英语学习词典
  

fundamental

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fundamental [ fʌndə'mentl] a.基础的,基本的

fundamental [fʌndə'mentl] a.基本的,根本的

根本政治制度 fundamental political system

基本国情 fundamental realities of the country

三个代表 three represents theory (The Party should always represent the development needs of China's advanced social productive forces, always represent the onward direction of China's advanced culture, and always represent the fundamental interests of the largest member of the Chinese people.)

基础科学 the fundamentals

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 《欧洲保障人权与基本自由公约》

European Convention on Human Rights [Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms] 《欧洲人权公约》

fundamental policy 基本方针政策

基础数学 Fundamental Mathematics

一般力学与力学基础 General and Fundamental Mechanics

法律基础 Fundamentals of Law

Fundamental accounting equation 基本会计恒等式

基波(分量)
fundamental (component)

Three fundamental truths without a recognition of which there can be no effective liberty: that what we believe is not necessarily true; that what we like is not necessarily good; and that all questions are open.
有三条基本真理,如果不承认就不会有实在的自由:我们相信的未必真实,我们喜爱的未必美好,一切问题都无定论。

There will be fundamental changes in the way the school is run.
办学的方式将会发生根本变化。

There is a fundamental difference between the Japanese approach and the American one.
日、美方式之间有着根本区别。

To learn obeying is the fundamental art of governing.
学会顺从是管理的基本艺术。

Fundamental frequency 基频

The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them.
Bretrand Rrssell, British philosopher
父亲们最根本的缺点在于想要自己的孩子为自己争光。
英国哲学家罗素.B.

The good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge are necessary, love is in a sense more fundamental, since it will lead intelligent people to seek knowledge, in order to find out how to benefit those they love. Delight without well-wishing may be cruel; well- wishing without delight easily tends to become cold and little superior.
Bertrand Russell British philosopher  
美好生活由爱来激励,受知识指导。.....尽管爱与知识都必要,但在某种意义上爱更重要。因为爱会引导聪明的人去寻求知识,看看怎样能使他们所爱的人得益。...没有善良的愿望的喜悦可能是残酷;没有喜悦的善良容易变得冷漠和傲视一切。
英国哲学罗素,B.

基谐波 fundamental

本末 [běn mò] /the whole course of an event from beginning to end/ins and outs/the fundamental and the incidental/

本末倒置 [běn mò dǎo zhì] /take the branch for the root/put the incidental before the fundamental/put the cart before the horse/

根本 [gēn běn] /(not) at all/simply/fundamental/basic/root/

基本 [jī běn] /basic/fundamental/main/

基本原理 [jī běn yuán lǐ] /fundamental principle/

基础问题 [jī chǔ wèn tí] /basic issue/fundamental question/

质变 [zhì biàn] /(n) fundamental change/

{adj: applied} concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles; opposed to theoretical
"applied physics"
"applied psychology"
"technical problems in medicine, engineering, economics and other applied discipcdlines"- Sidney Hook
<-> theoretical

{adj: biogenic} essential for maintaining the fundamental life processes
"sleep and food and water are among the biogenic needs of the organism"

{adj: cardinal, central, fundamental, key, primal} serving as an essential component
"a cardinal rule"
"the central cause of the problem"
"an example that was fundamental to the argument"
"computers are fundamental to modern industrial structure"

{adj: essential} basic and fundamental
"the essential feature"
<-> inessential

{adj: fundamental, profound} far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something
"the fundamental revolution in human values that has occurred"
"the book underwent fundamental changes"
"committed the fundamental error of confusing spending with extravagance"
"profound social changes"

{adj: fundamental, rudimentary, underlying} being or involving basic facts or principles
"the fundamental laws of the universe"
"a fundamental incomatibility between them"
"these rudimentary truths"
"underlying principles"

{adj: grassroots} fundamental
"the grassroots factor in making the decision"

{adj: grassroots} of or involving the common people as constituting a fundamental political and economic group
"a grassroots movement for nuclear disarmament"

{adj: ignorant, illiterate} uneducated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of learning; lacking knowledge of a specific field
"she is ignorant of quantum mechanics"
"he is musically illiterate"

{adj: inessential, unessential} not basic or fundamental
<-> essential

{adj: modifiable} capable of being modified in form or character or strength (especially by making less extreme)
"the rhythm of physiological time is not modifiable except by interference with certain fundamental processes" - Alexis Carrel
<-> unmodifiable

{adj: technical} resulting from or dependent on market factors rather than fundamental economic considerations
"analysts content that the stock market is due for a technical rally"
"the fall is only a technical correction"

{adv: in principle, in theory, in essence} with regard to fundamentals although not concerning details
"in principle, we agree"

{n: Bill of Rights} a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

{n: Bose, Satyendra N. Bose, Satyendra Nath Bose} Indian physicist who with Albert Einstein proposed statistical laws based on the indistinguishability of particles; led to the description of fundamental particles that later came to be known as bosons

{n: Coulomb's Law} a fundamental principle of electrostatics; the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them; principle also holds for magnetic poles

{n: Department of Defense Laboratory System, LABLINK} a defense laboratory that provides essential services in fundamental science for national security and environmental protection and provides technologies that contribute to industrial competitiveness

{n: Schrodinger equation, Schrodinger wave equation} the fundamental equation of wave mechanics

{n: Systeme International d'Unites, Systeme International, SI system, SI, International System of Units, International System} a complete metric system of units of measurement for scientists; fundamental quantities are length (meter) and mass (kilogram) and time (second) and electric current (ampere) and temperature (kelvin) and amount of matter (mole) and luminous intensity (candela)
"Today the United States is the only country in the world not totally committed to the Systeme International d'Unites"

{n: basics, rudiments} a statement of fundamental facts or principles

{n: basis, base, foundation, fundament, groundwork, cornerstone} the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained
"the whole argument rested on a basis of conjecture"

{n: canon} a rule or especially body of rules or principles generally established as valid and fundamental in a field or art or philosophy
"the neoclassical canon"
"canons of polite society"

{n: capaciousness, roominess} intellectual breadth
"the very capaciousness of the idea meant that agreement on fundamentals was unnecessary"
"his unselfishness gave him great intellectual roominess"

{n: cell theory, cell doctrine} (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann

{n: civil liberty} fundamental individual right protected by law and expressed as immunity from unwarranted governmental interference

{n: civil right} right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality

{n: conservation of energy, law of conservation of energy, first law of thermodynamics} the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes

{n: conservation of mass, conservation of matter, law of conservation of mass, law of conservation of matter} a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system

{n: elementary particle, fundamental particle} (physics) a particle that is less complex than an atom; regarded as constituents of all matter

{n: event} a phenomenon located at a single point in space-time; the fundamental observational entity in relativity theory

{n: face lift, facelift, face lifting} a renovation that improves the outward appearance (as of a building) but usually does not involve major changes
"give your home a facelift"
"more than a facelift, the new model marks a fundamental change of direction"

{n: formula} a conventionalized statement expressing some fundamental principle

{n: foundation, grounding} education or instruction in the fundamentals of a field of knowledge
"he lacks the foundation necessary for advanced study"
"a good grounding in mathematics"

{n: fundamental law, organic law, constitution} law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

{n: fundamental quantity, fundamental measure} one of the four quantities that are the basis of systems of measurement

{n: fundamental, fundamental frequency, first harmonic} the lowest tone of a harmonic series

{n: fundamentals, basics, fundamental principle, basic principle, bedrock} principles from which other truths can be derived
"first you must learn the fundamentals"
"let's get down to basics"

{n: harmonic} any of a series of musical tones whose frequencies are integral multiples of the frequency of a fundamental

{n: interaction, fundamental interaction} (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons

{n: keynote} a fundamental or central idea

{n: law of the land} a phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law); today it refers to fundamental principles of justice commensurate with due process
"the United States Constitution declares itself to be `the supreme law of the land'"

{n: meat and potatoes} the fundamental part
"successful negotiation is the meat and potatoes of arbitration"

{n: mores} (sociology) the conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group

{n: overtone, partial, partial tone} a harmonic with a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental frequency

{n: pain, painfulness} emotional distress; a fundamental feeling that people try to avoid
"the pain of loneliness"
<-> pleasure

{n: pillar} a fundamental principle or practice
"science eroded the pillars of superstition"

{n: pleasure, pleasance} a fundamental feeling that is hard to define but that people desire to experience
"he was tingling with pleasure"
<-> pain

{n: pragmatic sanction, pragmatic} an imperial decree that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land

{n: proficiency, technique} skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity
"practice greatly improves proficiency"

{n: protology} the study of origins and first things
"To Christians, protology refers to God's fundamental purpose for humanity"

{n: quark} (physics) hypothetical truly fundamental particle in mesons and baryons; there are supposed to be six flavors of quarks (and their antiquarks), which come in pairs; each has an electric charge of +2/3 or -1/3
"quarks have not been observed directly but theoretical predictions based on their existence have been confirmed experimentally"

{n: rationale, principle} (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature)
"the rationale for capital punishment"
"the principles of internal-combustion engines"

{n: sign} a fundamental linguistic unit linking a signifier to that which is signified
"The bond between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary"--de Saussure

{n: spirit} a fundamental emotional and activating principle determining one's character

{n: supersymmetry} (physics) a theory that tries to link the four fundamental forces
"according to supersymmetry each force emerged separately during the big bang"

{v: ground} instruct someone in the fundamentals of a subject

{v: perturb, derange, throw out of kilter} throw into great confusion or disorder
"Fundamental Islamicists threaten to perturb the social order in Algeria and Egypt"

Professor Ohmae said Korea's recovery was due to " obedience to US hegemony " and reprieve from currency speculators rather than any real fundamental recovery.
小前教授说,韩国经济的复苏是因为 "顺从于美国的霸权 "和暂时摆脱了货币投机商,而并非什么真正的根本性复苏。

We all have fundamental expectations of privacy, and we certainly don't forfeit our privacy rights in cyberspace.
对于隐私,我们都有基本的期望,当然不想在计算机空间里放弃自己的隐私权。

It will no doubt be a revolution, but there are some scary Brave New World overtones that raise fundamental questions about how we will think about ourselves.
这一发现无疑是革命性的,但是个中却蕴含着《勇敢新世界》式的令人恐慌的色彩,它给人们提出了一些有关我们将怎样认识我们自己的基本问题。

Focus on the fundamentals.
要抓住最重要的东西。

Cluster Partner, Juan Pujol says that in the new economy, a website must be central to all elements of a business strategy, including marketing, logistics and pricing. his is why this time, integration is fundamental.
Cluster 公司的普若尔说,在新经济中,网站必须是全部业务战略要素的核心,这些要素包括营销、后勤管理和定。现在,整合是关键。

O'Neal accurately dubbed him " the Big Fundamental. "
奥尼尔对他的评非常准──一个质朴无华的大个子。

Despite the glittering promise of new diet drugs and the proliferation of fat-free foods and miracle potions, the fundamental strategies for treating the condition have barely changed in the past two decades.
尽管新研制的减肥药物都承诺功效非凡,脱脂食品和灵丹妙药多如牛毛,但是在过去的 20年里,治疗肥胖症的基本方法几乎没有变化。

But a close study of his compositions reveals that Beethoven overturned no fundamental rules.
然而,对他音乐作品一番细致的研究会揭示出贝多芬根本没有推翻任何规则。

Long before the Romantics stressed intuition and self-expression, the frenzy of inspiration was regarded as fundamental to art, but philosophers had always assumed it must be controlled by law and by the intellectual power of putting things into harmonious order.
早在浪漫主义艺术家强调直觉和自我表达之前,灵感的癫狂被视作艺术之根本,但哲学家一贯认为,它必须受制于规律法则,受制于那种将万物组织成和谐秩序的理性力量。

Although recent research has allowed us to stabilize the tissue-biomaterial interface by controlling either the chemical reactions or the microstructure of the biomaterials, our fundamental understanding of how implant devices adhere to tissues remains woefully incomplete.
虽然近期的研究允许我们通过控制生物材料的化学反应或微观结构(microstructure)从而稳定住组织—生物材料之间的界面,然则,有关移植物制品是如何与组织黏合在一起的,我们的基本理解依然是甚为可悲地不完整。

And genetic engineering is just the sort of fundamental breakthrough that opens up prospects of wholly novel alternatives.
而遗传工程恰好就是那种具有根本意义的科技突破,展现出全新替代手段的诸般前景。

Undoubtedly such elements exist in the taboos, but there is an additional element with a much more fundamental importance.
毋庸置疑,这样的因素存在于这些禁忌中,但另一个因素具有远为根本的重要性。

The case of Verdi is a different one: he took a popular genre—bourgeois melodrama set to music (an accurate definition of nineteenth-century opera)—and, without altering its fundamental nature, transmuted it into high art.
威尔地(Verdi)的情形又另当别论:他借鉴一种通俗的体载——谱以音乐的资产阶级传奇剧(bourgeois melodrama,这不失为对十九世纪歌剧的一种精确的定义)——在并不改变其根本性质的情况下,将它转变成高雅艺术。

These people lack cell-surface receptors for low- density lipoproteins (LDL's), which are the fundamental carriers of blood cholesterol to the body cells that use cholesterol.
他们缺乏低密度脂蛋白(low-density lipoproteins,简称LDL's)的细胞表面受体(cell-surface receptors),而低密度脂蛋白则是血胆固醇的基本载体,将血胆固醇转送至需要使用胆固醇的人体细胞。

In that case, he argues, statement or combination of statements (not merely the "offending" generalization, as in classical empiricism) can be altered to achieve the fundamental requirement, a system free of contradictions, even if, in some cases, the alteration consists of labeling the new observation a "hallucination."
在那种情况下,他论辩道,任何一项陈述或一组陈述(而不是象在古典经验主义中那样仅仅是那个“背悖的”理论),可予以改变,以实现那种根本的要求,即一个不含有矛盾的系统,即使在某些情形中,这种改变涉及到将新的观察归作一种“幻觉”。

"There's a fundamental difference between oil smuggling, illegal oil smuggling that was done under the table and behind closed doors, and the very public process that the American government went through to exempt certain countries. Don't forget that this exemption came before the oil-for-food program was even established," he noted.
他说:“石油非法走私和美国政府同意豁免的某些国家的公开行为有着本质的区别。非法的石油走私是桌子下面和门背后的行为。别忘了豁免决定是在石油换食品计划之前做出的。”

The president told Republican supporters Saturday that his Democratic challenger has a fundamental misunderstanding of what is needed to fight terrorism.
布什总统星期六对共和党支持者说他的民主党对手对于打击恐怖主义需要做什么存在着一个最基本的误解。

In his weekly radio address, President Bush raised questions about Senator Kerry's ability to lead the nation, saying his Democratic challenger has a fundamental misunderstanding of what is needed to fight terrorism.
布什总统在本周的例行广播讲话中,质疑克里参议员领导国家的能力。他认为克里对打击恐怖主义所必须具备的东西有根本性的误解。

spsc-60105806
Fashion merchandising or retail fundamentals instructional materials
时装推销、零售原理指导材料

F20
Schizophrenia
The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic
distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted.
Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain
cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. The most important psychopathological
phenomena include thought echo; thought insertion or withdrawal; thought broadcasting;
delusional perception and delusions of control; influence or passivity; hallucinatory
voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person; thought disorders and
negative symptoms .
The course of schizophrenic disorders can be either continuous, or episodic with
progressive or stable deficit, or there can be one or more episodes with complete or
incomplete remission. The diagnosis of schizophrenia should not be made in the presence of
extensive depressive or manic symptoms unless it is clear that schizophrenic symptoms
antedate the affective disturbance. Nor should schizophrenia be diagnosed in the presence
of overt brain disease or during states of drug intoxication or withdrawal. Similar
disorders developing in the presence of epilepsy or other brain disease should be
classified under F06.2, and those induced by psychoactive substances under F10-F19 with
common fourth character .5.
Excludes: schizophrenia:
. acute (undifferentiated) (F23.2)
. cyclic (F25.2)
sehizophrenie reaction (F23.2)
schizotypal disorder (F21)
精神分裂症 
精神分裂性疾病一般的特徵是思考及知觉的基本、
特有的歪曲 , 以及不适当的或迟钝的情感。虽然一
些认知的缺陷在疾病的过程中呈现出来 , 通常维持
清楚的意识及心智的能力。最重要的精神病理现象
包含思想回声、思想插入或剥夺、思想广播、妄想
性知觉、被控制、被影响或被动等妄想、以第叁人
称批评或讨论病人的听幻觉、思考流程障碍与负性
症状。
精神分裂症之病程 , 有的是持续性、有的是阵发性
合并进行性或稳定性之退化、有的是一次或多次阵
发性 , 且完全或不完全之康复。若同时有显着的忧
郁或躁症症状 , 除非精神分裂的症状於情感障碍之
前发生 , 否则不作精神分裂症的诊断。若病人有明
显脑部疾患或正处於药物中毒或戒断时期 , 则不作
精神分裂症之诊断若有精神分裂症的疾病出现於癫
痫或其他脑部疾患时 , 归类於 F06.2 , 若是由精神作用
物质引起 , 则归类於 F10-F19 中第四码.5 者。 
不包含 : 精神分裂症 :
. 急性 ( 未分化的 ) (F23.2)  
. 循环性 (F25.2)  
精神分裂反应 (F23.2)  
准精神分裂症 (F21)  

Mood [affective] disorders (F30-F39)
This block contains disorders in which the fundamental disturbance is a change in affect
or mood to depression (with or without associated anxiety) or to elation. The mood change
is usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity; most of the other
symptoms are either secondary to, or easily understood in the context of, the change in
mood and activity. Most of these disorders tend to be recurrent and the onset of
individual episodes can often be related to stressful events or situations.
情感疾病 (F30-F39)
本节包含基本障碍是情感改变的疾病 , 情感或忧郁
( 同时或有或无焦虑 ) 或高昂。情感的改变均同时
有整体活动量的改变。其伴随的大多数症状都是情
绪及活动变化而来。这些疾病有复发的倾向 , 通常
每次发作与压力事件或情境相关。

fundamental mechanism 基础机构

fundamental frequency 基频

fundamental mode of vibration 基谐振动模式

fundamental note 基音

fundamental quantity 基本量

fundamental unit 基本单位

fundamental frequency 基本频率

fundamental method of measurement 基础测量法

fundamental natural mode of vibration 基本固有振型

fundamental period 基本周期

fundamental wave 基波


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