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epilepsy

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痫 [xián] /epilepsy/insanity/

{adj: epileptic} of or relating to or characteristic of epilepsy
"epileptic seizure"

{adj: idiopathic} (of diseases) arising from an unknown cause
"idiopathic epilepsy"

{n: Jacksonian epilepsy} focal epilepsy in which the attack usually moves from distal to proximal limb muscles on the same side of the body

{n: Vitus, St. Vitus} Christian martyr and patron of those who suffer from epilepsy and Sydenham's chorea (died around 300)

{n: akinetic epilepsy} epilepsy characterized by akinesia

{n: anticonvulsant, anticonvulsant drug, antiepileptic, antiepileptic drug} a drug used to treat or prevent convulsions (as in epilepsy)

{n: automatism} any reaction that occurs automatically without conscious thought or reflection (especially the undirected behavior seen in psychomotor epilepsy)

{n: callosotomy, callosectomy} severing the corpus callosum so that communication between the cerebral hemispheres is interrupted (in cases of severe intractable epilepsy)

{n: cortical epilepsy, focal epilepsy} epilepsy in which the attack begins with an isolated disturbance of cerebral function (as a twitching of a limb or an illusory sensation or a mental disturbance)

{n: diphenylhydantoin, phenytoin, Dilantin} an anticonvulsant drug (trade name Dilantin) used to treat epilepsy and that is not a sedative

{n: epilepsy} a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions

{n: epileptic} a person who has epilepsy

{n: ethosuximide, Emeside, Zarontin} an anticonvulsant drug (trade names Emeside and Zarontin) used to treat petit mal epilepsy

{n: grand mal epilepsy, generalized epilepsy} epilepsy in which the attack involves loss of consciousness and tonic spasms of the musculature followed by generalized jerking

{n: grand mal, generalized seizure, epilepsia major} a seizure (or a type of epilepsy characterized by such seizures) during which the patient becomes unconscious and has convulsions over the entire body

{n: hydantoin} any of a group of anticonvulsant drugs used in treating epilepsy

{n: jamais vu} the experience of being unfamiliar with a person or situation that is actually very familiar; associated with certain types of epilepsy

{n: mephenytoin, Mesantoin} a toxic anticonvulsant drug (trade name Mesantoin) used in the treatment of epilepsy when less toxic anticonvulsants have been ineffective

{n: mephobarbital, Mebaral} a long-acting crystalline barbiturate (trade name Mebaral) used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of epilepsy

{n: metharbital, Gemonil} anticonvulsant drug (trade name Gemonil) used in the treatment of epilepsy

{n: musicogenic epilepsy} reflex epilepsy induced by music

{n: myoclonus epilepsy, Lafora's disease} epilepsy characterized by clonus of muscle groups and progressive mental deterioration and genetic origin

{n: petit mal epilepsy, absence} epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal attacks of brief clouding of consciousness (a possible other abnormalities)

{n: petit mal, epilepsia minor} a seizure (or a type of epilepsy characterized by such seizures) of short duration characterized by momentary unconsciousness and local muscle spasms or twitching

{n: photogenic epilepsy} reflex epilepsy induced by a flickering light

{n: posttraumatic epilepsy, traumatic epilepsy} a convulsive epileptic state caused by a head injury

{n: procursive epilepsy} epilepsy in which a seizure is induced by whirling or running

{n: psychomotor epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy} epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia for the episode; often involves purposeful movements of the arms and legs and sometimes hallucinations

{n: reflex epilepsy} a form of epilepsy in which attacks are induced by peripheral stimulation

{n: sensory epilepsy} focal epilepsy initiated by somatosensory phenomena

{n: status epilepticus} a condition in which there are continuing attacks of epilepsy without intervals of consciousness; can lead to brain damage and death

{n: tonic epilepsy} epilepsy in which the body is rigid during the seizure

Instead they 're trying to figure out how this cell growth can be controlled to treat everything from epilepsy to stress to depression.
他们正在努力弄清如何控制这种脑细胞的生长,以便治愈癫痫、精神紧张、抑郁症等疾玻

F02.8*
Dementia in other specified diseases classified elsewhere
Dementia in:
. cerebral lipidosis(E75.-+)
. epilepsy (G40.-+)
. hepatolenticular degeneration (E83.0+)
. hypercalcaemia (E83.5+)
. hypothyroidism, acquired (E01,E03.-+)
. intoxications (T36-T65+)
. multiple sclerosis (G35+)
. neurosyphilis (A52.1+)
. niacin deficiency [pellagra] (E52+)
. polyarteritis nodosa (M30.0+)
. systemic lupus erythcmatosus (M32.-+)
. trypanosomiasis (B56.-+, B57.-+)
. vitamin B12 deficiency (E53.8+)
他处已归类之其他明示疾病之痴呆 
痴呆发生於 :
. 大脑类脂代谢障碍症 (E75.-+)  
. 癫痫 (G40.-+)  
. 肝豆状核变质〔威尔逊氏病〕 (E83.0+)  
. 血钙过高 (E83.5+)  
. 甲状腺机能低下症 , 後天性 (E01,E03.-+)  
. 中毒 (T36-T65+)  
. 多发性硬化症 (G35+)  
. 神经性梅毒 (A52.1+)  
. 菸硷酸缺乏〔癞皮病〕 (E52+)  
. 结节性多发性动脉炎 (M30.0+)  
. 散播性红斑性狼疮 (M32.-+)  
. 锥虫病 ( 非洲 B56.-+, 美洲 B57.-+)  
. 维生素 B12 缺乏 (E53.8+)  

F06.2
Organic delusional [schizophrenia-like] disorder
A disorder in which persistent or recurrent delusions dominate the clinical picture. The
delusions may be accompanied by hallucinations. Some features suggestive of schizophrenia,
such as bizarre hallucinations or thought disorder, may be present.
Paranoid and paranoid-hallucinatory organic states
Schizophrenia-like psychosis in epilepsy
Excludes: disorder:
. acute and transient psychotic (F23.-)
. persistent delusional (F22.-)
. psychotic drug-induced (F11-F19 with common fourth character .5)
schizophrenia (F20.-)
器质性妄想症〔或类似精神分裂症〕
为一种以出现持续或反覆性妄想为主要临床现象的
疾患。妄想可能伴随着幻觉。某些精神分裂症特有
之现象也可能存在 , 例如可能有怪异幻觉或思考障
碍。 
妄想性与妄想 - 幻觉性器质性状态 
出现於癫痫中类似精神分裂症之精神病症 
不包含 :
. 急性与暂时性精神病性疾病 (F23.-)  
. 持续性妄想症 (F22.-)  
. 药物导致之精神病性疾病 (F11-F19 中具有第 4 码 .5 者 )
 
精神分裂症 (F20.-)  

F07.0
Organic personality disorder
A disorder characterized by a significant alteration of the habitual patterns of behaviour
displayed by the subject premorbidly, involving the expression of emotions, needs and
impulses. Impairment of cognitive and thought functions, and altered sexuality may also be
PART of the clinical picture.
Organic:
. pseudpsychopathic personality
. pseudoretarded personality
Syndrome:
. frontal lobe
. limbic epilepsy personality
. lobotomy
. postleucotomy
Excludes: enduring personality change after:
. catastrophic experience (F62.0)
. psychiatric illness (F62.1)
postconcussional syndrome (F07.2)
postencephalitic syndrome (F07.1)
specific personality disorder (F60.-)
器质性人格障碍症 
此疾患之特徵为病前习性的明显改变。特别是影响
到情绪、需求、与冲动的表现。认知功能的缺陷与
性行为、性欲之变化也许可能是临床之表现。 
器质性 :
. 器质性假性精神病性人格 
. 器质性假性迟滞性人格 
徵候群 :
. 额叶徵候群 
. 边缘叶癫痫人格徵候群 
. 脑叶白质切割徵候群 
. 白质切割後遗徵候群 
不包含 :
. 灾难性经验後之永续性人格改变 (F62.0)
. 精神疾病後之永续性人格改变 (F62.1)
脑震汤後徵候群 (F07.2)
脑炎後徵候群 (F07.1)
特殊类别人格障碍症 (F60.-)

F20
Schizophrenia
The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic
distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted.
Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain
cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. The most important psychopathological
phenomena include thought echo; thought insertion or withdrawal; thought broadcasting;
delusional perception and delusions of control; influence or passivity; hallucinatory
voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person; thought disorders and
negative symptoms .
The course of schizophrenic disorders can be either continuous, or episodic with
progressive or stable deficit, or there can be one or more episodes with complete or
incomplete remission. The diagnosis of schizophrenia should not be made in the presence of
extensive depressive or manic symptoms unless it is clear that schizophrenic symptoms
antedate the affective disturbance. Nor should schizophrenia be diagnosed in the presence
of overt brain disease or during states of drug intoxication or withdrawal. Similar
disorders developing in the presence of epilepsy or other brain disease should be
classified under F06.2, and those induced by psychoactive substances under F10-F19 with
common fourth character .5.
Excludes: schizophrenia:
. acute (undifferentiated) (F23.2)
. cyclic (F25.2)
sehizophrenie reaction (F23.2)
schizotypal disorder (F21)
精神分裂症 
精神分裂性疾病一般的特徵是思考及知觉的基本、
特有的歪曲 , 以及不适当的或迟钝的情感。虽然一
些认知的缺陷在疾病的过程中呈现出来 , 通常维持
清楚的意识及心智的能力。最重要的精神病理现象
包含思想回声、思想插入或剥夺、思想广播、妄想
性知觉、被控制、被影响或被动等妄想、以第叁人
称批评或讨论病人的听幻觉、思考流程障碍与负性
症状。
精神分裂症之病程 , 有的是持续性、有的是阵发性
合并进行性或稳定性之退化、有的是一次或多次阵
发性 , 且完全或不完全之康复。若同时有显着的忧
郁或躁症症状 , 除非精神分裂的症状於情感障碍之
前发生 , 否则不作精神分裂症的诊断。若病人有明
显脑部疾患或正处於药物中毒或戒断时期 , 则不作
精神分裂症之诊断若有精神分裂症的疾病出现於癫
痫或其他脑部疾患时 , 归类於 F06.2 , 若是由精神作用
物质引起 , 则归类於 F10-F19 中第四码.5 者。 
不包含 : 精神分裂症 :
. 急性 ( 未分化的 ) (F23.2)  
. 循环性 (F25.2)  
精神分裂反应 (F23.2)  
准精神分裂症 (F21)  

F44.0
Dissociative amnesia
The main feature is loss of memory, usually of important recent events, that is not due to
organic mental disorder, and is too great to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness or
fatigue. The amnesia is usually centred on traumatic events, such as accidents or
unexpected bereavements, and is usually partial and selective. Complete and generalized
amnesia is rare, and is usually part of a fugue (F44.1). If this is the case, the disorder
should be classified as such. The diagnosis should not be made in the presence of organic
brain disorders, intoxication, or excessive fatigue.
Excludes: alcohol- or other psychoactive substance-induced amnesic disorder (F10-F19 with
common fourth character .6)
amnesia:
. NOS (R41.3)
. anterograde (R41.1)
. retrograde (R41.2)
nonalcoholic organic amnesic syndrome (F04)
postictal amnesia in epilepsy (G40.-)
解离性失忆症
主要特徵是失去记忆 , 尤其最近发生的事件。它并
非由器质性脑病引起而且其严重度也无法以一般的
记性不好或疲劳来解释。失忆内容通常针对受创伤
的事件如意外事故或不预期的死别事件 , 并且通常
是部份或选择性的。完整的或广泛性的失忆是罕见
的 , 它一般属游走症的一部份 , 若果真如此 , 则列
属 F44.1 。有器质性精神疾病时 , 不应下此诊断。
不包含 : 酒精或其他兴奋剂引起的失忆 (F10-F19 , 伴有
共同第四码.6)
失忆症 :
. 其他未明示的失忆症 (R41.3)
. 前行性失忆 (R41.1)
. 退行性失忆 (R41.2)
非酒精性器质性失忆 (F04)
癫痫发作後忆 (G40.-) 。

F44.1
Dissociative fugue
Dissociative fugue has all the features of dissociative amnesia, plus purposeful travel
beyond the usual everyday range. Although there is amnesia for the period of the fugue the
patient's behaviour during this time may appear completely normal to independent
observers.
Excludes: postictal fugue in epilepsy (G40.-)
解离性游走症
游走症包含所有解离性失忆症的特徵 , 再加上超越
日常生活范围的有目的性的旅游。虽然在游走期间
有失忆的存在 , 但是从旁观者的眼光看来 , 他的举
止可能完全正常。
不包含 : 癫痫发作後游走 (G40.-) 。

Use additional code, if desired, to identify associated
conditions such as autism, other developmental disorders, epilepsy, conduct disorders, or
severe physical handicap.
在需要的情况下 , 使用附加数码来区别附带状况 ,
如自闭症、其他发展障碍症、癫痫、行为障碍症、
或严重身体残障。

F80.1
Expressive language disorder  
A specific developmental disorder in which the child's ability to use expressive spoken
language is markedly below the appropriate level for its mental age, but in which language
comprehension is within normal limits. There may or may not be abnormalities in
articulation.
Developmental dysphasia or aphasia, expressive type
Excludes: acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner] (F80.3)
developmental dysphasia or aphasia, receptive type (F80.2)
dysphasia and aphasia NOS (R47.0)
elective mutism (F94.0)
mental retardation (F70-F79)
pervasive developmental disorders (F84.-)
表达性语言障碍症 
这种特定发展障碍症的儿童其表达性语言的能力明
显低於其心智年龄所应有的水准 , 但其语言理解性
仍在正常范围内。其构音可能正常或异常。
发展性言语困难或失语症 ( 表达型 )
不包含 : 後天失语症 ( 或蓝道 - 克莱夫勒徵候群 )
(F80.3)
其他未明示之言语困难或失语症 (R47.0)
选择性不语症 (F94.0)
智能不足 (F70-F79)
广泛性发展障碍症 (F84.-)

f80.2
Receptive language disorder  
A specific developmental disorder in which the child's understanding of language is below
the appropriate level for its mental age. In virtually all cases expressive language will
also be markedly affected and abnormalities in word-sound production are common.
Congenital auditory imperception
Developmental:
. dysphasia or aphasia, receptive type
. ernicke's aphasia
Word deafness
Excludes: acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner] (F80.3)
autism (F84.0-F84.1)
dysphasia and aphasia:
. NOS (R47.0)
. expressive type (F80.1)
elective mutism (F94.0)
language delay due to deafness (H90-H91)
mental retardation (F70-F79)
接受性语言障碍症 
这是一种儿童了解语言的能力比其心智年龄为低的
特殊发展障碍症。实际上所有个案的表达性语言及
语音形成都有明显障碍。
先天性听觉不良症
. 发展性接受性言语困难或失语症
. 发展性魏尼凯氏失语症
听语聋
不包含 : 後天性失语症 ( 蓝道 - 克莱夫勒徵候群 )
(F80.3)
自闭症 (F84.0,F84.1)
. 其他未明示之失语症 (R47.0)
. 表达性语言障碍症 (F80.1)
选择性不语症 (F94.0)
续发听障之语言迟滞 (H90-H91)
智能不足 (F70-F79)

F80.3
Acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner]
A disorder in which the child, having previously made normal progress in language
development, loses both receptive and expressive language skills but retains general
intelligence; the onset of the disorder is accompanied by paroxysmal abnormalities on the
EEG, and in the majority of cases also by epileptic seizures. Usually the onset is between
the ages of three and seven years, with skills being lost over days or weeks. The temporal
association between the onset of seizures and loss of language is variable, with one
preceding the other (either way round) hy a few months to two years. An inflammatory
encephalitic process has been suggested as a possible cause of this disorder. About
two-thirds of patients are left with a more or less severe receptive language deficit.
Excludes: aphasia (due to):
. NOS (R47.0)
. autism (F84.0-F84.1)
. disintegrative disorders of childhood (F84.2-F84.3)
有癫痫之後天失语症
儿童在先前有正常的语言发展 , 後来丧失接受性及
表达性语言技巧 , 但其仍有正常智力的一种障碍症
; 此种障碍症的发生伴随有阵发性的脑电波异常 ,
大多数个案都有癫痫性抽。典型个案是在 3 至 7 岁
发作 , 在数天或数周间突然丧失语言技能。癫痫的
初发及语言能力的丧失在时间的关连上有相当的变
异 , 二者之发作时间间隔为数个月到两年之间。这
种情况的病因仍未知 , 但临床的特徵显示了发炎性
脑炎过程病变的可能性 , 有叁分之二的儿童有严重
的接受性语言障碍。
不包含 :
. 其他未明示的失语症 (R47.0)
. 自闭症的失语症状 (F84.0-F84.1)
. 其他儿童期崩解症的失语症状 (F84.2-F84.3)

G25.3
Myoclonus
Drug-induced myoclonus
Use additional external cause code (Chapter XX), if desired, to identify drug, if
drug-induced.
Excludes: facial myokymia (G51.4)
myoclonic epilepsy (G40.-)
肌阵孪
药物诱导肌阵孪
若药物诱导 , 如有需要 , 使用附码 ( 第二十章 ) , 以
确定药物。
不包含 : 颜面肌纡维颤动 (G51.4)
肌阵孪性癫痫 (G40.-)

G40
Epilepsy
Excludes: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (F80.3)
seizure (convulsive) NOS (R56.8)
status epilepticus (G41.-)
Todd's paralysis (G83.8)
癫痫
不包含 : 蓝道氏 - 克雷弗勒徵候群 (F80.3)
其他未明示之发作 ( 抽搐 ) (R56.8)
癫痫重积状态 (G41.-)
托特氏麻痹 (G83.8)

G40.0
Localization-related (focal)(partial) idiopathic epilepsy and epileptic
syndromes with seizures of localized onset
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal EEG spikes
Childhood epilepsy with occipital EEG paroxysms
定位能力有关联之特发性癫痫及癫痫徵候群伴有局
部化开端之癫痫发
良性童年期癫痫伴有中央颞叶脑波图呈钉状波型
童年期癫痫伴有枕骨脑波图呈阵发型

G40.1
Localization-related (focal)(partial) symptomatic epilepsy and epileptic
syndromes with simple partial seizures
Attacks without alteration of consciousness
Simple partial seizures developing into secondarily generalized seizures
与定位能力有关联的 ( 局限性 ) 有明显病因之徵状
性癫痫及癫痫徵候纯型局限性发作
意识无改变之发作
单纯性局限性发作续发为全身性发作

G40.2
Localization-related (focal)(partial) symptomatic epilepsy and epileptic
syndromes with complex partial seizures
Attacks with alteration of consciousness, often with automatisms
Complex partial seizures developing into secondarily generalized seizures
定位能力有关联的有明显病因之癫痫及癫痫徵候群
伴有复杂型局限性常常伴有自动性之意识改变之发
作发展中复杂型局限性续发为全身性发作

G40.3
Generalized idiopathic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes
Benign:
. myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
. neonatal convulsions (familial)
Childhood absence epilepsy [pyknolepsy]
Epilepsy with grand mal seizures on awakening
Juvenile:
. absence epilepsy
. myoclonic epilepsy [impulsive petit mal]
Nonspecific epileptic seizures:
. atonic
. clonic
. myoclonic
. tonic
. tonic-clonic
全身性特发性癫痫及癫痫徵候群
良性 :
. 幼年期之肌阵孪癫痫
. 新生儿之搐搦 ( 家族性 )
童年期失神性癫痫 ( 连发性小癫痫 )
睡醒时伴有大发作的癫痫
幼年型 :
. 失神性癫痫
. 肌阵孪癫痫〔推进性癫痫小发作〕
非特异性癫痫发作 :
. 肌力丧失
. 阵孪性
. 肌阵孪
. 强直性
. 强直性阵孪

40.4
Other generalized epilepsy and epileptic syndromes
Epilepsy with:
. myoclonic absences
. myoclonic-astatic seizures
Infantile spasms
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
Salaam attacks
Symptomatic early myoclonic encephalopathy
West's syndrome
其他全身性癫痫及癫痫徵候群
癫痫伴有 :
. 失神性肌阵孪
. 肌阵孪 - 起立不能发作
婴儿痉孪
Lennox-Gastaut 徵候群
膜拜状发作
有明显病因性早期肌阵孪脑病
韦斯德氏徵候群

G40.8
Other epilepsy
Epilepsies and epileptic syndromes undetermined as to whether they are focal or
generalized
其他癫痫
癫痫及癫痫徵候群 , 不断然确定是局限性或是全身


G40.9
Epilepsy, unspecified
Epileptic:
. convulsions NOS
. fits NOS
. seizures NOS
未明示之癫痫
癫痫 :
. 其他未明示之痉孪
. 其他未明示之搐搦发作
. 其他未明示之发作

R56
Convulsions, not elsewhere classified
Excludes: convulsions and seizures (in):
.dissociative (F44.5)
epilepsy (G40-G41)
.newborn (P90)
痉挛 , 他处未归类者
不包含 : 下列之痉挛 :
. 解离性 (F44.5)
. 癫痫症 (G40-G44)
. 新生儿 (P90)

Z82.0
Family history of epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system
Conditions classifiable to G00-G99
有癫痫和其他神经系统疾病的家族史
归类於 G00-G99 之情况


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