英语学习词典
  

independent

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independent [ indi'pendənt] a.独立的;自主的

independent a. 独立;有主见的

independent [indi'pendənt] 独立

独立董事 independent director

独立核算工业企业 independent accounting unit(enterprise)

廉政公署 Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC)

三十而立 "A man should be independent at the age of thirty.

humble 恭顺的
humorous 幽默的
impartial 公正的
independent 有主见的
industrious 勤奋的
ingenious 有独创性的
initiative 首创精神
have an inquiring mind 爱动脑筋
intellective 有智力的
intelligent 理解力强的
inventive 有发明才能的,有创造力的
just 正直的
kind-hearted 好心的
knowledgeable 有见识的
learned 精通某门学问的
liberal 心胸宽大的
logical 条理分明的
loyal 忠心耿耿的
methodical 有方法的
modest 谦虚的
motivated 目的明确的
objective 客观的
open-minded 虚心的
orderly 守纪律的
original 有独创性的
painstaking 辛勤的,苦干的,刻苦的
practical 实际的
precise 一丝不苟的
persevering 不屈不挠的
punctual 严守时刻的
purposeful 意志坚强的
qualified 合格的
rational 有理性的
realistic 实事求是的
reasonable 讲道理的
reliable 可信赖的
responsible 负责的
self-conscious 自觉的
selfless 无私的
sensible 明白事理的
sincere 真诚的
smart 精明的
spirited 生气勃勃的
sporting 光明正大的
steady 塌实的
straightforward 老实的
strict 严格的
systematic 有系统的
strong-willed 意志坚强的
sweet-tempered 性情温和的
temperate 稳健的
tireless 孜孜不倦的

Independent Study(独立学习):学生独立学完某特定课程或完成某研究课题,从而获得学分。
"独立学习"一般都在指导教师监督下进行,往往是对主修科目成绩优良学生的一种嘉奖。

三十而立
"A man should be independent at the age of thirty.
At thirty, a man should be able to think for himself."

自学成才 to become educated through independent study

Independent Study(独立学习):学生独立学完某特定课程或完成某研究课题,从而获得学分。“独立学习”一般都在指导教师监督下进行,往往是对主修科目成绩优良学生的一种嘉奖。

independent 有主见的

C, ICAC [Commissioner, Independent Commission Against Corruption]
廉政专员

Commissioner, Independent Commission Against Corruption [C, ICAC]
廉政专员

Ethical Leadership in Action--Handbook for Senior Managers in the Civil Service [Independent Commission Against Corruption]
《持廉守正──公务员管理实务手册》〔廉政公署〕

independent body 独立组织

independent candidate 独立候选人

independent commission 独立委员会

Independent Commission Against Corruption [ICAC] 廉政公署〔前称总督特派廉政专员公署〕

Independent Commission on Remuneration for Members of the Provisional Legislative Council 临时立法会议员薪津委员会

Independent Monitoring Team [Assessment Office] 特派监察团〔民意审核专员办事处〕

independent statutory authority 独立法定组织

Although many experts from universities and institutes consistently maintain that it is an inevitable part of an independent life, parents in growing numbers are starting to realize that people, including teachers and experts in education, should pay considerable attention to this problem.
尽管来自高校和研究院的许多专家坚持认为这是独立生活不可避免的一部分,然而越来越多的家长开始意识到包括教师和教育专家在内的人们应该认真对待这一问题。

IOC independent operating company 自主营业公司

国际独立油船东协会 International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (INTERTANKO)

State-owned independent accounting industrial enterprises 国有独立核算企业

独立悬架式驱动桥
independent suspension drive axle

独立悬架
independent suspension

War is an aggressive action of man to man independent of his own will.
战争是人对人的侵略行为,不为其自身意志左右。

Essentially, the research of Natural Language Understanding should be independent of any specific language.
自然语言理解研究本质上应当是独立于具体的语言的。

She is very independent and lives all alone.
她自食其力,独自生活。

A survey of retired people has indicated that most are independent and enjoying life.
对退休人员的调查表明,他们多数都生活自立,在安享晚年。

Tolstoy reversed all preconceptions and in every reversal he overthrew the “ system”, the “ machine”, the externally ordained belief, the conventional behaviour in favor of unsystematic, impulsive life, of inward motivation and the solutions of independent thought.
托尔斯泰推翻了所有预想,每一次他都抛弃了“系统”和“机械”的东西,外部规定的信念,情绪冲动的生活和非系统的传统行为,内部激励和独立思考的解决方案。

A What about you? What are your career plans?
A 你呢?你的事业计划是什么?
B I’ve got lots of thoughts and ideas. Most of all, I’d like to start my own business.
B 我有很多的想法。大多数的想法是,我想开创自己的生意。
A Doing what? What kind of business?
A 做什么?做哪一行?
B I’m doing a lot of fashion design at the moment. Designing new clothes and so on. I’d like to sell my designs and the clothes I make.
B 我目前在做服装设计。设计新衣服等等。我想卖自己设计和制作的服装。
A That sounds great. I think you should really try and make a business out of that.
A 听起来好极了。 我想你确实应该尝试开创这样的事业。
B I think it would be so good to be independent and have your own business.
B 我想独立自主,有自己的生意是非常好的。

A What about you? What are your career plans?
A 那么你呢?你有什么今后的职业打算吗?
B I’m not sure at the moment, but I think I’d like to start my own business.
B 我现在还不确定, 但是我想我会建立自己的经营。
A What kind of business?
A 什么样的经营呢?
B I don’t know yet. I just want to be independent.
B 我还不确定。我就是希望它是独立的。

I would like to be my own boss.
我希望自己是老板。
I would like a new career.
我希望有一样新的职业。
I’d like a change of direction.
我希望变个方向。
I’d like to be more independent.
我希望可以更独立。

How much more profitable for the independent mind, after the mere rudiments of education , to range through a library at random, taking down books as the mother wit suggests!
John Henry, British Cardinal Newman 
受到初步的基础教育之后,对于愿意独立思考的人来说,在图书馆里信手取下一本书来,根据个人的天赋随意涉猎,这该是多大的好处啊!
英国纽曼红衣主教享利J 

be independent of 脱离…而独立,与…无关

不须依赖 independent

独 [dú] /alone/independent/single/sole/only/

独立 [dú lì] /to be independent/to stand alone/

独立选民 [dú lì xuǎn mín] /independent voter/

无党派 [wú dǎng pài] /politically unaffiliated/independent (candidate)/

Straitford, says Friedman, takes pride in its independent voice.
弗莱德曼说,司特雷福公司为其独立的声音而感到自豪。

When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly.
当一个苏格兰研究小组透露三个月前他们克隆了一只成年绵羊时,世界为之震惊,克林顿总统迅速做出反应。
Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.
他宣称反对利用这种非同寻常的畜牧业技术去克隆人,并下令禁止使用联邦资金做这样的实验——尽管还没有人提议要那样做——并责成成立一个由普林斯顿大学校长哈罗德·夏皮罗为首的独立专家小组,在90天内拿出有关克隆人的国家政策的建议,向白宫汇报。

{adj: affiliated, attached, connected} being joined in close association
"affiliated clubs"
"all art schools whether independent or attached to universities"

{adj: analytic, analytical} of a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience
"`all spinsters are unmarried' is an analytic proposition"
<-> synthetic

{adj: automatic} operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control
"automatic transmission"
"a budget deficit that caused automatic spending cuts"
<-> manual

{adj: autonomous, independent, self-governing, sovereign} (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces
"an autonomous judiciary"
"a sovereign state"

{adj: autonomous} existing as an independent entity
"the partitioning of India created two separate and autonomous jute economies"

{adj: autosemantic} of a word or phrase meaningful in isolation, independent of context

{adj: commutative} (of a binary operation) independent of order; as in e.g. "a x b = b x a"

{adj: dependent, subordinate} (of a clause) unable to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence
"a subordinate (or dependent) clause functions as a noun or adjective or adverb within a sentence"
<-> independent

{adj: dependent} not independent
"dependent children"
<-> independent

{adj: ergodic} positive recurrent aperiodic state of stochastic systems; tending in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions

{adj: independent, main} (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence
"the main (or independent) clause in a complex sentence has at least a subject and a verb"
<-> dependent

{adj: independent} free from external control and constraint
"an independent mind"
"a series of independent judgments"
"fiercely independent individualism"
"an independent republic"
<-> dependent

{adj: independent} not contingent

{adj: independent} not controlled by a party or interest group

{adj: independent} not dependent on or conditioned by or relative to anything else

{adj: irregular, maverick, unorthodox} independent in behavior or thought
"she led a somewhat irregular private life"
"maverick politicians"

{adj: polymorphic, polymorphous} relating to the occurrence of more than one kind of individual (independent of sexual differences) in an interbreeding population
"a polymorphic species"

{adj: polyphonic, contrapuntal} having two or more independent but harmonically related melodic parts sounding together
<-> monophonic

{adj: self-contained} constituting a complete and independent unit in and of itself
"the university is like a self-contained city with shops and all amenities"

{adj: self-supporting} financially independent
"now that my children are self-supporting"

{adj: separate} independent; not united or joint
"a problem consisting of two separate issues"
"they went their separate ways"
"formed a separate church"
<-> joint

{adj: smart} capable of independent and apparently intelligent action
"smart weapons"

{adv: above all, most importantly, most especially} above and beyond all other consideration
"above all, you must be independent"

{adv: actually, really} in actual fact
"to be nominally but not actually independent"
"no one actually saw the shark"
"large meteorites actually come from the asteroid belt"

{n: Alamo} a siege and massacre at a mission in San Antonio in 1836; Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico

{n: Ansar al Islam, Ansar al-Islam, Supporters of Islam} a radical Islamic group of terrorists in the Iraqi part of Kurdistan who oppose an independent secular nation as advocated by the United States; some members fought with the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan; said to receive financial support from Saddam Hussein

{n: Arab League} an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperation

{n: Armenian Church, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church} an independent Christian church established in Armenia since 300; was influenced by both Roman and Byzantine traditions

{n: Basque Homeland and Freedom, Basque Fatherland and Liberty, Euskadi ta Askatasuna, ETA} a terrorist organization organized in 1959 by student activists who were dissatisfied with the moderate nationalism of the traditional Basque party; want to create on independent homeland in Spain's western Pyrenees
"in 1968 ETA launched a campaign of political assassinations of government officials"

{n: Botswana, Republic of Botswana} a landlocked republic in south-central Africa that became independent from British control in the 1960s

{n: Brunei, Negara Brunei Darussalam} a sultanate in northwestern Borneo; became independent of Great Britain in 1984

{n: Bujumbura, Usumbura, capital of Burundi} the capital and largest city of Burundi
"Usumbura was renamed Bujumbura when Burundi became independent in 1962"

{n: Cabombaceae, subfamily Cabombaceae, water-shield family} in some classifications considered an independent family of water lilies; comprises the genera Cabomba and Brasenia

{n: Central African Republic, Central Africa} a landlocked country in central Africa; formerly under French control; became independent in 1960

{n: Central Intelligence Agency, CIA} an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest; headed by the Director of Central Intelligence under the supervision of the President and National Security Council

{n: Commonwealth of Independent States, CIS} an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in Dec 1991

{n: Croatia, Republic of Croatia, Hrvatska} a republic in the western Balkans in south-central Europe in the eastern Adriatic coastal area; formerly part of the Habsburg monarchy and Yugoslavia; became independent in 1991

{n: Darfur} an impoverished region of western Sudan
"Darfur was a semi-independent sultanate until 1917 and is ethnically distinct from central Sudan"

{n: Djibouti, Republic of Djibouti, Afars and Issas} a country in northeastern Africa on the Somali peninsula; formerly under French control but became independent in 1997

{n: East Timor} a former Portuguese colony that was annexed by Indonesia in 1976; voted for independence from Indonesia in 1999 and in May 2002 became an independent nation

{n: Ecuador, Republic of Ecuador} a republic in northwestern South America; became independent from Spain in 1822; the landscape is dominated by the Andes

{n: Eelam, Tamil Eelam} the independent state that the Tamil Tigers have fought for

{n: Environmental Protection Agency, EPA} an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment

{n: Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Equitorial Guinea, Spanish Guinea} a country of west central Africa (including islands in the Gulf of Guinea); became independent from Spain in 1968

{n: Federal Communications Commission, FCC} an independent government agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite

{n: Federal Emergency Management Agency, FEMA} an independent agency of the United States government that provides a single point of accountability for all federal emergency preparedness and mitigation and response activities

{n: Federal Trade Commission, FTC} an independent agency of the United States federal government that maintains fair and free competition; enforces federal antitrust laws; educates the public about identity theft

{n: Fiji, Republic of Fiji} an independent state within the British Commonwealth located on the Fiji Islands

{n: Georgia, Sakartvelo} a republic in Asia Minor on the Black Sea separated from Russia by the Caucasus mountains; formerly an Asian soviet but became independent in 1991

{n: Government Accounting Office, GAO, United States Government Accounting Office} an independent nonpartisan federal agency that acts as the investigative arm of Congress making the executive branch accountable to Congress and the government accountable to citizens of the United States

{n: Grenada} an island state in the West Indies in the southeastern Caribbean Sea; an independent state within the British Commonwealth

{n: Guadalcanal} a mountainous island; the largest of the Solomon Islands in the independent state that is a member of the British Commonwealth

{n: Guinea-Bissau, Republic of Guinea-Bissau, Guine-Bissau, Portuguese Guinea} a republic on the northwestern coast of Africa; recognized as independent by Portugal in 1974

{n: Hanseatic League} a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669

{n: Heaviside, Oliver Heaviside} English physicist and electrical engineer who helped develop telegraphic and telephonic communications; in 1902 (independent of A. E. Kennelly) he suggested the existence of an atmospheric layer that reflects radio waves back to earth (1850-1925)

{n: Hejaz, Hedjaz, Hijaz} a coastal region of the western Arabian Peninsula bordering on the Red Sea; includes both Mecca and Medina; formerly an independent kingdom until it united with Nejd to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

{n: Homeland Security, Office of Homeland Security} an independent agency established by and accountable to the President in 2001; develops and implements a national strategy to make the United States safe from terrorist threats or attacks

{n: Iceland, Republic of Iceland} an island republic on the island of Iceland; became independent of Denmark in 1944

{n: Interstate Commerce Commission, ICC} a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states; was terminated in 1995
"the ICC was established in 1887 as the first federal agency"

{n: Irish Republican Army, IRA, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Provisional IRA, Provos} a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland

{n: Jamaica} a country on the island of Jamaica; became independent of England in 1962; much poverty; the major industry is tourism

{n: Java} a simple platform-independent object-oriented programming language used for writing applets that are downloaded from the World Wide Web by a client and run on the client's machine

{n: Kenyata, Jomo Kenyata} Kenyan statesman and the first president of independent Kenya (1893-1978)

{n: Kurdistan Workers Party, Kurdistan Labor Pary, Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan, PPK} a Marxist-Leninist terrorist group of Kurds trying to establish an independent Kurdish state in eastern Turkey

{n: Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Kirghizia, Kirgizia, Kirghiz, Kirgiz, Kirghizstan, Kirgizstan} a landlocked republic in west central Asia bordering on northwestern China; formerly an Asian soviet but became independent in 1991

{n: Lateran Treaty} the agreement signed in the Lateran Palace in 1929 by Italy and the Holy See which recognized the Vatican City as a sovereign and independent papal state

{n: Leibniz, Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz} German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton (1646-1716)

{n: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, LTTE, Tamil Tigers, Tigers, World Tamil Association, World Tamil Movement} a terrorist organization in Sri Lanka that began in 1970 as a student protest over the limited university access for Tamil students; currently seeks to establish an independent Tamil state called Eelam; relies on guerilla strategy including terrorist tactics that target key government and military personnel
"the Tamil Tigers perfected suicide bombing as a weapon of war"

{n: Lichenes, division Lichenes} comprising the lichens which grow symbiotically with algae; sometimes treated as an independent group more or less coordinate with algae and fungi

{n: Makarios III} Greek Orthodox bishop and archbishop of Cyprus and the first president of independent Cyprus (1913-1977)

{n: Masa} an independent group of closely related Chadic languages spoken in the area between the Biu-Mandara and East Chadic languages

{n: Mazzini, Giuseppe Mazzini} Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)

{n: Mexico, United Mexican States} a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810

{n: Minsk, capital of Belarus} the capital of Belarus and of the Commonwealth of Independent States

{n: Moro Islamic Liberation Front} a terrorist group in the southern Philippines formed in 1977 to establish an independent Islamic state for the Moros; have clashed with troops at United States bases

{n: Mozambique, Republic of Mozambique, Mocambique} a republic on the southeastern coast of Africa on the Mozambique Channel; became independent from Portugal in 1975

{n: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA} an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight

{n: National Archives and Records Administration, NARA} the independent agency that oversees management of federal government records including presidential libraries and historic collections

{n: National Labor Relations Board, NLRB} an independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions

{n: National Science Foundation, NSF} an independent agency of the federal government responsible for the promotion of progress in science and engineering by supporting programs in research and education

{n: Negritude} an ideological position that holds Black culture to be independent and valid on its own terms; an affirmation of the African cultural heritage

{n: Nejd, Najd} a central plateau region of the Arabian Peninsula; formerly an independent sultanate until 1932 when it united with Hejaz to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

{n: Nelumbonaceae, subfamily Nelumbonaceae} in some classifications considered an independent family of water lilies; comprises the single genus Nelumbo

{n: New Zealand} an independent country within the British Commonwealth; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1907; known for sheep and spectacular scenery

{n: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC} an independent federal agency created in 1974 to license and regulate nuclear power plants

{n: Paderewski, Ignace Paderewski, Ignace Jan Paderewski} Polish pianist who in 1919 served as the first Prime Minister of independent Poland (1860-1941)

{n: Palestine Liberation Organization, PLO} a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine; when formed in 1964 it was a terrorist organization dominated by Yasser Arafat's al-Fatah; in 1968 Arafat became chairman; received recognition by the United Nations and by Arab states in 1974 as a government in exile; has played a largely political role since the creation of the Palestine National Authority

{n: Papua New Guinea, Independent State of Papua New Guinea} a parliamentary democracy on the eastern half of the island of New Guinea

{n: Pius XI, Achille Ratti, Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti} pope who signed a treaty with Mussolini recognizing the Vatican City as an independent state (1857-1939)

{n: Platonism, realism} (philosophy) the philosophical doctrine that abstract concepts exist independent of their names

{n: Postal Rate Commission} an independent federal agency that recommends changes in postal rates

{n: Russia, Russian Federation} a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia; formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state

{n: Russian Orthodox Church} an independent church with its own Patriarch; until 1917 it was the established church or Russia

{n: Samoa, Independent State of Samoa, Western Samoa, Samoa i Sisifo} a constitutional monarchy on the western part of the islands of Samoa in the South Pacific

{n: San Marino, Republic of San Marino} the smallest republic in the world; the oldest independent country in Europe (achieved independence in 301); located in the Apennines and completely surrounded by Italy

{n: Securities and Exchange Commission, SEC} an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors

{n: Selective Service, Selective Service System, SSS} an independent federal agency that administers compulsory military service

{n: Small Business Administration, SBA} an independent agency of the United States government that protects the interests of small businesses and ensures that they receive a fair share of government contracts

{n: Social Security Administration, SSA} an independent government agency responsible for the social security system

{n: Solomon Islands} the southern Solomon Islands that since 1978 form an independent state in the British Commonwealth

{n: Solomons, Solomon Islands} the northernmost islands are part of Papua New Guinea; the remainder form an independent state within the British Commonwealth

{n: Sri Lanka, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Ceylon} a republic on the island of Ceylon; became independent of the United Kingdom in 1948

{n: Taxodiaceae, subfamily Taxodiaceae, redwood family} coniferous trees; traditionally considered an independent family though recently included in Cupressaceae in some classification systems

{n: Tuvalu} a small island republic on the Tuvalu islands; formerly part of the British colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands until it withdrew in 1975 and became independent of the United Kingdom in 1978

{n: United Nations, UN} an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

{n: United States Post Office, US Post Office, Post Office, PO} an independent agency of the federal government responsible for mail delivery (and sometimes telecommunications) between individuals and businesses in the United States

{n: United States Postal Service, US Postal Service, USPS} an independent federal agency that provides mail processing and delivery service for individuals and businesses in the United States

{n: Vanuatu, Republic of Vanuatu, New Hebrides} a volcanic island republic in Melanesia; independent since 1980

{n: absolute space} physical space independent of what occupies it

{n: argument} a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable

{n: article} nonfictional prose forming an independent part of a publication

{n: bhakti} (Hinduism) loving devotion to a deity leading to salvation and Nirvana; open to all persons independent of caste or sex

{n: binomial distribution, Bernoulli distribution} a theoretical distribution of the number of successes in a finite set of independent trials with a constant probability of success

{n: blue ribbon commission, blue ribbon committee} an independent and exclusive commission of nonpartisan statesmen and experts formed to investigate some important governmental issue

{n: cell} (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals

{n: city, metropolis, urban center} a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts
"Ancient Troy was a great city"

{n: compound sentence} a sentence composed of at least two coordinate independent clauses

{n: content word, open-class word} a word to which an independent meaning can be assigned

{n: decolonization, decolonisation} the action of changing from colonial to independent status

{n: dependent variable} (statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable; if f(x)=y, y is the dependent variable

{n: differential calculus, method of fluxions} the part of calculus that deals with the variation of a function with respect to changes in the independent variable (or variables) by means of the concepts of derivative and differential

{n: dimorphism} (biology) the existence of two forms of individual within the same animal species (independent of sex differences)

{n: domain} the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined

{n: emir, amir, emeer, ameer} an independent ruler or chieftain (especially in Africa or Arabia)

{n: ergodicity} an attribute of stochastic systems; generally, a system that tends in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions

{n: expletive} a word or phrase conveying no independent meaning but added to fill out a sentence or metrical line

{n: exponential, exponential function} a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent

{n: extinction, experimental extinction} a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus

{n: factor} an independent variable in statistics

{n: freelance, independent, self-employed person} a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them

{n: gas} a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely

{n: homeotherm, homoiotherm, homotherm} an animal that has a body temperature that is relatively constant and independent of the environmental temperature

{n: independent agency} an agency of the United States government that is created by an act of Congress and is independent of the executive departments

{n: independent variable, experimental variable} (statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables

{n: indie} an independent film company not associated with an established studio

{n: individualist} a person who pursues independent thought or action

{n: inverse function} the function obtained by expressing the dependent variable of one function as the independent variable of another; f and g are inverse functions if f(x)=y and g(y)=x

{n: law of independent assortment} each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

{n: limit, limit point, point of accumulation} the mathematical value toward which a function goes as the independent variable approaches infinity

{n: main clause, independent clause} a clause in a complex sentence that can stand alone as a complete sentence

{n: mugwump, independent, fencesitter} a neutral or uncommitted person (especially in politics)

{n: part music} vocal music for several voices in independent parts (usually performed without accompaniment)

{n: polymorphism} (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences)

{n: public school} private independent secondary school in Great Britain supported by endowment and tuition

{n: run-on sentence} an ungrammatical sentence in which two or more independent clauses are conjoined without a conjunction

{n: semicolon} a punctuation mark (`;') used to connect independent clauses; indicates a closer relation than does a period

{n: severable contract} a contract in which in the event of a breach by one of the parties can be considered as several independent agreements expressed in a single instrument

{n: sheep} a docile and vulnerable person who would rather follow than make an independent decision
"his students followed him like sheep"

{n: split personality, multiple personality} a relatively rare dissociative disorder in which the usual integrity of the personality breaks down and two or more independent personalities emerge

{n: spoonfeeding} teaching in an overly simplified way that discourages independent thought

{n: system, scheme} a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole
"a vast system of production and distribution and consumption keep the country going"

{n: tax haven} a country or independent region where taxes are low

{n: trust, corporate trust, combine, cartel} a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
"they set up the trust in the hope of gaining a monopoly"

{n: union} a political unit formed from previously independent people or organizations
"the Soviet Union"

{n: worldly concern, earthly concern, world, earth} the concerns of this life as distinguished from heaven and the afterlife
"they consider the church to be independent of the world"

{v: co-opt} neutralize or win over through assimilation into an established group
"We co-opted the independent minority tribes by pulling them into the Northern Alliance"

{v: syndicate} sell articles, television programs, or photos to several publications or independent broadcasting stations

He was elected on an independent ticket as a campaigning candidate for the electorate of Tatton, protesting the alleged irregular behaviour of sitting MP Neil Hamilton.
他以独立身份入选作为塔顿选举团竞选活动的候选人,抗议竞选连任的下议院议员尼尔·汉密尔顿有所谓的非法行为。

" Cisco is so far ahead digitally, " says Paul Saffo of the Institute for the Future, an independent Silicon Valley research firm,?? " no other company even comes close. "
思科公司在数字化方面远远走在了前面,硅谷的一家独立研究公司──未来研究所的保罗·萨弗说,其他任何公司都无法与之相比。

The company announced it would spin off an independent subsidiary, Legend Technology( recently renamed Legend Digital China), to handle the company's e-commerce and systems-integration activities.
公司宣布将成立一家独立的分公司联想科技(最近改名为联想神州数码公司),负责公司的电子商务和系统集成业务。

Now in Japan there is excitement about dotcoms and video phones, to be sure, but also about dramatic changes in the way people do business that could eventually usher in an era of new, independent entrepreneurs and dismantle the old-boy network.
现在,商业网站及视频电话的确让日本人激动万分,但商业经营方式的巨变也同样令他们兴奋不已。这可能会引领日本进入一个新时代,一个以独立企业家为代表的时代,而那种陈旧的任人唯亲的工商业网络时代将成为历史。

In common with earlier independent horror classics like Night of the Living Dead and The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, the new film makes a virtue of its seeming artlessness.
与以前独立制片人拍摄的经典恐怖片(如《生死之夜》、《德克萨斯大屠杀案》)相同的是,该片将表面看来极为普通的摄影技巧发挥到了极至。

The bizarre independent horror films seem unmitigated and out of control.
在这方面,那些由独立制片人拍摄的情节古怪的恐怖片似乎有一种一发而不可收的趋向。

The country has an obesity management system that includes five regional centers for obesity management, around 40 independent obesity specialists, counseling centers and weight-reduction clubs.
这个国家拥有一个肥胖症治疗体系,下属有五个地区级肥胖症治疗中心、大约 40名独立营业的肥胖症诊治专家以及许多咨询中心和减肥俱乐部。

While they do this very efficiently, the same task could be performed by swarms of independent thunderstorms.
虽然这些机器这样做很有效率,但大量独立的风暴也会产生同样的效果。

Initially the Vinaver theory that Malory's eight romances, once thought to be fundamentally unified, were in fact eight independent works produced both a sense of relief and an unpleasant shock.
最初,维纳弗(Vinaver)的理论,即马洛礼(Malory)的八部罗曼司——曾经被认为根本上完整统一的——事实上却是八部互为独立的作品,既产生了一种轻慰感,又产了一种令人不愉快的惊愕。

Looking at novels written by Blacks over the last eighty years, he discovers recurring concerns and designs independent of chronology.
他审视了最近八十年中由黑人创作的小说,揭示出那些独立于年代的反复出现的小说侧重点和架构。

In physics, subject and object were supposed to be entirely distinct, so that a description of any part of the universe would be independent of the observer.
在物理学中,主体和客体被假定为绝然互不相关的,因此,对宇宙的任何一个部分进行描述,终将独立于观察者。

Two relatively recent independent developments stand behind the current major research effort on nitrogen fixation, the process by which bacteria symbiotically render leguminous plants independent of nitrogen fertilizer.
两项相对近期且互为独立的事态发展激励了研究者目前对固氮作用(nitrogenfixation)进行重大的研究努力,而所谓固氮作用,是指细菌通过这一过程,以共生关系的手段,致使豆科植物独立于氮肥。

Hence, the widely quoted conclusion was reached that bacterial chemosynthesis provides the foundation for hydrothermal- vent food chains—an exciting prospect because no other communities on Earth are independent of photosynthesis.
因此,一个广被援引的结论使告得出,即细菌化学合成给热液口的食物链提供了基础——这不啻是一个令人兴奋的前景,因为地球上没有任何其他动物群落可独立于光合作用。

On the sidelines of the festivities, President Putin will oversee a weekend summit Sunday of leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent states - a grouping of former Soviet republics. He also hosts an EU-Russia Summit on Tuesday. Mr. Putin is also to hold talks with President Bush, who, U.S. officials say, will continue to stress U.S. concerns about democracy in Russia.
除了庆祝活动以外,普京总统将主持星期天召开的独联体国家首脑会议,这些都是前苏联加盟共和国。普京总统星期二还要主持欧盟同俄罗斯的高峰会。普京还会和布什总统会面。据美国官员透露,布什将继续向普京表达美国对俄罗斯实施民主的关切。

The delegation spent the day in meetings with Iraq's interim prime minister, and other government officials. They also met with U.S. Lieutenant General David Petraeus, who is heading the effort to create an independent Iraqi security force.
代表团在访问的第一天会晤了伊拉克临时政府总理和其他政府官员。他们还会晤了负责建立独立的伊拉克安全部队的美国的彼得雷乌斯中将。

Much of the president's speech focused on continuing to spread freedom because he says if whole regions of the world remain in despair and grow in hatred, they will be recruiting ground for terror. "The United States has no right, no desire, and no intention to impose our form of government on anyone else. That is one of the main differences between us and our enemies," he said. "They seek to impose and expand an empire of oppression, in which a tiny group of brutal, self-appointed rulers control every aspect of every life. Our aim is to build and preserve a community of free and independent nations, with governments that answer to their citizens, and reflect their own cultures."
布什总统的国情咨文大部份篇幅集中谈论继续在全世界推行民主,因为他说,假如全世界所有地区继续处于绝望跟仇恨不断增长的状态,就会为恐怖组织创造招募恐怖分子的温床。布什说:“美国没有权利、没有欲望、也没有意图把我们的政府形式强加给任何人,这是我们跟我们的敌人之间的一个主要区别。他们试图把压迫帝国推广,并强加于人。在他们的压迫帝国里,少数攫取权力的残暴统治者控制着人们生活的各个方面。我们的目标是建立并保持自由独立国家的群体,让政府对人民负责,并反映他们的文化。”

At his meeting with Mr. Powell, the new Ukrainian leader said his country's political breakthrough would not have happened without support from outside partners with shared values including the United States. But, Mr. Yushchenko stressed that Ukraine's new democracy is home-grown and independent.
这位乌克兰新领导人在与鲍威尔国务卿会晤时说,如果没有来自包括美国在内价值观一致的外在伙伴的支持,乌克兰的政治突破是不可能发生的。但是尤先科强调说,乌克兰新的民主制度是土生土长的、独立的。

"We fully support the independent Iraqi Election Commission timetable of January 30 for holding those elections,” he said. “It is important that we continue to move forward on all fronts, to help the Iraqi people realize a better future, a future that stands in stark contrast to the one of the brutal regime of Saddam Hussein."
迈克莱伦说:“我们完全支持独立的伊拉克选举委员会制定的一月三十号举行选举的时间表。我们继续在各个方面向前推进,帮助伊拉克人民实现更加美好的未来,实现一个同昔日萨达姆残暴政权具有天壤之别的未来。这是很重要的。”

Two years later, Mr. Arafat became the first elected president of the Palestinian Authority, the closest he would come to fulfilling his dream of presiding over an independent Palestinian state. Still, he remained convinced there would be a Palestinian state with or without him."We want achievement of the peace of courageous people to end this long suffering in order to build an independent nation having a lot of democracy and caring for its children and where laughter is heard of happy, healthy kids," he said.
两年后,阿拉法特成为巴勒斯坦民族权力机构的第一位经过选举产生的总统。这几乎已经接近实现他的梦想,那就是,统治一个独立的巴勒斯坦国。他坚信,不管有没有他,终将出现一个巴勒斯坦国。阿拉法特说:“我们希望勇敢的人民获得和平,结束这长期的苦难,建立一个独立的国家。在这个国家里,人民拥有许多民主,儿童得到照顾,到处可以听到幸福、健康的孩子们的欢声笑语。”

Independent analyst Stuart Rothenberg says on that issue, Senator Kerry may have scored some points."People who went in watching this debate with the assumption that the president would come off much better on national security may have seen the candidates pretty evenly matched and might have said, 'Whoa, Senator John Kerry looks pretty resolute, maybe I ought to give him another look'," he said.
独立分析人士罗森伯格认为在这个方面,克里的表现可能已经得到了部分成功。他说:“去看辩论的人有一种想法,认为布什总统可能在国家安全问题方面会表现更好一些。但是,他们也许看出两位候选人在这个问题上势均力敌。也许,他们会说:‘哇,克里参议员看起来相当的有决心,也许我应该再看一看他。

IA 各别调价 Independent Action

spsc-42210000
Independent living aids for the physically challenged
康复训练独立生活辅助器

spsc-60105400
Consumer economics and money management and independent living instructional materials
消费者经济学、货币管理学和独立生活指导材料

spsc-60105403
Independent living instructional materials
独立生活指导材料

spsc-60106003
Home economics independent study projects
家庭经济独立学习计划

Chapter II 第二章
Neoplasms (C00-D48)
肿瘤 ( C00-D48 )
This chapter contains the following broad groups of neoplasms:
本章含下列各大群的肿瘤 :
C00-C75
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified
sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue
肯定或推测为原发性恶性肿瘤 ( 淋巴、造血或其相
关组织除外 )
C76-C80
Malignant neoplasms, of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites
未明示、续发性及未特定之恶性肿瘤
C81-C96
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of lymphoid,
haematopoietic and related tissue
淋巴、造血和相关组织肯定或推测为原发性恶性肿

C97
Malignant neoplasms of independent (primary)multiple sites
独立 ( 原发 ) 的多发部位之恶性肿瘤
D00-D09
In situ neoplasms
原位肿瘤
D10-D36
Benign neoplasms
良性肿瘤
D37-D48
Neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behaviour [see note, page 240]
未确定和不知作用的肿瘤〔参考第 240 页注解〕

3.
Morphology
There are a number of major morphological (histological) groups of malignant neoplasms:
carcinomas including squamous (cell) and adenocarcinomas; sarcomas; other soft tissue
tumours including mesotheliomas; lymphomas (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's); leukaemia; other
specified and site-specific types; and unspecified cancers. Cancer is a generic term and
may be used for any of the above groups, although it is rarely applied to the malignant
neoplasms of lymphatic, haematopoietic and related tissue. "Carcinoma" is
sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for "cancer".
In Chapter Ⅱ neoplasms are classified predominantly by site within broad groupings for
behaviour. In a few exceptional cases morphology is indicated in the category and
subcategory titles. For those wishing to identify the histological type of neoplasm,
comprehensive separate morphology codes are provided on pages 1177-1204.
These morphology codes are derived from the second edition of International Classification
of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), which is a dual-axis classification providing
independent coding systems for topography and morphology.
Morphology codes have six digits: the first four digits identify the histological type;
the fifth digit is the behaviour code (malignant primary, malignant secondary
(metastatic), in situ, benign, uncertain whether malignant or benign); and the sixth digit
is a grading code (differentiation) for solid tumours, and is also used as a special code
for lymphomas and leukaemias.
形态学
恶性肿瘤在形态学上 ( 组织学上 ) 主要分为 : 癌 ,
含鳞状细胞及腺癌 ; 恶性肉瘤 ; 其他软组织肿瘤 (
含间皮细胞瘤 ) ; 淋巴瘤 ( 何杰金和非何杰金氏 )
; 白血病 ; 其他明示和部位明示类型 ; 和未明示癌
。癌是总称名词 , 可用於上述任何群 , 虽然很少用
於淋巴、造血和相关组织的肿瘤 , 癌瘤 ( Carcinoma ) 与癌
( Cancer ) 并非同义字。
在第二章肿瘤主要以部位分类 , 常包括广泛而行为
不同之肿瘤。只有少数的例外 , 其型态学被明示在
分项标题中。若欲确认肿瘤组织学之类型 , 可参考
第 1177-1204 页内完整的形态学码。
这些形态学码源引自第二版的国际肿瘤疾病分类 (
ICD-O ) , 用二轴分类来提供解剖和形态学独立码系统

形态学码有六个位码 , 前四个位码为组织学上分类
, 第五个位码是性态码 ( 原发恶性 , 续发恶性 ( 转
移 ) , 原位 , 良性 , 未确定是否恶性或良性 ) , 第
六个位码是固体肿瘤等级码 ( 分化 ) , 并常用为淋
巴瘤和白血病的特殊码。

MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS OF INDEPENDENT
(PRIMARY) MULTIPLE SITES(C97)
独立性 ( 原发性 ) 多发部位的恶性肿瘤 ( C97 )

C97
Malignant neoplasms of independent (primary) multiple sites
Note: For use of this category, reference should be made to the mortality coding rules and
guidelines in Volume 2.
独立性 ( 原发性 ) 多发部位的恶性肿瘤
注 : 利用此分类 , 可参考第二册内的死亡率登录原
则及指示

F33
Recurrent depressive disorder
A disorder characterized by repeated episodes of depression as described for depressive
episode (F32.-), without any history of independent episodes of mood elevation and
increased energy (mania). There may however, be brief episodes of mild mood elevation and
overactivity (hypomania) immediately after a depressive episode, sometimes precipitated by
antidepressant treatment. The more severe forms of recurrent depressive disorder (F33.2
and F33.3) have much in common with earlier concepts such as manic-depressive depression,
melancholia vital depression and endogenous depression. The first episode may occur at any
age from childhood to old age, the onset may be either acute or insidious, and the
duration varies from a few weeks to many months. The risk that a patient with recurrent
depressive disorder will have an episode of mania never disappears completely, however
many depressive episodes have been experienced. If such an episode does occur, the
diagnosis should be changed to bipolar affective disorder (F31 .-).
Includes: recurrent episodes of:
. depressive reaction
. psychogenic depression


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