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define

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define [ di'fain] vt.给…下定义;限定

define [ di'fain] vt.规定;立(界限)

define [di'fain] 定义

产权明晰、权责明确、政企分开、科学管理 "clearly established ownership, well defined power and responsibility, separation of enterprise from administration, and scientific management "

界定利益计划 Defined Benefit Plan

界定供款计划 Defined Contribution Plan

defined benefit scheme
界定福利计划

defined contribution scheme
界定供款计划

Clearly defining property rights, specifying rights and responsibilities, separating ownership from daily management and adopting scientific management
产权清晰,责权明确,政企分开,管理科学

Man is made in such a way that he continually has to define himself and continually escape his own definitions.
人注定要不断地给自己下定义,又不断地逃避他自己的定义。

True tragedy may be defined as a dramatic work in which the outward failure of the principal personage is compensated for by the dignity and greatness of his character.
真正的悲剧可以这样定义:一部剧作,剧中主人公的表面失败由其人格的高贵伟大予以补偿。

Some words are hard to define.
很难对有些词下定义。

In this paragraph the writer defined the term.
作者在这一段中解释了这个术语。

We can define a radical as someone who has very different opinions.
我们可以把激进派界定为观点极端的人。

It's wrong to define "happiness" as "owing lots of money".
把 "幸福"界定为 "拥有很多钱"是错误的。

In the early 1950’s historians who studies preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books.
早在20世纪50年代,许多研究前工业时代欧洲(我们可将其粗略定义为1300年至1800年间的欧洲)的历史学家们开始研究更多的欧洲人群,而不仅仅局在只占人口总数2%到3%的那些至今还充斥着历史书籍的政治、社会、精英人物:国王、将军、法官、贵族主教和地方要人。

Unhappiness is best defined as the difference between our talents the difference between our talents and our expectations.
Edward de Bono.British physician
对不幸的最好解释是人们的才能和期望之间的差异。
英国医生达博诺.E.

We need enemies to help define ourselves and our lives; they help us to know who we are not or who we do not want to be.
Howards Mel.American writer
我们借助敌人来给我们自身和我们的生活下定义;他们帮助我们认识我们不是什么样或不想做什么样的人。
美国作家梅尔.H.

Humor has been well defined as thinking in fun while feeling in earnest.
Mark Twain, American novelist 
我写作只是为了增加自身的美。
美国作家杰克?伦敦

@@@ 解释, 说明
account for 1.解释, 说明
2.(在数量、比例方面)占
clear up 1.(天气)变晴, 天空晴朗
2.说明, 澄清
defined as 被解释为, 被定义为
dramatized by 通过...得到形象的说明
explain to 向...解释
read sth. into sth. 将本来没有的意思加进去解释, 自以为有某种含义
shed light on 说明; 解释
spell out 讲清楚; 清楚地解释
throw light on sth. 解释, 阐明, 使某人明白

How should we define the inspection rights?
商检的权力怎样加以明确呢?

下定义 [xià dìng yì] /to define/

用户定义 [yòng hù dìng yì] /user-defined/

Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite.
记者们往往属于广义的社会文化精英的一个部分,因此他们的工作往往反映了这些精英传统的价值观。

{adj: acephalous} lacking a head or a clearly defined head
"acephalous worms"

{adj: chiseled, well-defined} having a clean and distinct outline as if precisely cut along the edges
"a finely chiseled nose"
"well-defined features"

{adj: clear-cut, distinct, trenchant} clearly or sharply defined to the mind
"clear-cut evidence of tampering"
"Claudius was the first to invade Britain with distinct...intentions of conquest"
"trenchant distinctions between right and wrong"

{adj: crisp, sharp} (of something seen or heard) clearly defined
"a sharp photographic image"
"the sharp crack of a twig"
"the crisp snap of dry leaves underfoot"

{adj: definable} capable of being defined, limited, or explained
"definable terms"
"definable rules"

{adj: defined, formed, settled} clearly defined
"I have no formed opinion about the chances of success"

{adj: defined, outlined} showing clearly the outline or profile or boundary
"hills defined against the evening sky"
"the setting sun showed the outlined figure of a man standing on the hill"

{adj: defined} clearly characterized or delimited
"lost in a maze of words both defined and undefined"
"each child has clearly defined duties"
<-> undefined

{adj: definite} precise; explicit and clearly defined
"I want a definite answer"
"a definite statement of the terms of the will"
"a definite amount"
"definite restrictions on the sale of alcohol"
"the wedding date is now definite"
"a definite drop in attendance"
<-> indefinite

{adj: definitive, unequivocal} clearly defined or formulated
"the plain and unequivocal language of the laws"- R.B.Taney

{adj: determinate} precisely determined or limited or defined; especially fixed by rule or by a specific and constant cause
"a determinate distance"
"a determinate number"
"determinate variations in animals"
<-> indeterminate

{adj: extensional} defining a word by listing the class of entities to which the word correctly applies

{adj: ill-defined, unclear} poorly stated or described
"he confuses the reader with ill-defined terms and concepts"
<-> well-defined

{adj: indecisive} not clearly defined
"indecisive boundaries running through mountains"

{adj: indefinite} vague or not clearly defined or stated
"must you be so indefinite?"
"amorphous blots of color having vague and indefinite edges"
"he would not answer so indefinite a proposal"
<-> definite

{adj: indistinct} not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand
"indistinct shapes in the gloom"
"an indistinct memory"
"only indistinct notions of what to do"
<-> distinct

{adj: inside} relating to or being on the side closer to the center or within a defined space
"he reached into his inside jacket pocket"
"inside out"
"an inside pitch is between home plate and the batter"
<-> outside

{adj: limiting} strictly limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase
"the restrictive clause in `Each made a list of the books that had influenced him' limits the books on the list to only those particular ones defined by the clause"

{adj: low-resolution} of computer output devices; producing images that are not sharply defined
<-> high-resolution

{adj: principled} based on or manifesting objectively defined standards of rightness or morality
"principled pragmatism and unprincipled expediency"
"a principled person"
<-> unprincipled

{adj: representative} being or characteristic of government by representation in which citizens exercise power through elected officers and representatives
"representative government as defined by Abraham Lincoln is government of the people, by the people, for the people"

{adj: substantive, essential} defining rights and duties as opposed to giving the rules by which rights and duties are established
"substantive law"
<-> adjective

{adj: unambiguous} having or exhibiting a single clearly defined meaning
"As a horror, apartheid...is absolutely unambiguous"- Mario Vargas Llosa
<-> ambiguous

{adj: undefined, vague} not precisely limited, determined, or distinguished
"an undefined term"
"undefined authority"
"some undefined sense of excitement"
"vague feelings of sadness"
"a vague uneasiness"
<-> defined

{adj: well-defined, clear} accurately stated or described
"a set of well-defined values"
<-> ill-defined

{adv: sharply, crisply} in a well delineated manner
"the new style of Minoan pottery was sharply defined"

{n: Calvin, John Calvin, Jean Cauvin, Jean Caulvin, Jean Chauvin} Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

{n: Celsius scale, international scale, centigrade scale} a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 0 degrees and the boiling point of water as 100 degrees

{n: Chalcedon, Council of Chalcedon} the fourth ecumenical council in 451 which defined the two natures (human and divine) of Christ

{n: Constantinople, Third Council of Constantinople} the sixth ecumenical council in 680-681 which condemned Monothelitism by defining two wills in Christ, divine and human

{n: Fahrenheit scale} a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 32 degrees and the boiling point of water a 212 degrees

{n: Kelvin scale, absolute scale} a temperature scale that defines absolute zero as 0 degrees; water freezes at 273.16 degrees and boils at 373.16 degrees

{n: Melkite, Melchite} an eastern Christian in Egypt or Syria who adheres to the Orthodox faith as defined by the council of Chalcedon in 451 and as accepted by the Byzantine emperor

{n: administrative district, administrative division, territorial division} a district defined for administrative purposes

{n: age, eld} a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises
"she was now of school age"
"tall for his eld"

{n: airstream} a relatively well-defined prevailing wind

{n: amorphous shape} an ill-defined or arbitrary shape

{n: analytic geometry, analytical geometry, coordinate geometry} the use of algebra to study geometric properties; operates on symbols defined in a coordinate system

{n: anomaly} (astronomy) position of a planet as defined by its angular distance from its perihelion (as observed from the sun)

{n: anxiety} a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune

{n: bimetallism} a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by stated amounts of two metals (usually gold and silver) with values set at a predetermined ratio

{n: block} (computer science) a sector or group of sectors that function as the smallest data unit permitted
"since blocks are often defined as a single sector, the terms `block' and `sector' are sometimes used interchangeably"

{n: bracket} a category falling within certain defined limits

{n: calendar} a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year

{n: calorie, gram calorie, small calorie} unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure

{n: choropleth map} a map that uses graded differences in shading or color or the placing of symbols inside defined areas on the map in order to indicate the average values of some property or quantity in those areas

{n: contour} a feature (or the order or arrangement of features) of anything having a complex structure
"the contours of the melody"
"it defines a major contour of this administration"

{n: crud} an ill-defined bodily ailment
"he said he had the crud and needed a doctor"

{n: domain} the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined

{n: explicit definition} a definition that gives an exact equivalent of the term defined

{n: fair ball} (baseball) a ball struck with the bat so that it stays between the lines (the foul lines) that define the width of the playing field
<-> foul ball

{n: fantods} an ill-defined state of irritability and distress

{n: foul ball} (baseball) a ball struck with the bat so that it does not stay between the lines (the foul lines) that define the width of the playing field
<-> fair ball

{n: generally accepted accounting practices, GAAP} a collection of rules and procedures and conventions that define accepted accounting practice; includes broad guidelines as well as detailed procedures

{n: geodesic, geodesic line} (mathematics) the shortest line between two points on a mathematically defined surface (as a straight line on a plane or an arc of a great circle on a sphere)

{n: gold standard} a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold

{n: handsomeness, good looks} the quality of having regular well-defined features (especially of a man)

{n: haziness} vagueness attributable to being not clearly defined

{n: hill} a local and well-defined elevation of the land
"they loved to roam the hills of West Virginia"

{n: hyperfocal distance} the distance in front of a lens that is focused at infinity beyond which all objects are well defined and clear

{n: indefiniteness, indeterminateness, indefinity, indetermination, indeterminacy} the quality of being vague and poorly defined

{n: lane} a well-defined track or path; for e.g. swimmers or lines of traffic

{n: legal status} a status defined by law

{n: line} a spatial location defined by a real or imaginary unidimensional extent

{n: metric capacity unit} a capacity unit defined in metric terms

{n: nationality} people having common origins or traditions and often comprising a nation
"immigrants of the same nationality often seek each other out"
"such images define their sense of nationality"

{n: normality, normalcy} being within certain limits that define the range of normal functioning
<-> abnormality

{n: organic chemistry} the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)

{n: ostensive definition} a definition that points out or exhibits instances of the term defined

{n: parameter} any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance

{n: parochialism} a limitation of views or interests like that defined by a local parish

{n: peg, pin} small markers inserted into a surface to mark scores or define locations etc.

{n: pleasure, pleasance} a fundamental feeling that is hard to define but that people desire to experience
"he was tingling with pleasure"
<-> pain

{n: point} a geometric element that has position but no extension
"a point is defined by its coordinates"

{n: poverty line, poverty level} a level of personal income defining the state of poverty

{n: pretrial, pretrial conference} (law) a conference held before the trial begins to bring the parties together to outline discovery proceedings and to define the issues to be tried; more useful in civil than in criminal cases

{n: quality, character, lineament} a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something
"each town has a quality all its own"
"the radical character of our demands"

{n: regionalism} a foreign policy that defines the international interests of a country in terms of particular geographic areas

{n: rule} any one of a systematic body of regulations defining the way of life of members of a religious order
"the rule of St. Dominic"

{n: rule} directions that define the way a game or sport is to be conducted
"he knew the rules of chess"

{n: safety} the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions
"insure the safety of the children"
"the reciprocal of safety is risk"
<-> danger

{n: sexual assault, sexual abuse, sex crime, sex offense} a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
"most states have replaced the common law definition of rape with statutes defining sexual assault"

{n: shape, form, configuration, contour, conformation} any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline)
"he could barely make out their shapes"

{n: shaping, defining} any process serving to define the shape of something

{n: silver standard} a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of silver

{n: simple phobia} any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with relatively simple well-defined stimuli

{n: slalom} a downhill race over a winding course defined by upright poles

{n: speed of light, light speed, c} the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second

{n: structuralism, structural linguistics} linguistics defined as the analysis of formal structures in a text or discourse

{n: terrestrial time, TT, terrestrial dynamical time, TDT, ephemeris time} (astronomy) a measure of time defined by Earth's orbital motion; terrestrial time is mean solar time corrected for the irregularities of the Earth's motions

{n: territoriality} the behavior of a male animal that defines and defends its territory

{n: traffic lane} a lane of a main road that is defined by painted lines
"that car is in the wrong traffic lane"

{n: type} (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon

{n: urtication, urticaria, hives, nettle rash} an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs

{n: weekend} a time period usually extending from Friday night through Sunday; more loosely defined as any period of successive days including one and only one Sunday

{n: yard, pace} a unit of length equal to 3 feet; defined as 91.44 centimeters; originally taken to be the average length of a stride

{v: define, delineate} delineate the form or outline of
"The tree was clearly defined by the light"
"The camera could define the smallest object"

{v: define} determine the nature of
"What defines a good wine?"

{v: define} give a definition for the meaning of a word
"Define `sadness'"

{v: explain} define
"The committe explained their plan for fund-raising to the Dean"

{v: pin down, narrow down} define clearly
"Can you pin down the difficulties"

{v: pin down, peg down, nail down, narrow down, narrow, specify} define clearly
"I cannot narrow down the rules for this game"

{v: specify, define, delineate, delimit, delimitate} determine the essential quality of

Taking advantage of the silence that had descended upon my grandfather, I turned my gaze from him to the vast area defined by his words.
祖父陷入了沉默,趁此机会,我移开注视着他的眼睛去看他提到的那片广阔的土地。

Some have even defined genius to be only common sense intensified.
有人甚至将天赋解释为只是增强的常识。

He defined embassy banking services as a highly specialised niche in the corporation's international banking division, encompassing embassies( 170) and foreign missions 800 in the US, multilateral institutions such as the Washington-based World Bank as well as NATO in Brussels and government ministries worldwide.
他将使馆银行业务界定为该公司国际银行业务部门中一个高度专业化的领域,围绕着驻美各国使馆( 170家)、外国代表机构( 800家)、多国参加的机构组织诸如驻华盛顿的世界银行和驻布鲁塞尔的北约组织,以及世界范围内的多个政府部门展开业务。

Having claimed his hapa haole grandson, my father no longer defined our family by a uniform set of features.
父亲接受了他的混血白种人外孙,不再用一套统一的特征来界定自己的家族。

It has come to define not only a city, but an entire nation and continent.
它已经不仅仅标志着一座城市,而且象征着一个国家和一个大洲。

MSN's Encarta World English Dictionary( dictionary.msn.com) drew a blank, but it did kindly offer to both define and pronounce the words I looked up.
我在微软网站( MSN )提供的《 Encarta 世界英语辞典》( dictionary.msn.com )里同样一无所获。不过还好,这本辞典对我查的几个词都提供了释义和读音。

( www.geocities.com/Athens/Marathon/5150/dictionary/ ) does: it's a collection of sound effects from comic books, each one rigorously defined and cross referenced.
(网址: www.geocities.comAthens )就是这样。该网站从各种连环漫画册中收集了许多声音词汇,对每个词都做了认真注解,并提供参照词汇对照。

The answer may depend on how you define the two.
回答要看你如何给二者定义。

It was genes that prescribed my shape, gave me five fingers on each hand and 32 teeth in my mouth, laid down my capacity for language and defined about half of my intellectual capacity.
基因决定了我的形,使我每只手上有五个指头,嘴里长 32颗牙齿,它还规定了我的语言能力和大约半数的智力活动。

For a separation to work, it needs to be well defined.
分居要获得成功,就必须对一些情况作出明确规定。

Chronic pain is generally defined as persistent pain, like daily migraines, or pain that continues after an injury heals or fails to heal.
一般说来,慢性疼痛症指的是持久难消的疼痛,如普通的偏头痛,或是指不管伤口有没有痊愈都会有的疼痛。

A digital certificate can be used to establish a person's online identity and define their relationships within a certain business or group.
电子证书可用于建立一个人的网身份,并确定他们在某一家公司或群体中的关系。

The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention-that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next.
由越来越高明的追捕者和越来越敏捷的逃跑者之间的交互作用所择取的那种智力取决于注意力(attention)--那大脑中将意识从一个瞬间携带至下一个瞬间的那一部分。

Mathematics must deal with well- defined situations.
数学必须处理明晰的(well-definded)的问题。

Give mathematicians a situation that is the least bit ill-defined, and they will make it well-defined, perhaps appropriately, but perhaps inappropriately.
给数学家出一道模糊性降至最低程度的难题,他们必将其弄得明晰确切,这样做或许恰当,但或许并不恰当。

Many writers have defined the woman's role in the salon as that of an intelligent hostess, but the salon had more than a social function for women.
许多作家将女性在沙龙中有作用定义为充当一个聪明的女主人的作用,但于对女性来说沙龙并不只具有一种社交功能。

In the early 1950's, historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books.
二十世纪五十年代早期,研究前工业化时代欧洲(此处我们可将其界定为约自1300年至1800年这一时期的欧洲)的史学家,首次以众多的人数,开始调查前工业化时代欧洲人口中的大多数,而非那些构成了政治与社会精英阶层的百分之二或三的人口,即国王、将军、法官、贵族、主教、以及地方上的达官显贵,而正是这部分人一直到那时为止普遍充斥于史学著作。

The best aluminum ore is bauxite, defined as aggregates of aluminous minerals, more or less impure, in which aluminum is present as hydrated oxides.
最佳的铝矿是铝土矿(bauxite),而所谓“铝土矿”,被定义为含铝矿物的总称,这些矿物或多或少并非纯粹,铝于其中作为水合氧化物(hydratedoxide)存在。

It arises from ragtime's following a well-defined form and obeying simple rules within that form.
它的产生是由于散拍乐遵循了一个极为明确的形式并服从这一形式内的简单规则。

Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin.
有关完好无损的枕状岩的充分的三维图像至关重要,用以确定枕状溶岩流真正的几何形状,并从而确定其起源方式。

Classical physics defines the vacuum as a state of absence: a vacuum is said to exist in a region of space if there is nothing in it.
古典物理学将真空(vacuum)定义为一种无物质存在的状态:据称,一个空间区域内如果一无所有,真空在其中便告存在。

Thus it is still possible to define that vacuum as a space that has no real particles in it.
因此,我们仍可以将真空定义为一个其中不存在任何真粒子的空间。

"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to define with any precision, which range from folklore to junk.
“通俗艺术”的涵义多种多样,无法确切地予以界定,既可涵盖民间传说,亦可包括蹩脚货,不一而足。

HS2818
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemi cally defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide
人造刚玉;氧化铝;氢氧化铝

HS28181000
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined
人造刚玉,不论是否已有化学定义

HS2848
Phosphides, whether or not chemically defined, excluding ferrophosphorus
磷化物,不论是否有化学定义,但不包括磷铁

HS2849
Carbides, whether or not chemically defined
碳化物,不论是否已有化学定义

HS3204
Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not chemically defined; preparations as specif
有机合成着色料及以其为基本成分的制品等

Chapter II 第二章
Neoplasms (C00-D48)
肿瘤 ( C00-D48 )
This chapter contains the following broad groups of neoplasms:
本章含下列各大群的肿瘤 :
C00-C75
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified
sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue
肯定或推测为原发性恶性肿瘤 ( 淋巴、造血或其相
关组织除外 )
C76-C80
Malignant neoplasms, of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites
未明示、续发性及未特定之恶性肿瘤
C81-C96
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of lymphoid,
haematopoietic and related tissue
淋巴、造血和相关组织肯定或推测为原发性恶性肿

C97
Malignant neoplasms of independent (primary)multiple sites
独立 ( 原发 ) 的多发部位之恶性肿瘤
D00-D09
In situ neoplasms
原位肿瘤
D10-D36
Benign neoplasms
良性肿瘤
D37-D48
Neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behaviour [see note, page 240]
未确定和不知作用的肿瘤〔参考第 240 页注解〕

1.
Primary,ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites of malignant
neoplasms
Categories C76-C80 include malignant neoplasms for which there is no clear indication of
the original site of the cancer or the cancer is stated to be
"disseminated","scattered" or "spread" without mention of
the primary site. In both cases the primary site is considered to be unknown.
原发性、未明示、续发性和未特定部位的恶性肿瘤
C76-C80 包含没有清楚指示癌的原发部位 , 或癌是 " 散
发的 ″ 、 " 散播的 ″ 或 " 传布的 ″ 且未提及原发部
位者 , 以上二者原发部位均被视为未知。

C14
Malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined sites in the lip, oral
cavity and pharynx
Excludes: oral cavity NOS (C06.9)
唇、口腔和咽其他及分界不明部位的恶性肿瘤
不包含 : 口腔 , 其他未明示的 ( C06.9 )

C26
Malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined digestive organs
Excludes: peritoneum and retroperitoneum (C48.-)
消化器其他和分界不明的恶性肿瘤
不包含 : 腹膜和後腹腔 ( C48.- )

C26.9
Ill-defined sites within the digestive system
Alimentary canal or tract NOS
Gastrointestinal tract NOS
Includes: middle ear
Excludes: mesothelioma (C45.-)
消化系统内分界不明的部位
其他未明示的营养管或道
其他未明示的胃肠道
包含 : 中耳
不包含 : 间皮瘤 ( C45.- )

C39
Malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined sites in the respiratory
system and intrathoracic organs
Excludes: intrathoracic NOS (C76.1)
thoracic NOS (C76.1)
呼吸系统和胸内器官其他及分界不明的恶性肿瘤
不包含 : 胸内其他未明示的 ( C76.1 )
胸其他未明示的 ( C76.1 )

C39.9
Ill-defined sites within the respiratory system
Respiratory tract NOS
Excludes: bone marrow NOS (C96.7)
synovia (C49.-)
呼吸系统内分界不明的部位
呼吸道其他未明示的
不包含 : 骨髓其他未明示的 ( C96.7 )
滑液 ( C49.- )

MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS OF ILL-DEFINED,
SECONDARY AND UNSPECIFIED SITES (C76-C80)
分界不明、续发和未明示部位的恶性肿瘤 ( C76-C80 )

C76
Malignant neoplasm of other and ill-defined sites
Excludes: malignant neoplasm of:
.genitourinary tract NOS:
.female (C57.9)
.male (C63.9)
.lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue (C81-C96)
.unspecified site (C80)
其他和分界不明部位的恶性肿瘤
不包含 : 恶性肿瘤 :
. 其他未明示的生殖泌尿道
. 女性 ( C57.9 )
. 男性 ( C63.9 )
. 淋巴、造血和相关姐织 ( C81-C96 )
. 未明示部位 ( C80 )

C76.7
Other ill-defined sites
其他分界不明的部位

C76.8
Overlapping lesion of other and ill-defined sites [See note 5 on page
182]
其他及分界不明部位的重叠性病灶〔请参考第 182 页
第 5 注解〕

D13
Benign neoplasm of other and ill-defined parts of digestive system
其他和难界定部位的消化系统之良性肿瘤

D13.9
Ill-defined sites within the digestive system
Digestive system NOS
Intestine NOS
Spleen
消化系统分界不明之部位
其他未明示的消化系统
其他未明示的肠
脾脏

.4
Withdrawal state with delirium  
A condition where the withdrawal state as defined in the common fourth character .3 is
complicated by delirium as defined in F05.-. Convulsions may also occur. When organic
factors are also considered to play a role in the etiology, the condition should be
classified to F05.8.
Delirium tremens (alcohol-induced)
并有谵妄之戒断状态
此情形发生在戒断状态 (F1x.3) 时并发谵妄 (请参阅
F05.-) , 可能并发痉挛。若器质因素被考虑为其病因时
, 此情形应归类於 F05.8 。
震颤性谵妄 ( 酒精引起 ) 。

F23
Acute and transient psychotic disorders
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the acute onset of psychotic symptoms
such as delusions, hallucinations, and perceptual disturbances, and by the severe
disruption of ordinary behaviour. Acute onset is defined as a crescendo development of a
clearly abnormal clinical picture in about two weeks or less. For these disorders there is
no evidence of organic causation. Perplexity and puzzlement are often present but
disorientation for time, place and person is not persistent or severe enough to justify a
diagnosis of organically caused delirium (F05.-). Complete recovery usually occurs within
a few months, often within a few weeks or even days. If the disorder persists, a change in
classification will be necessary. The disorder may or may not be associated with acute
stress, defined as usually stressful events preceding the onset by one to two weeks.
急性与短暂性精神病症 
此类具高异质性之疾病 , 其特徵是精神病性症状 ,
如妄想、幻觉、知觉障碍等之急性发作 , 对日常生
活有严重干扰。急性发作是二星期内渐进性发作。
没有器质性病因之存在。常有迷惘或迷惑之症状 ,
但对人、地与时间之定向感障碍之持续性与严重性
均不足以明显到可做器质性谵妄 (F05.-) 之诊断。一般
在几个月、几星期或甚至几天内即完全恢复。若症
状持续 , 则要改变诊断。此疾病不一定与急性压力
有关 , 所谓急性压力是病前一、二星期内压力事件
之发生。  

F40
Phobic anxiety disorders
A group of disorders in which anxiety is evoked only, or predominantly, in certain
well-defined situations that are not currently dangerous. As a result these situations are
characteristically avoided or endured with dread. The patient's concern may be focused on
individual symptoms like palpitations or feeling faint and is often associated with
secondary fears of dying, losing control, or going mad. Contemplating entry to the phobic
situation usually generates anticipatory anxiety. Phobic anxiety and depression often
coexist. Whether two diagnoses, phobic anxiety and depressive episode, are needed, or only
one, is determined by the time course of the two conditions and by therapeutic
considerations at the time of consultation.
畏惧焦虑症
当焦虑有在面对一些特定的外界情境或对象下才引
发 , 该情境对象并不具真正危险性质 , 个体却无法
忍受而必需规避之 , 是此障碍的特性。罹患者的顾
虑可能投注在诸如心悸或晕厥感等个别症状上等 ,
而且常伴有续发性的害怕死亡 , 失控或害怕发狂等
现象。通常越是预期身临该畏惧情境越会导致预期
性焦虑。畏惧性焦虑常常和忧郁并存 , 究竟是两个
诊断均有存在必要 , 抑或合为一个诊断即可 , 可取
决於何者明显为先即为主要诊断 , 或者诊断当时以
何者为临床治疗之主要考量。

F40.0
Agoraphobia
A fairly well-defined cluster of phobias embracing fears of leaving home, entering shops,
crowds and public places, or travelling alone in trains, buses or planes. Panic disorder
is a frequent feature of both present and past episodes. Depressive and obsessional
symptoms and social phobias are also commonly present as subsidiary features. Avoidance of
the phobic situation is often prominent, and some agoraphobics experience little anxiety
because they are able to avoid their phobic situations.
Agoraphobia without history of panic disorder


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