent tetanus, intermittent cramp, apyretic tetanus} clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures; associated with calcium deficiency (hypoparathyroidism) or vitamin D deficiency or alkalosis

{n: tongue, lingua, glossa, clapper} a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

{n: uterus, womb} a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females; contains the developing fetus

{n: vaginismus} muscular contraction that causes the vagina to close; usually an anxiety reaction before coitus or pelvic examination

{n: writer's cramp, graphospasm} muscular spasms of thumb and forefinger while writing with a pen or pencil

{v: carnify} become muscular or fleshy

An inch taller than I, he had a lean, muscular frame, clear blue eyes, blond hair and a strikingly handsome face.

In contrast, cedar sculptures at the end of the exhibition, dating from the Sixth Dynasty four centuries later, demonstrate a sophisticated rendering of the human form, with expressive eyes and muscular legs.

Water containing phytoplankton is pumped by the appendicularian's muscular tail into the balloon's incurrent filters, passes through the feeding filter where the appendicularian sucks the food into its mouth, and then goes through an exit passage.

Generalized anxiety disorder
Anxiety that is generalized and persistent but not restricted to, or even strongly
predominating in, any particular environmental circumstances (i.e. it is
"free-floating"). The dominant symptoms are variable but include complaints of
persistent nervousness, trembling, muscular tensions, sweating, lightheadedness,
palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort. Fears that the patient or a relative
will shortly become ill or have an accident are often expressed.
. neurosis
. reaction
Excludes: neurasthenia (F48.0)
基本现象是广泛且持续地焦虑 , 但不局限或明显发
生於某一特殊情境 ( 即它是自由浮动性的 ) 。明显
症状变异很大 , 但时常抱怨觉得很紧张、颤抖、肌
. 焦虑性精神官能症
. 焦虑反应
不包含 : 神经衰弱症 (F48.0)

Considerable cultural variations occur in the presentation of this disorder, and two main
types occur, with substantial overlap. In one type, the main feature is a complaint of
increased fatigue after mental effort, often associated with some decrease in occupational
performance or coping efficiency in daily tasks. The mental fatiguability is typically
described as an unpleasant intrusion of distracting associations or recollections,
difficulty in concentrating, and generally inefficient thinking. In the other type, the
emphasis is on feelings of bodily or physical weakness and exhaustion after only minimal
effort, accompanied by a feeling of muscular aches and pains and inability to relax. In
both types a variety of other unpleasant physical feelings is common, such as dizziness,
tension headaches, and feelings of general instability. Worry about decreasing mental and
bodily well-being, irritability, anhedonia, and varying minor degrees of both depression
and anxiety are all common. Sleep is often disturbed in its initial and middle phases but
hypersomnia may also be prominent.
Fatigue syndrome
Use additional code, if desired, to identify previous physical illness.
Excludes: asthenia NOS (R53)
burn-out (Z73.0)
malaise and fatigue (R53)
postviral fatigue syndrome (G93.3)
psychasthenia (F48.8)
此疾患之出现有相当不同的文化背景因素 , 而可见
两类 , 但重叠性高。第一类之主要表现在精神活动
之後抱怨的疲惫感 , 常伴随工作表现或每天日常生
之後 , 发生身体衰弱及耗竭感 , 伴随肌肉疼痛及无
舒服的感觉 , 如头晕、紧张性头痛及全身违和的感
初期及中期常出障碍 , 但可能也有过度睡眠的情况

若先前有其他身体疾病 , 可以加以标示。
不包含 : 无力 , 其他未明示者 (R53)
过劳 (Z73.0)
疲惫 (R53)
病毒感染後疲惫徵候群 (G93.3)
精神衰弱症 (F48.8)

Spinal muscular atrophy and related syndromes

Infantile spinal muscular atrophy, type I [Werdnig-Hoffman]
幼年椎骨肌肉萎缩症 , 第一型 [Werdnig-Hoffman]

Other inherited spinal muscular atrophy
Progressive bulbar palsy of childhood [Fazio-Londe]
Spinal muscular atrophy:
. adult form
. childhood form, type Ⅱ
. distal
. juvenile form, type Ⅲ [Kugelberg-Welander]
. scapuloperoneal form
童年期进行性延髓性瘫痪 [Fazio-Londe]
椎骨肌肉萎缩症 :
. 成人型
. 童年期型 , 第二型
. 末梢的
. 幼年型 , 第叁型 [Kugelberg-Welander]
. 肩胛腓骨型

Motor neuron disease
Familial motor neuron disease
Lateral sclerosis:
. amyotrophic
. primary
. bulbar palsy
. spinal muscular atrophy
侧索硬化 :
. 肌萎缩性侧索硬化
. 原发性侧索硬化
进行性 :
. 进行性延髓性瘫痪
. 进行性椎骨肌肉萎缩

Other spinal muscular atrophies and related syndromes

Spinal muscular atrophy, unspecified

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
. Charcot-Marie-Tooth
. Dejerine-Sottas
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, types Ⅰ-Ⅳ
Hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy
Peroneal muscular atrophy (axonal type)(hypertrophic type)
Roussy-Levy syndrome
. 进行性腓神经病性肌肉萎缩
. 幼儿肥大性性间质性神经炎
遗传性运动及感觉神经病变 I - Ⅳ 型
腓肌萎缩 ( 轴索型 ) ( 肥大型 )
罗司氏 - 李氏二氏徵候群 ( 进行性神经病变性肌萎
缩 )

Muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy:
. autosomal recessive, childhood type, resembling Duchenne or Becker
. benign [Becker]
. benign scapuloperoneal with early contractures [Emery-Dreifuss]
. distal
. facioscapulohumeral
. limb-girdle
. ocular
. oculopharyngeal
. scapuloperoneal
. severe [Duchenne]
Excludes: congenital muscular dystrophy:
. NOS(G71.2)
. with specific morphological abnormalities of the muscle fibre (G71.2)
. 常染色体隐性、童年期型、裘馨氏病 ( 假性肌肥
大 ) 或贝克氏病相
. 良性
. 良性肩胛骨与腓骨伴有早期收缩
. 远端的
. 面肩胛肱的
. 肢带
. 眼肌
. 眼与咽
. 肩胛与腓骨
. 严重的〔假性肌肥大〕
不包含 : 先天肌肉行为异常 :
. 其他未明示的 (G71.2)
. 肌肉纤维伴有特异性形态学上之异常 (G71.2)

Congenital myopathies
Congenital muscular dystrophy:
. with specific morphological abnormalities of the muscle fibre
. central core
. minicore
. multicore
Fibre-type disproportion
. myotubular (centronuclear)
. nemaline
先天性肌肉营养不良 :
. 其他未明示的
. 肌肉纤维伴有特异形态学上之异常
下列之疾病 :
. 中央核心
. 小核心
. 多核心
肌病变 :
. 肌管 ( 中央核 ) 肌病变
. 线虫肌病变

Spinal enthesopathy
Disorder of ligamentous or muscular attachments of spine

Excludes: dermatopolymyositis (M33.-)
muscular dystrophies and myopathies (G71-G72)
myopathy in:
. amyloidosis (E85.-)
. polyarteritis nodosa (M30.0)
. rheumatoid arthritis (M05.3)
. scleroderma (M34.-)
. Sjogren's syndrome (M35.0)
. systemic lupus erythematosus (M32.-)
肌肉疾患 (M60-M63)
不包含 : 多发性皮肌炎 (M33.-)
肌肉失养症和肌肉病变 (G71-G72)
下列之肌病变 :
. 淀粉样变性病 (E85.-)
. 结节性多动脉炎 (M30.0)
. 类风湿性关节炎 (M05.3)
. 硬皮病 (M34.-)
. 谢格连氏症後群 (M35.0)
. 全身性红斑性狼疮 (M32.-)

Enthesopathies of lower limb, excluding foot
[See site code pages 628-629]
Note: The superficially specific terms bursitis, capsulitis and tendinitis tend to be used
indiscriminately for various disorders of peripheral ligamentous or muscular attachments;
most of these conditions have been brought together as enthesopathies which is the generic
term for lesions at these sites.
Excludes: bursitis due to use, overuse and pressure (M70.-)
[ 请参考第 628-629 页之位置码 ]
表面的特定的名词 " 滑液囊炎 " , " 囊炎 "
及 " 肌腱炎 " 较常杂陈地使用於周边韧带或肌肉
附着物的各种疾患 ; 这些病况中的大多数已被根据
这些位置的损害而收集一起於总称名词 " 附着组织
病变 "
不包含 : 肇因於使用、过度使用及压力滑液囊炎

Duchenne muscular dystrophy Duchenne型肌营养不良,假肥大型肌营养不良

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