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initial

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initial [ i'niʃəl] a.最初的;词首的

initial [ i'niʃəl] a.词首的

initial [i'niʃəl] a. 开始的,最初的

initial [i'niʃəl] 初始的

启动基金 initial funding

首次公开发行的股票 initial public offering (IPO)

最初谈判权(初谈权) INRs (Initial Negotiating Rights)

Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations
第一应急现场操作训练标准

You can open a savings account at any time with an initial deposit of 50 dollars.
你可随时以50美圆的起存额开立储蓄帐户。

IPO(Initial Public Offering)新股/初始公开发行;

更改处应加盖印章 alterations require initials

initial 草签

initial question 初步问题

initial screening 初步甄选

Zero initial condition 零初始条件

The theory on the initial stage of socialism 社会主义初级阶段的理论

Initial 初始的,最初的

initial credit balance 初期贷方余额

initial inventory 期初存货

initial investment 期初投资

initial public offering 股票首次公开上市

initial stage 初级阶段

先期排气
initial exhaust

The initial talks were the base of the later agreement.
最初的谈判是随后达成协议的基础。

His initial answer was not good enough.
他最初的回答并不令人满意。

Write your initials in capitals.
把你名字的第一个字母写成大写。

Initial permeability 起始磁导率

Initial pulse 始脉冲

Initial pulse width 始波宽度

I hope you'll be entirely satisfied with this initial shipment.
我希望您能对第一批货感到满意。

If the quality of your initial shipment is found satisfactory, large repeats will follow.
如果贵方第一批运来的货令人满意,随后将有大批续订。

阿 [ā] /an initial particle/prefix to names of people/

初步 [chū bù] /initial/preliminary/tentative/

初期 [chū qī] /initial stage/beginning period/

开始 [kāi shǐ] /begin/beginning/start/initial/

拟定 [nǐ dìng] /(v) make an initial draft/

声母 [shēng mǔ] /initial consonant (of a Chinese syllable)/initial/

最初 [zuì chū] /first/primary/initial/

Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期——那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使他们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动——但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

{adj: chaotic} of or relating to a sensitive dependence on initial conditions

{adj: ergodic} positive recurrent aperiodic state of stochastic systems; tending in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions

{adj: initial} occurring at the beginning
"took the initial step toward reconciliation"

{adj: nonsyllabic} (of speech sounds) not forming or capable of forming the nucleus of a syllable
"initial 'l' in 'little' is nonsyllabic"
<-> syllabic

{adj: zero} indicating an initial point or origin

{adv: first, for the first time} the initial time
"when Felix first saw a garter snake"

{n: Catherine of Aragon, Catherine} first wife of Henry VIII; Henry's divorce from her was the initial step of the Reformation in England (1485-1536)

{n: acronym} a word formed from the initial letters of the several words in the name

{n: acrophony} naming a letter of the alphabet by using a word whose initial sound is the sound represented by that letter

{n: alliteration, initial rhyme, beginning rhyme, head rhyme} use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
"around the rock the ragged rascal ran"

{n: ante} (poker) the initial contribution that each player makes to the pot

{n: aphesis} the gradual disappearance of an initial (usually unstressed) vowel or syllable as in `squire' for `esquire'

{n: basic training} the initial period of training for new military personnel; involves intense physical activity and behavioral discipline

{n: beachhead, foothold} an initial accomplishment that opens the way for further developments
"the town became a beachhead in the campaign to ban smoking outdoors"
"they are presently attempting to gain a foothold in the Russian market"

{n: chaos} (physics) a dynamical system that is extremely sensitive to its initial conditions

{n: deductible} a clause in an insurance policy that relieves the insurer of responsibility to pay the initial loss up to a stated amount

{n: direct examination} (law) the initial questioning of a witness by the party that called the witness

{n: ergodicity} an attribute of stochastic systems; generally, a system that tends in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions

{n: exposition} an account that sets forth the meaning or intent of a writing or discourse
"we would have understood the play better if there had been some initial exposition of the background"

{n: first base} the initial stage in accomplishing something
"we didn't get to first base with that approach"

{n: first strike} the initial use of nuclear weapons to attack a country that also has nuclear weapons; considered feasible only when the attacker can destroy the other country's ability to retaliate
"the Pakistani president promised no first strike against India"

{n: foray} an initial attempt (especially outside your usual areas of competence)
"scientists' forays into politics"

{n: half life, half-life} the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)

{n: implosion} the initial occluded phase of a stop consonant

{n: impression, printing} all the copies of a work printed at one time
"they ran off an initial printing of 2000 copies"

{n: initial public offering, IPO, initial offering} a corporation's first offer to sell stock to the public

{n: initial} the first letter of a word (especially a person's name)
"he refused to put the initials FRS after his name"

{n: liftoff} the initial ascent of a rocket from its launching pad

{n: monogram} a graphic symbol consisting of 2 or more letters combined (usually your initials); printed on stationery or embroidered on clothing

{n: opening} the initial part of the introduction
"the opening established the basic theme"

{n: palatal} a semivowel produced with the tongue near the palate (like the initial sound in the English word `yeast')

{n: payback} financial return or reward (especially returns equal to the initial investment)

{n: progressive vaccinia, vaccinia gangrenosa} a severe or even fatal form of vaccinia that occurs mainly in persons with an immunological deficiency; characterized by progressive enlargement of the initial lesion

{n: pulmonary anthrax, inhalation anthrax, anthrax pneumonia, ragpicker's disease, ragsorter's disease, woolsorter's pneumonia, woolsorter's disease} a form of anthrax infection acquired by inhalation of dust containing Bacillus anthracis; initial symptoms (chill and cough and dyspnea and rapid pulse) are followed by extreme cardiovascular collapse

{n: relation back, relation} (law) the principle that an act done at a later time is deemed by law to have occurred at an earlier time
"his attorney argued for the relation back of the amended complaint to the time the initial complaint was filed"

{n: retrial} a new trial in which issues already litigated and to which the court has already rendered a verdict or decision are reexamined by the same court; occurs when the initial trial is found to have been improper or unfair due to procedural errors

{n: scalper} someone who buys something and resells it at a price far above the initial cost
"he got theater tickets through a scalper"

{n: second wind} the return of relatively easy breathing after initial exhaustion during continuous exertion

{n: sforzando} (music) a notation written above a note and indicating that it is to be played with a strong initial attack

{n: shakedown} initial adjustments to improve the functioning or the efficiency and to bring to a more satisfactory state
"the new industry's economic shakedown"

{n: spoonerism} transposition of initial consonants in a pair of words

{n: statement} (music) the presentation of a musical theme
"the initial statement of the sonata"

{n: takeoff} the initial ascent of an airplane as it becomes airborne

{v: boomerang} return to the initial position from where it came ; like a boomerang

{v: boot, reboot, bring up} cause to load (an operating system) and start the initial processes
"boot your computer"

{v: catch on, get wise, get onto, tumble, latch on, cotton on, twig, get it} understand, usually after some initial difficulty
"She didn't know what her classmates were plotting but finally caught on"

{v: initialize, initialise} assign an initial value to a computer program

{v: initial} mark with one's initials

{v: readjust, reset} adjust again after an initial failure

{v: sibilate} pronounce with an initial sibilant

The initial tease for Baekeland---- Doc Baekeland " to many-was the rising cost of shellac.
贝克兰-许多人称之为 "贝克兰博士 "-首先难以处理的事是紫胶价格的上涨。

Initial heating of the phenol and formaldehyde( in the presence of an acid or base to get the reaction going) produced a shellac-like liquid good for coating surfaces like a varnish.
开始加热,酚和甲醛(需有酸或硷促使其反应进行)便产生了像紫胶样的液体,能像清漆一样涂于物体表面。

There are four kinds of nucleic acids.
共有四种核酸。
I won't try to pronounce their names because my speech synthesizer makes a mess of them.
我就不说它们的名字了,因为我的语音合成器会把它们弄乱的。
But I can refer to them by their initials, C, G, A, and T.
但我可以用它们的首字母来指代,即 C、 G、 A 和 T。

Hutchison Whampoa will have the right to extend operation of the Cristobal and Balboa ports for another 25 years after the initial lease expires.
哈奇森·惠姆波公司将有权在第一次租赁期满后把对克里斯托瓦尔和巴尔博亚港的经营管理权延长 25年。

Initial results of a small safety trial were reported at the Alzheimer's Conference, and Elan's further studies will determine any positive effects the potential treatment might have on the brain.
在阿耳茨海默氏病研讨会报告中提出了小型安全性试验获得的初步结果,埃兰医药公司的进一步研究将定这治疗方案对人脑有哪些积影响。

Why? Its initial line was pricey and somewhat conservative - undercutting Virgin's trendy, value-conscious image established by the airline Virgin Atlantic.
究其原因,是由于 Virgin 最初定价过高而且有点保守──削弱了维珍航空公司建立起来的时髦、高价值的形象。

If, as the initial tests with cDNA probes suggest, peptide hormones really are made in the brain in areas other than the hypothalamus, a theory must be developed that explains their function in the brain.
假若正如对cDNA探子所作的最初测试所表明的那样,肽激素真的是在大脑中下丘脑以外的别处被制造出来的话,那么就必须建立一种理论,以解释它们在大脑中的功能。

The top U.S. military officer, General Richard Meyers, said Thursday an initial look at camp records did not turn up any incident that would confirm the Newsweek report.
美国军方高级将领理查德·迈尔斯将军星期四说,对关塔纳摩湾监狱记录的初步调查没有发现任何可以证实《新闻周刊》报导的情况。

Some of the president's political opponents criticized his initial pledge of $35 million for tsunami victims as too small, given the size and wealth of the United States. Mr. Bush quickly raised that amount to $350 million and says Washington is now helping lead the way to help those affected.
布什总统的一些政治反对派批评说,以美国的财富来看,布什总统最初提出的3千5百万美元海啸援助款项太小。布什很快把援助款项增加到3亿5千万,并表示华盛顿正在救灾行动中起带头作用。

The Thai government says its initial assessment shows overall about five percent of coral reefs have been harmed. The damage is most extensive around South Patong Beach - with 20 percent devastation - and Koh Pai and Rana Bay off Phi Phi Island, which lost almost half the reef.
泰国政府说,初步估计大概有5%的珊瑚礁受到了损害,受损最严重的包括南帕东海滩一带海域与皮皮岛外的科帕依和拉纳湾。 南帕东海滩一带的珊瑚有20%严重受损,而科帕依和拉纳湾的珊瑚礁有一半都毁掉了。

Australia's Foreign Minister Alexander Downer told Australian Broadcasting Corporation Monday Canberra is providing more than $7 million in emergency funds. "The government is prepared to make an initial contribution to assist with relief effort. We might have to provide more than that as time goes on," he said. "Also we have some capacity to deliver fresh water, bottled water, tarpaulins and those kinds of things to assist people."
澳大利亚外长唐纳星期一对“澳大利亚广播公司”说,堪培拉正在提供7百多万美元的紧急基金。唐纳说:“政府已经准备好提供初步捐助,帮助救灾努力。随着时间的发展,我们可能还得提供更多的援助。此外我们还有能力提供淡水、瓶装水、遮雨布等一些救援物资。”

Democrats say they were encouraged by Senator Kerry's aggressiveness on Iraq and initial indications from some voters that they found the Massachusetts Democrat more presidential than he has appeared previously.
民主党人士认为,克里在伊拉克问题上的积极表现使得他们大受鼓舞。来自部分选民的初步印象表明,他们发现这位来自马塞诸塞州的民主党人比他以前表现的更象总统。

After crossing the Florida peninsula and coastal portions of the Gulf of Mexico, Tropical Storm Frances struck the Florida panhandle. Frances, an extremely slow-moving storm caused heavy flooding and at least two deaths in Florida. The storm also caused several deaths in the Bahamas. Initial damage estimates indicate that Frances did not cause the sort of damage that Hurricane Charley inflicted last month in parts of southwest Florida.
热带飓风“弗朗西斯”在越过佛罗里达半岛以及墨西哥湾沿海地区后,袭击了佛罗里达州北部的一个狭长地带。移动极其缓慢的“弗朗西斯”使佛罗里达州洪水严重泛滥,并导致至少两人死亡。另外,这个风暴还在巴哈马造成数人死亡。最初估计的损失情况表明,“弗朗西斯”风暴并没有造成“查利”飓风造成的破坏。“查利”飓风上月袭击佛罗里达西南和中部部分地区。

spsc-85141701
Initial diagnostic assessment
病源诊断

A66.0
Initial lesions of yaws
Chancre of yaws
Framboesia, initial or primary
Initial framboesial ulcer
Mother yaw
莓疹的初期病灶
莓疹的下疳
初期的或原发的莓疹
初期莓疹溃疡
母莓疹

A71.0
Initial stage of trachoma
Trachoma dubium
初期的砂眼
杜宾砂眼

.7
Residual and late-onset psychotic disorder
A disorder in which alcohol- or psychoactive substance-induced changes of cognition,
affect, personality, or behaviour persist beyond the period during which a direct
psychoactive substance-related effect might reasonably be assumed to be operating. Onset
of the disorder should be directly related to the use of the psychoactive substance. Cases
in which initial onset of the state occurs later than episode(s) of such substance use
should be coded here only where clear and strong evidence is available to attribute the
state to the residual effect of the psychoactive substance. Flashbacks may be
distinguished from psychotic state partly by their episodic nature, frequently of very
short duration, and by their duplication of previous alcohol- or other psychoactive
substance-related experiences.
Alcoholic dementia NOS
Chronic alcoholic brain syndrome
Dementia and other milder forms of persisting impairment of cognitive functions
Flashbacks
Late-onset psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorder
Posthallucinogen perception disorder
Residual:
. affective disorder
. disorder of personality and behaviour
Excludes: alcohol- or psychoactive substance-induced:
. Korsakov's syndrome (F10-F19 with common fourth char- acter .6)
. psychotic state (F10-F19 with common fourth character .5)
残馀及晚发精神病症
此病症是因酒精或精神作用物质引起认知、情感、
人格或行为的改变 , 此变化会较原先精神作用质引
起的效果持续续得更久。此病症的发病必须和使用
酒精或精神作用物质直接相关。要有明确及强烈的
证据显示发病是因使用精神作用物质後的残馀效果
时才能归类於此诊断。重现现象 (F1x.70) 与精神病症
是不同的 , 其区别之要点是其短暂性、阵发性、以
及其重覆先前酒精或其他精神作用物质相关之经验

酒精性痴呆症 , 其他未明示者
慢性酒精性脑徵候群
痴呆症与其他轻型持久性认知功能障碍
重现现象
晚发性精神作用物质引起之精神病性疾病
幻觉剂使用後知觉障碍症
残馀性 :
. 情感障碍症
. 人格与行为障碍症
不包含 : 酒精或精神作用物质引起 :
. 柯沙科夫徵候群 (F10-F19 与有第 4 码.6 者 )
. 精神病性状态 (F10-F19 与有第 4 码.5 者 )

F43.0
Acute stress reaction
A transient disorder that develops in an individual without any other apparent mental
disorder in response to exceptional physical and mental stress and that usually subsides
within hours or days. Individual vulnerability and coping capacity play a role in the
occurrence and severity of acute stress reactions. The symptoms show a typically mixed and
changing picture and include an initial state of "daze" with some constriction
of the field of consciousness and narrowing of attention, inability to comprehend stimuli,
and disorientation. This state may be followed either by further withdrawal from the
surrounding situation (to the extent of a dissociative stupor-F44.2), or by agitation
and over-activity (flight reaction or fugue). Autonomic signs of panic anxiety
(tachycardia, sweating, flushing) are commonly present. The symptoms usually appear within
minutes of the impact of the stressful stimulus or event, and disappear within two to
three days (often within hours). Partial or complete amnesia (F44.0) for the episode may
be present. If the symptoms persist, a change in diagnosis should be considered.
Acute:
. crisis reaction
. reaction to stress
Combat fatigue
Crisis state
Psychic shock
急性压力反应
一种短暂的疾病 , 发生於原来无其他精神疾病的人
, 当遇到严重的身体或精神压力时发作 , 但於数小
时或数天内消逝。个体的脆弱性或适应能力在急性
压力反应的发作及严重度扮演重大角色。典型的临
床表现是混合性与多变性的症状 , 包含一开始出现
昏眩并伴随意识的领域紧缩 , 注意力变得窄化 , 失
去理解刺激的能力及定向感障碍等。接下来可能发
生从周遭环境退缩的情形 ( 甚至到达解离性静呆状
态的程度 , 见F44.2) 或是变得激动与过度躁动 ( 逃跑
反应或解离性迷走 ) 。这些症状在压力事件的冲击
後数分钟内即出现 , 而在二至叁天内消失 ( 通常数
小时内 ) , 对此事件可能发生部分或完全失忆 (见F44.0)
。若症状持续则就要考虑诊断之改变。
. 急性危机反应
. 急性压力反应
战斗衰竭症
危机状态
心因性休克

F48.0
Neurasthenia
Considerable cultural variations occur in the presentation of this disorder, and two main
types occur, with substantial overlap. In one type, the main feature is a complaint of
increased fatigue after mental effort, often associated with some decrease in occupational
performance or coping efficiency in daily tasks. The mental fatiguability is typically
described as an unpleasant intrusion of distracting associations or recollections,
difficulty in concentrating, and generally inefficient thinking. In the other type, the
emphasis is on feelings of bodily or physical weakness and exhaustion after only minimal
effort, accompanied by a feeling of muscular aches and pains and inability to relax. In
both types a variety of other unpleasant physical feelings is common, such as dizziness,
tension headaches, and feelings of general instability. Worry about decreasing mental and
bodily well-being, irritability, anhedonia, and varying minor degrees of both depression
and anxiety are all common. Sleep is often disturbed in its initial and middle phases but
hypersomnia may also be prominent.
Fatigue syndrome
Use additional code, if desired, to identify previous physical illness.
Excludes: asthenia NOS (R53)
burn-out (Z73.0)
malaise and fatigue (R53)
postviral fatigue syndrome (G93.3)
psychasthenia (F48.8)
神经衰弱症
此疾患之出现有相当不同的文化背景因素 , 而可见
两类 , 但重叠性高。第一类之主要表现在精神活动
之後抱怨的疲惫感 , 常伴随工作表现或每天日常生
活效率的减低。典型的精神疲惫状况可以时常以侵
入不愉快且不相关的联想、集中注意力困难及完全
无效率的思考等来描述。第二类即强调在稍微活动
之後 , 发生身体衰弱及耗竭感 , 伴随肌肉疼痛及无
法放松。这两类病况常会伴随出现其他各种身体不
舒服的感觉 , 如头晕、紧张性头痛及全身违和的感
觉。担忧心身健康会持续下降、易怒、快乐感缺失
、及轻微程度的焦虑与忧郁等都是常见的。睡眠的
初期及中期常出障碍 , 但可能也有过度睡眠的情况

疲倦徵候群
若先前有其他身体疾病 , 可以加以标示。
不包含 : 无力 , 其他未明示者 (R53)
过劳 (Z73.0)
疲惫 (R53)
病毒感染後疲惫徵候群 (G93.3)
精神衰弱症 (F48.8)

K02.0
Caries limited to enamel
White spot lesions [initial caries]
在牙釉质的蛀牙
白点损害〔起始龋齿〕

Chapter XVIII  第十八章
SYMPTOMS,SIGNS AND ABNORMAL CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FINDINGS, NOT ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED
(R00-R99)
症状、候与他处未归类之临床及实验室检查异常所
见 (ROO-R99)
This chapter includes symptoms,signs,abnormal results of
clinical or other investigative procedures,and ill-defined conditions regarding which no
diagnosis classifiable elsewhere is recorded.
本章包含症状、候与其他章节未归类之临床和检查
结果异常 , 及诊断欠明的病况。
Signs and symptoms that point rather definitely to a given
diagnosis have been assigned to a category in other chapters of the classification. In
general,categories in this chapter include the less well-defined conditions and symptoms
that, without the necessary study of the case to establish a final diagnosis, point
perhaps equally to two or more diseases or to two or more systems of the body. Practically
all categories in the chapter could be designated "not otherwise specified",
"unknown etiology" or "transient " The Alphabetical Index should be
consulted to determine which symptoms and signs are to be allocated here and which to
other chapters. The residual subcategories, numbered .8, are generally provided for other
relevant symptoms that cannot be allocated elsewhere in the classification.
症状与候相当清楚可列入其他章节之疾病诊断时 ,
须列在其他分类章节的范围内。一般来说 , 列在本
章节的分类 , 即表明源於诊断未明的病况 , 含两种
或两种以上多种疾病、多种系统及不需要进一步确
立诊断的病况及候。实际来看 , 本章的范围可视为
一些其他未明示的、病因欠明或暂时性的症状候 ,
可利用索引来查询症状或候所归类之章节。本章以
(.8) 来代表不易归类之相关症状的其他次分类项。
The conditions and signs or symptoms included in categories
R00-R99 consist of: (a) cases for which no more specific diagnosis can be made even after
all the facts bearing on the case have been investigated;(b) signs or symptoms existing at
the time of initial encounter that proved to be transient and whose causes could not be
determined;(c) provisional diagnoses in a patient who failed to return for further
investigation or care;(d) cases referred elsewhere for investigation or treatment before
the diagnosis was made;(e) cases in which a more precise diagnosis was not available for
any other reason; (f) certain symptoms, for which supplementary information is provided,
that represent important problems in medical care in their own right.
病况、症状及候包含在 ROO 至 R99 类项时 , 即包含下列
各种情况 (a) 病人检查後 , 无明示性之诊断 ; (b) 初期
发现且病程短暂及病因无法确认 ; (c) 无法进一步检
查或处理之暂时性诊断 ; (d) 须检查或治疗後才可确
定归类於其他章节的明确诊断 ; (e) 病例无法给予详
细诊断 ; (f) 在重要的医疗问题中症状与候的描述可
给予辅助性的资料时。
Excludes: abnormal findings on antenatal screening of mother
(O28.-)
certain conditions originating in the perinatal period(P00-P96)  
不包含 : 母亲产前检查之异常所见 (O28.-)
源於周产期之病况 (P00-P96)

Z30.0
General counselling and advice on contraception
Family planning advice NOS
Initial prescription of contraceptives
对避孕的一般谘询及建议
其他未明示的家庭计画建议
避孕方法的初次处方

initial contact , beginning of contact 起始啮合点

initial state 初态

initial velocity 初速度

apical initial 顶端原始细胞

marginal initial 边缘原始细胞[见于植物]

initial condition 初始条件

initial deviation 初始偏差

initial load 初负荷

initial phase angle 初相角

initial program loader(IPL) 初始程序的装入程序

initial pulse 始脉冲

initial state 初(始状)态

initial temperature 超始温度

initial unbalance 初始不平衡量

Initial condition 初始条件

initial data 原始数据

Initial estimate 初始估计值

Initial level 最初水平


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