英语学习词典
  

consider

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consider [ kən'sidə] vt.认为;考虑;关心

considering that 鉴于…,就…而论

consider [kən'sidə] vt. 考虑

consider [kən'sidə] 考虑

considered [kən'sidəd] a.考虑过的,被尊重的

本命年 one's year of birth considered in relation to the 12 Terrestrial Branches

quality to be considered as being about equal to the sample 品质与样品大致相同

Since it is unnecessary to consider student's routine life, day school can lay stress on teaching instead of other aspects, such as management of dormitory and cafeteria.
由于无需考虑学生的日常生活,日制学校可以将重点放在教学上而不是放在像宿舍和食堂管理这些方面。

If I were a medical man, I should prescribe a holiday to any patient who considered his work important.
我如果是医生,就会开处方给所有认为自己的工作非同小可的病人放一天假。

When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property.
当一个人承担了公众的信任,就应该视自己为公众财产。

Snap judgments, if they are taken seriously, have usually been considered a lack of common sense.
快速判断,要是认真对待的话,通常被看成是缺乏判断力的表现。

There is no need to bring up his past when we are considering him for employment.
我们考虑他的工作问题时,没有必要再提他的过去。

We do not often consider the morality of our daily actions, though that should occupy a high position in our thinking.
虽然道德应在我们心目中占重要位置,可我们很少关心日常行为的道德问题。

I am on the committee considering new members for our club.
我是俱乐部委员会的委员,负责审查俱乐部新成员的资格。

Sometimes modern artists are considered radicals.
有时侯,现代派艺术家被认为是激进派。

If you cannot have your children of your own, why not consider adoption?
如果你们不能生育,为什么不考虑收养孩子?

I consider him a very able student.
我认为他是个很能干的学生。

I consider him to be a very able student.
我认为他是个很能干的学生。

I consider him to be too lazy to be a good worker.
我认为他太懒,成不了一个好工人。

I consider him too lazy to be a good worker.
我认为他太懒,成不了一个好工人。

I'm considering changing my job.
我在考虑换个工作。

If you consider (the fact) that she's only been studying English a year, she speaks it very well.
只要想想她才学了一年英语,你就会觉得她的英语说得很好了。

I consider it a great honor to be here with you today.
我觉得今天能和你在一起,是我莫大的荣幸。

If there is suspicion of someone, people do not trust him or consider him to be reliable.
如果有人涉嫌,人们便不信任他,或认为他不可靠。

We must consider each aspect of this plan before we decide.
决定之前,我们必须考虑此计划的每个方面。

I'm considering buying a house.
我想买套房子。

Thanks for your advice but I have to consider it myself.
谢谢你的建议,但我得自己想想。

Certainly Newton considered some theoretical aspects of it in his writings, but he was reluctant to go to sea to further his work.
当然牛顿在他的作品中写到了一些理论方面的东西,但他不愿进行更加深刻的研究。

During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to its parents, is yet considered emotionally “ priceless”.
她认为十九世纪给家庭经济作出贡献的孩子才“有用”的概念慢慢改变了,今天提到那些没有挣取收入的“无用”孩子,甚至还要花销很多,仍然在情感上被认为是无价的。

Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net(net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on, led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.
也学是早期的许多研究只考虑了一种大小足以被浮游植物网采集的水藻,而这种做法忽略了更小的浮游植物—现在我们知道食草动物很可能以它为生。这些事实和做法导致了在后面的研究中对食草动物的忽视。

Therefore, the task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train in order to change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west.
因此, DDB Needham的任务就是鼓励消费者考虑火车的其他好处来改变他们的态度,使西方乘坐火车的可能性提高

I think he conducted himself admirably, considering the difficult circumstances.
考虑到那种困难的情况,我认为他的表现令人钦佩。

Your suggestion shall be carefully considered.
你的建议会得到仔细考虑的。

I consider it a great honor to be invited to dinner.
我认为能被邀请参加晚宴是很大的荣幸。

他虽年轻,却很博学。
He's wise for his age. * for one's age“与年纪相比却……”
He's only ten and he made this.(他只有10岁就能做出这样的东西。)
He's wise for his age. (他虽年轻,却博学。)
He's wise considering his age.
He's wise for a man of his age.

这事全拜托你了。
I leave it entirely to your kind consideration. *consideration “体贴、照顾”。
I'll leave it up to you. 直译是“(工作或决定等)全都靠你了”。
Please consider it. *consider同think about,即“考虑”、“细想”。
I'd appreciate it if you could consider it.

分清场合。
Think about where you are.
You should consider where you are.

我会考虑的。
I'll consider it. *正式的说法。表达不能马上回答时,有“请给我时间考虑”、“让我考虑考虑”的语感。
Do you like my idea? (你接受我的建议吗?)
I'll consider it. (我会考虑的。)

我考虑考虑吧。
I'll think about it. *比I'll consider it.的说法更随便,比直接拒绝语气要缓和。
Will you come to my party? (你来参加我的晚会吗?)
I'll think about it. (我考虑考虑吧。)
I'll sleep on it. *俚语。
I'll give it some thought.

Could you consider accepting our counterproposal?
你能考虑接受我们的反对案吗?

That seems quite soon considering the nature of the product and shipping time.
考虑到产品的性质和运输时间那看来太快了。

We'd like you to consider our request once again.
我们希望贵方再次考虑我们的要求。

He that would know what shall be must consider what has been.
欲知未然,须思已然。

In the day of prosperity be joyful, but in the day of adversity consider.
顺利时要快乐,不利时要思索。

Could you consider accepting our counterproposal?
你能考虑接受我们的反对案吗?

We'd like you to consider our request once again.
我们希望贵方再次考虑我们的要求。

I'll consider this matter.
我会考虑这件事的。

Everything considered, work is less boring than amusing oneself.
Baudelaire Charles, French poet
不管怎样,娱乐比工作更令人乏味。
法国诗人查尔斯.B.

When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property.
Thomas Jefferson, American President
当一个人受到公众信任时,他就应该把自己看作公众的财产。
美国总统杰斐逊.T.

When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property.
Thomas Jefferson, American President
当一个人受到公众信任时,他就应该把自己看作公众的财产。
美国总统杰斐逊.T.

If you want to live your whole life free from pain,
You must become either a god or else a coupes.
Consider other men's troubles,
That will comfort yours.
Menander, Ancient Athenian playwriter
如果你想一生摆脱苦难,
你就得是神或者是死尸。
想想他人的不幸,
你就能坦然面对人生。
古雅典剧作家米南德

No man can be brave who considers pain the greatest evil of life; or temperate , who regards pleasure as the highest good.
Cicero , ancient Roman statsman
把痛苦视为生活中最大的祸害的人不可能勇敢;把欢乐视为生活中最美妙的人不会自我节制。
古罗马政治家西塞罗

Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.
一方当事人不履行本合同的全部或任何部分义务均应被视为是根本违约。

If you are interestedwe may consider selecting you as our partner.
如果贵公司感兴趣,我们可以考虑选择你们作为我们的合作伙伴。

Lower the price, and I'll consider it.
价钱低一点我才会考虑。

As a special sign of encouragement, we'll consider accepting payment by D/P at this sales-purchasing stage.
在此推销阶段,我们将考虑接受付款交单方式以资鼓励。

We may consider withdrawing the claim.
我们可以考虑撤回索赔要求。

We won't consider agency in your market at present.
我们目前不考虑在你地市场的代理问题。

When opportunity matures, we will consider making you our exclusive agent for the U.K.
当机会成熟时,我们将考虑委托你为我方在联合王国的独家代理。

We'll consider appointing you as our sole agent for our T shirts for the next two years in your local market.
我们将考虑指定您为贵国市场上T恤衫的独家代理,为期两年。

被尊重的 considered

To ask what is the best time to do anything, say: When’s the best time to . . . / When’s the best time to . . . or What’s the best time to . . . / What’s the best time to . . . e.g. When’s the best month to visit Beijing? / When’s the best month to visit Beijing; What’s the best time to meet you tomorrow? / What’s the best time to meet you tomorrow?
要问做某事的最佳时间,说:When’s the best time to . . . / 做 . . .的最佳时间是? 或者What’s the best time to . . . /什么时间是做. . .的最佳时间?例如When’s the best month to visit Beijing? / 什么时间到北京旅游最好?; What’s the best time to meet you tomorrow? /明天什么时间和你见面最合适?
A good way of summarising something, when everything has been considered, is by saying All in all . . . / All in all . . .
当考虑了所有的事情后,最好的总结方式是说:All in all . . . /总而言之. . .

不可一世 [bù kě yī shì] /consider oneself unexcelled in the world/be insufferably arrogant/

不失为 [bù shī wéi] /can still be considered (to be...)/may after all be accepted as/

裁断 [cái duàn] /consider and decide/

裁夺 [cái duó] /consider and decide/

称 [chēng] /to call/to praise/to weigh/to estimate/to consider/to call/to address/to name/to say/commend/

忖 [cǔn] /ponder/consider/guess/

考量 [kǎo liáng] /consider/consideration/

考虑 [kǎo lǜ] /to think over/to consider/consideration/

揆 [kuí] /consider/estimate/

认为 [rèn wéi] /to believe/to think/to consider/to feel/

深思 [shēn sī] /to ponder/to consider/

思 [sī] /to think/to consider/

思前想后 [sī qián xiǎng hòu] /(saying) to consider over and over again/

算是 [suàn shì] /considered to be/at last/

以为 [yǐ wéi] /consider (that)/believe/

酌 [zhuó] /consider/pour wine/

酌情 [zhuó qíng] /(v) carefully consider the situation/

自叹不如 [zì tàn bù rú] /to consider oneself as being not as good as the others/

Consider the $10.2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year.
请想一想今年南诺弗克公司和CSX公司为兼并康雷尔公司所花的102亿美元吧。
Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction.
康雷尔公司1996年铁路运营纯收入为4.27亿美元,这还不足这宗交易运作成本的一半。
Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill?
谁来支付其余的费用?
Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.
许多“被控”客户担心他们会,因为南诺弗克和CSX公司将增加对市场的控制。

How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree?
多少人会考虑过苹果向上飞到树上的可能性呢?
Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything.
牛顿考虑过,因为他不想对任何事情进行预测。

But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia — where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part — other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia.
但这一潮流已无法逆转。在澳大利亚,人口老龄化,延长寿命技术和公众态度的变化都发挥着各自的作用。其他州也将考虑制定类似的法律来处理安乐死问题。
In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.
在美国和加拿大,死亡权利运动正在积蓄力量。观察家们正在等待多米诺骨牌产生的效应。

A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them.
去美国访问的人经常带回报告说,大多数美国人对他们友善、好客、乐于助人。
To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American.
公正的说,人们对加拿大人也有这样的评论,因而,应当认为这是北美普遍的现象。

This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing.
这种非语言的空间思维方式与绘画和写作一样具有创意。
Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc, like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea."
罗伯特·法欧曾写道:“技术人员坐在杠杆、螺钉、楔子、轮子等中间,如同一位诗人处在词汇之中,应该把它们看做是自己思想的一种表达,每一个新的组合都能传达一个新的意念。”

In thinking about the evolution of memory together with all its possible aspects, it is helpful to consider what would happen if memories failed to fade.
在考虑记忆的进化及其所有可能的方面时,思考一下如果记忆不会消失会产生什么结果是很有用处的。

"I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we'll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer.
“我有极大的信心相信到这个十年期结束时我们将会详尽地知晓癌细胞的生成原因,”微生物学家罗伯特·温伯格,一位癌症专家如此说道,
"But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur. He discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available."
“但是,”他又告诫说,“有些人认为一旦人们弄清了病因,治疗方法很快就会跟上。其实不然,想想法国细菌学家巴斯德,他发现了许多传染病的成因,但治疗方法却在五六十年后才问世。”

{adj: allowable} deserving to be allowed or considered

{adj: analogous, correspondent} similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar
"brains and computers are often considered analogous"
"salmon roe is marketed as analogous to caviar"

{adj: anorectal} pertaining to the anus and rectum considered together

{adj: apt, disposed, given, minded, tending} (usually followed by `to') naturally disposed toward
"he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant"
"I am not minded to answer any questions"

{adj: ascendant, ascendent, dominating} most powerful or important or influential
"the economically ascendant class"
"D-day is considered the dominating event of the war in Europe"

{adj: assessable} capable of being considered carefully
"the assessable qualities of art"

{adj: base, dishonorable, dishonourable, immoral, unethical} not adhering to ethical or moral principles
"base and unpatriotic motives"
"a base, degrading way of life"
"cheating is dishonorable"
"they considered colonialism immoral"
"unethical practices in handling public funds"

{adj: bashful, blate} disposed to avoid notice
"they considered themselves a tough outfit and weren't bashful about letting anybody know it"; (`blate' is a Scottish term for bashful)

{adj: beta} second in order of importance
"the candidate, considered a beta male, was perceived to be unable to lead his party to victory"

{adj: blue-chip} extremely valuable
"Rembrandt is considered a blue-chip artist"

{adj: both} (used with count nouns) two considered together; the two
"both girls are pretty"

{adj: clannish, cliquish, clubby, snobbish, snobby} befitting or characteristic of those who incline to social exclusiveness and who rebuff the advances of people considered inferior

{adj: considered, reasoned, well thought out} resulting from careful thought
"the paper was well thought out"

{adj: considered} carefully weighed
"a considered opinion"

{adj: depraved, immoral, perverse, perverted, reprobate} marked by immorality; deviating from what is considered right or proper or good
"depraved criminals"
"a perverted sense of loyalty"
"the reprobate conduct of a gambling aristocrat"

{adj: deserving, meriting, worth} having sufficient worth
"an idea worth considering"
"a cause deserving or meriting support"
"the deserving poor" (often used ironically)

{adj: dissociable, separable, severable} capable of being divided or dissociated
"often drugs and crime are not dissociable"
"the siamese twins were not considered separable"
"a song...never conceived of as severable from the melody";

{adj: each} (used of count nouns) every one considered individually
"each person is mortal"
"each party is welcome"

{adj: every} (used of count nouns) each and all of the members of a group considered singly and without exception
"every person is mortal"
"every party is welcome"
"had every hope of success"
"every chance of winning"

{adj: expected} considered likely or probable to happen or arrive
"prepared for the expected attack"
<-> unexpected

{adj: expurgated} having material deleted
"at that time even Shakespeare was considered dangerous except in the expurgated versions"

{adj: ill-considered, ill-judged, improvident, shortsighted} not given careful consideration
"ill-considered actions often result in disaster"
"an ill-judged attempt"

{adj: indecent} offending against sexual mores in conduct or appearance
"a bathing suit considered indecent by local standards"

{adj: infallible} incapable of failure or error
"an infallible antidote"
"an infallible memory"
"the Catholic Church considers the Pope infallible"
"no doctor is infallible"
<-> fallible

{adj: infra dig} beneath your dignity
"considered helping with the dishes to be infra dig"

{adj: inhumane} lacking and reflecting lack of pity or compassion
"humans are innately inhumane; this explains much of the misery and suffering in the world"
"biological weapons are considered too inhumane to be used"
<-> humane

{adj: insignificant, trivial} not large enough to consider or notice

{adj: lucky} blessed with good fortune
"considered himself lucky that the tornado missed his house"
"a lucky guess"

{adj: manned} having a crew
"a manned earth satellite was considered a necessary research step"
<-> unmanned

{adj: mature, matured} fully considered and perfected
"mature plans"

{adj: negligible, paltry, trifling} not worth considering
"he considered the prize too paltry for the lives it must cost"
"piffling efforts"
"a trifling matter"

{adj: offensive, violative} violating or tending to violate or offend against
"violative of the principles of liberty"
"considered such depravity offensive against all laws of humanity"

{adj: organismal, organismic} of or relating to or belonging to an organism (considered as a whole)
"the organismic theory of the state"

{adj: out} not worth considering as a possibility
"a picnic is out because of the weather"

{adj: ponderable} capable of being weighed or considered
"something ponderable from the outer world--something of which we can say that its weight is so and so"- James Jeans
<-> imponderable

{adj: respective, several, various} considered individually
"the respective club members"
"specialists in their several fields"
"the various reports all agreed"

{adj: shelflike} resembling a shelf (or considered to resemble a shelf)
"shelflike table"

{adj: synchronic, descriptive} concerned with phenomena (especially language) at a particular period without considering historical antecedents
"synchronic linguistics"
"descriptive linguistics"
<-> diachronic

{adj: thinkable} capable of being conceived or imagined or considered
<-> unthinkable

{adj: un-American} considered contrary to the best interests of the United States

{adj: unladylike} lacking the behavior or manner or style considered proper for a lady

{adj: unqualified} lacking specific legal qualifications
"a wife is usually considered unqualified to testify against her husband"

{adj: unthinkable} incapable of being conceived or considered
<-> thinkable

{adj: wolflike, wolfish} resembling or characteristic (or considered characteristic) of a wolf
"ran in wolflike packs"
"wolfish rapacity"

{adj: womanish} having characteristics associated with women and considered undesirable in men
"womanish tears"

{adv: after all} emphasizes something to be considered
"after all, she is your boss, so invite her"
"he is, after all, our president"

{adv: all in all, on the whole, altogether, tout ensemble} with everything considered (and neglecting details)
"altogether, I'm sorry it happened"
"all in all, it's not so bad"

{adv: along} in addition (usually followed by `with')
"we sent them food and some clothing went along in the package"
"along with the package came a bill"
"consider the advantages along with the disadvantages"

{adv: anyhow, anyway, in any case, at any rate, in any event} used to indicate that a statement explains or supports a previous statement
"Anyhow, he is dead now"
"I think they're asleep; anyhow, they're quiet"
"I don't know what happened to it; anyway, it's gone"
"anyway, there is another factor to consider"
"I don't know how it started; in any case, there was a brief scuffle"
"in any event, the government faced a serious protest"
"but at any rate he got a knighthood for it"

{adv: compulsorily, obligatorily, mandatorily} in a manner that cannot be evaded
"the ministry considers that contributions to such a fund should be met from voluntary donations rather than from rates compulsorily levied."

{adv: each, to each one, for each one, from each one, apiece} to or from every one of two or more (considered individually)
"they received $10 each"

{adv: educationally} in an educational manner
"the assistant masters formed a committee of their own to consider what could be done educationally for the town"

{adv: even} used as an intensive especially to indicate something unexpected
"even an idiot knows that"
"declined even to consider the idea"
"I don't have even a dollar!"

{adv: first, firstly, foremost, first of all, first off} before anything else
"first we must consider the garter snake"

{adv: rightly, justly, justifiedly} with honesty
"he was rightly considered the greatest singer of his time"
<-> unjustly

{adv: second, secondly} in the second place
"second, we must consider the economy"

{adv: separably} with possibility of separation or individuation
"the two ideas were considered separably"
<-> inseparably

{adv: singularly} in a singular manner or to a singular degree
"Lord T. was considered singularly licentious even for the courts of Russia and Portugal; he acquired three wives and fourteen children during his Portuguese embassy alone"

{adv: third, thirdly} in the third place
"third we must consider unemployment"

{n: Adapid, Adapid group} extinct small mostly diurnal lower primates that fed on leaves and fruit; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; their descendents probably include the lemurs; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins

{n: Aegypiidae, family Aegypiidae} in some classifications considered the family comprising the Old World vultures which are more often included in the family Accipitridae

{n: Ailuropoda, genus Ailuropoda} only the giant panda: in some classifications considered a genus of the separate family Ailuropodidae

{n: Ailuropodidae, family Ailuropodidae} in some classifications considered the family comprising the giant pandas

{n: Albigensianism, Catharism} a Christian movement considered to be a medieval descendant of Manichaeism in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries; characterized by dualism (asserted the coexistence of two mutually opposed principles, one good and one evil); was exterminated for heresy during the Inquisition

{n: Algeripithecus minutus} tiny (150 to 300 grams) extinct primate of 46 to 50 million years ago; fossils found in Algeria; considered by some authorities the leading candidate for the first anthropoid

{n: Ali} the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites; he was a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; after his assassination Islam was divided into Shiite and Sunnite sects

{n: Alopius, genus Alopius} type genus of the family Alopiidae; in some classifications considered a genus of the family Lamnidae

{n: Amaryllidaceae, family Amaryllidaceae, amaryllis family} snowdrop; narcissus; daffodil; in some classification systems considered a subfamily of the Liliaceae

{n: Ambrosiaceae, family Ambrosiaceae} in some classifications considered a separate family comprising a subgroup of the Compositae including the ragweeds

{n: American mastodon, American mastodont, Mammut americanum} mastodon of North America; in some classifications considered a mammoth rather than a mastodon

{n: American merganser, Mergus merganser americanus} common North American diving duck considered a variety of the European goosander

{n: Angiospermae, class Angiospermae, Magnoliophyta, division Magnoliophyta, Anthophyta, division Anthophyta} comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta)

{n: Arvicola, genus Arvicola} in some classifications considered synonymous with Microtus

{n: Ascomycota, subdivision Ascomycota, Ascomycotina, subdivision Ascomycotina} a large subdivision of Eumycota including Hemiascomycetes and Plectomycetes and Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes; sac fungi; in some classification systems considered a division of the kingdom Fungi

{n: Baal} any of numerous local fertility and nature deities worshipped by ancient Semitic peoples; the Hebrews considered Baal a false god

{n: Bakke decision} a ruling by the Supreme Court on affirmative action; the Court ruled in 1978 that medical schools are entitled to consider race as a factor in their admission policy

{n: Basidiomycota, subdivision Basidiomycota, Basidiomycotina, subdivision Basidiomycotina} comprises fungi bearing the spores on a basidium; includes Gasteromycetes (puffballs) and Tiliomycetes comprising the orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts) and Hymenomycetes (mushrooms, toadstools, agarics and bracket fungi); in some classification systems considered a division of kingdom Fungi

{n: Bassariscidae, subfamily Bassariscidae} in some classifications considered a separate family

{n: Blattodea, suborder Blattodea, Blattaria, suborder Blattaria} cockroaches; in some classifications considered an order

{n: Boskop man} possible early Homo sapiens represented by a cranium found in the Transvaal; formerly considered a separate species

{n: Cabombaceae, subfamily Cabombaceae, water-shield family} in some classifications considered an independent family of water lilies; comprises the genera Cabomba and Brasenia

{n: Calderon, Calderon de la Barca, Pedro Calderon de la Barca} Spanish poet and dramatist considered one of the great Spanish writers (1600-1681)

{n: Carducci, Giosue Carducci} Italian poet considered the national poet of modern Italy (1835-1907)

{n: Carduelis, genus Carduelis} in some classifications considered the type genus of a subfamily Carduelinae of the family Fringillidae: goldfinches; siskins; redpolls; linnets

{n: Cetoniidae, subfamily Cetoniidae} considered a separate family in some classification systems

{n: Cetorhinidae, family Cetorhinidae} in some older classifications considered the family of the basking sharks

{n: Cetorhinus, genus Cetorhinus} comprising only the basking sharks; in some classifications considered the type genus of a separate family Cetorhinidae

{n: Chamaeleontidae, family Chamaeleontidae, Chamaeleonidae, family Chamaeleonidae, Rhiptoglossa, family Rhiptoglossa} Old World chameleons; in some classifications they are considered a superfamily of Sauria

{n: Chateaubriand, Francois Rene Chateaubriand, Vicomte de Chateaubriand} French statesman and writer; considered a precursor of the romantic movement in France (1768-1848)

{n: Churchill, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, First Duke of Marlborough} English general considered one of the greatest generals in history (1650-1722)

{n: Comstock, Anthony Comstock} United States reformer who led moral crusades against art and literature that he considered obscene (1844-1915)

{n: Conodonta, order Conodonta, Conodontophorida, order Conodontophorida} extinct order of primitive vertebrates; the precise taxonomy is not clear; in some classifications considered a separate phylum

{n: Cryptotermes, genus Cryptotermes} genus of dry wood termites; cosmopolitan in distribution; sometimes considered a subgenus of Kalotermes

{n: Ctenophora, phylum Ctenophora} comb jellies; sea acorns; a small phylum formerly considered a class of Coelenterata

{n: Cupid's bow} the double curve of the upper lip when considered to resemble Cupid's bow

{n: Cyanophyta, division Cyanophyta} prokaryotic organisms sometimes considered a class or phylum or subkingdom; coextensive with the Cyanophyceae: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

{n: Cycadopsida, class Cycadopsida, Cycadophytina, subdivision Cycadophytina, Cycadophyta, subdivision Cycadophyta} palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group; in some systems considered a class (Cycadopsida) and in others a subdivision (Cycadophytina or Cycadophyta)

{n: Dentaria, genus Dentaria} usually included in genus Cardamine; in some classifications considered a separate genus

{n: Dicotyledones, class Dicotyledones, Dicotyledonae, class Dicotyledonae, Magnoliopsida, class Magnoliopsida} comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

{n: Dinoflagellata, order Dinoflagellata, Cilioflagellata, order Cilioflagellata} in some classifications considered a phylum of the kingdom Protista; in others included in the plant phylum Pyrrophyta

{n: Duplicidentata} in former classifications considered a suborder of Rodentia coextensive with the order Lagomorpha: gnawing animals

{n: Eisenstein, Sergei Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein} Russian film maker who pioneered the use of montage and is considered among the most influential film makers in the history of motion pictures (1898-1948)

{n: Entoprocta, phylum Entoprocta, Endoprocta} sometimes considered a subphylum of Bryozoa

{n: Epistle to the Hebrews, Hebrews} a New Testament book traditionally included among the epistle of Saint Paul but now generally considered not to have been written by him

{n: Eubacteriales, order Eubacteriales} one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-positive spherical or rod-shaped forms; some are motile; in some classifications considered an order of Schizomycetes

{n: Euglenaceae, family Euglenaceae} considered green algae

{n: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Fatah-RC, Abu Nidal Organization, ANO, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims} a Palestinian international terrorist organization that split from the PLO in 1974; has conducted terrorist attacks in 20 countries
"in the 1980s the Fatah-RC was considered the most dangerous and murderous Palestinian terror group"

{n: Father, Father-God, Fatherhood} God when considered as the first person in the Trinity
"hear our prayers, Heavenly Father"

{n: Faunus} (Roman mythology) ancient rural deity; later considered a counterpart of Greek Pan

{n: Fissipedia} in some classifications considered a suborder of Carnivora

{n: Gaboriau, Emile Gaboriau} French writer considered by some to be a founder of the detective novel (1832-1873)

{n: Gadiformes, order Gadiformes} cods, haddocks, grenadiers; in some classifications considered equivalent to the order Anacanthini

{n: Galician} a language spoken in Galicia in northwestern Spain; it is between Portuguese and Spanish but closer to Portuguese; sometimes considered a Portuguese or Spanish dialect

{n: Giotto, Giotto di Bondone} Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style; considered the greatest Italian painter prior to the Renaissance (1267-1337)

{n: Gnetales, order Gnetales} chiefly tropical or xerophytic woody plants; practically unknown as fossils but considered close to the ancestral line of angiosperms

{n: Gnosticism} a religious orientation advocating gnosis as the way to release a person's spiritual element; considered heresy by Christian churches

{n: Grossulariaceae, family Grossulariaceae, gooseberry family} in some classifications considered a part of the family Saxifragaceae: plants whose fruit is a berry

{n: Gymnospermae, class Gymnospermae, Gymnospermophyta, division Gymnospermophyta} plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Gymnospermae) and in others a division (Gymnospermophyta); comprises three subdivisions (or classes): Cycadophytina (class Cycadopsida) and Gnetophytina (class Gnetopsida) and Coniferophytina (class Coniferopsida); in some classifications the Coniferophytina are divided into three groups: Pinophytina (class Pinopsida) and Ginkgophytina (class Ginkgopsida) and Taxophytina (class Taxopsida)

{n: Hamamelidae, subclass Hamamelidae} a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder

{n: Hieracium, genus Hieracium} large genus of perennial hairy herbs of Europe to western Asia to northwestern Africa and North America; few are ornamental; often considered congeneric with Pilosella

{n: Horneophyton, genus Horneophyton} Devonian fossil plant considered one of the earliest forms of vascular land plants; similar to genus Rhynia but smaller

{n: Hylobatidae, family Hylobatidae} used in some classifications for the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs); sometimes considered a subfamily of Pongidae

{n: Hypoderma, genus Hypoderma} in some classifications considered the type genus of the family Hypodermatidae: warble flies

{n: Ibero-mesornis} sparrow-sized fossil bird of the Cretaceous period having a vestigial tail; found in Spain; considered possibly the third most primitive of all birds

{n: Ishmael} (Old Testament) the son of Abraham who was cast out after the birth of Isaac; considered the forebear of 12 Arabian tribes

{n: Japanese} the language (usually considered to be Altaic) spoken by the Japanese

{n: Jesuitism, Jesuitry} the theology or the practices of the Jesuits (often considered to be casuistic)

{n: Katsuwonidae, family Kasuwonidae} in some classifications considered a separate family comprising the oceanic bonitos

{n: Kierkegaard, Soren Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye Kierkegaard} Danish philosopher who is generally considered. along with Nietzsche, to be a founder of existentialism (1813-1855)

{n: Kwan-yin, Kuan Yin} (Buddhism) a female Bodhisattva; often called goddess of mercy and considered an aspect of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara; identified with Japanese Kwannon

{n: Lagomorpha, order Lagomorpha} rabbits; hares; pikas; formerly considered the suborder Duplicidentata of the order Rodentia

{n: Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Latrobe} United States architect (born in England) whose works include the chambers of the United States Congress and the Supreme Court; considered the first professional architect in the United States (1764-1820)

{n: Lemuroidea, suborder Lemuroidea} Lemuridae; Lorisidae; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; used in some classifications instead of Prosimii; in others considered a subdivision of Prosimii

{n: Levant cotton, Gossypium herbaceum} Old World annual having heart-shaped leaves and large seeds with short greyish lint removed with difficulty; considered an ancestor of modern short-staple cottons

{n: Louis IX, Saint Louis, St. Louis} king of France and son of Louis VIII; he led two unsuccessful crusades; considered an ideal medieval king (1214-1270)

{n: Lutra, genus Lutra} in some classifications considered a genus of the subfamily Lutrinae

{n: Lycopsida, class Lycopsida, Lycopodiate, class Lycopodiate} club mosses and related forms: includes Lycopodiales; Isoetales; Selaginellales; and extinct Lepidodendrales; sometimes considered a subdivision of Tracheophyta

{n: Maginot Line} a fortification built before World War II to protect France's eastern border; initially considered to be impregnable it was easily overrun by the Germans in 1940

{n: Maimonides, Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon} Spanish philosopher considered the greatest Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages who codified Jewish law in the Talmud (1135-1204)

{n: Manteodea, suborder Manteodea} mantises; in former classifications considered a suborder of Orthoptera

{n: Marco Polo sheep, Marco Polo's sheep, Ovis poli} Asiatic wild sheep with exceptionally large horns; sometimes considered a variety of the argali (or Ovis ammon)

{n: Martyniaceae, family Martyniaceae} in most classifications not considered a separate family but included in the Pedaliaceae

{n: Mastotermes, genus Mastotermes} primitive genus of termites; mostly extinct; sometimes considered the most primitive Isoptera

{n: Matthew, Saint Matthew, St. Matthew, Saint Matthew the Apostle, St. Matthew the Apostle, Levi} (New Testament) disciple of Jesus; traditionally considered to be the author of the first Gospel

{n: Megaloptera, suborder Megaloptera} in some classifications considered a separate order: alderflies; dobsonflies; snake flies

{n: Melolonthidae, subfamily Melolonthidae} considered a separate family in some classification systems

{n: Messiah} Jesus Christ; considered by Christians to be the promised deliverer

{n: Mimidae, family Mimidae} sometimes considered a subfamily of Troglodytidae: mockingbirds; catbirds; thrashers

{n: Montezuma} evergreen tree with large leathery leaves and large pink to orange flowers; considered a link plant between families Bombacaceae and Sterculiaceae

{n: Ndebele, Matabele} a Bantu language sometimes considered a dialect of Zulu

{n: Nelumbonaceae, subfamily Nelumbonaceae} in some classifications considered an independent family of water lilies; comprises the single genus Nelumbo

{n: Nicklaus, Jack Nicklaus, Jack William Nicklaus} United States golfer considered by many to be the greatest golfer of all time (born in 1940)

{n: Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche} influential German philosopher remembered for his concept of the superman and for his rejection of Christian values; considered, along with Kierkegaard, to be a founder of existentialism (1844-1900)

{n: Nijinsky, Vaslav Nijinsky, Waslaw Nijinsky} Russian dancer considered by many to be the greatest dancer of the 20th century (1890-1950)

{n: Okinawa, Okinawa campaign} a campaign in the closing days of World War II in the Pacific (April to June 1945); in savage close-quarter fighting United States marines and regular army troops took the island from the Japanese; considered the greatest victory of the Pacific campaign for the Americans

{n: Omomyid, Omomyid group} extinct tiny nocturnal lower primates that fed on fruit and insects; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; probably gave rise to the tarsiers; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins

{n: Ostariophysi, order Ostariophysi} in some classifications considered a superorder comprising the Cypriniformes and the Siluriformes

{n: Passeridae, family Passeridae} true sparrows: Old world birds formerly considered weaverbirds

{n: Pastor, subgenus Pastor} only the rose-colored starlings; in some classifications considered a separate genus

{n: Paul, Saint Paul, St. Paul, Apostle Paul, Paul the Apostle, Apostle of the Gentiles, Saul, Saul of Tarsus} (New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles; author of several Epistles in the New Testament; even though Paul was not present at the Last Supper he is considered an apostle
"Paul's name was Saul prior to his conversion to Christianity"

{n: Percoidea, suborder Percoidea} in some classifications nearly or exactly equivalent to the Perciformes which are considered a suborder

{n: Peristediinae, subfamily Peristediinae} in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising the armored searobins

{n: Phasmida, order Phasmida, Phasmatodea, order Phasmatodea} in some classifications considered a suborder of Orthoptera: stick insects; leaf insects

{n: Phegopteris, genus Phegopteris} beech ferns: genus is variously classified: considered alternative name for genus Dryopteris or included in genus Thelypteris

{n: Phytomastigina, subclass Phytomastigina} plantlike flagellates containing chlorophyll; often considered unicellular algae

{n: Pilosella, genus Pilosella} genus of hairy perennial herbs with horizontal rhizomes and leafy or underground stolons; Eurasia and North Africa; often considered congeneric with Hieracium

{n: Polyplacophora, class Polyplacophora} small class of marine mollusks comprising the chitons; sometimes considered an order of the subclass Amphineura

{n: Pongidae, family Pongidae} usually considered as comprising orangutans; gorillas; chimpanzees; and sometimes gibbons

{n: Prosimii, suborder Prosimii} not used in all classifications; in some classifications considered coextensive with the Lemuroidea; in others includes both Lemuroidea and Tarsioidea

{n: Protozoa, phylum Protozoa} in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers

{n: Pteridophyta, division Pteridophyta} containing all the vascular plants that do not bear seeds: ferns, horsetails, club mosses, and whisk ferns; in some classifications considered a subdivision of Tracheophyta

{n: Pythagoras} Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician (circa 580-500 BC)

{n: Pythoninae, subfamily Pythoninae} Old World boas: pythons; in some classifications considered a separate family from Boidae

{n: Salafism, Salafi movement} a militant group of extremist Sunnis who believe themselves the only correct interpreters of the Koran and consider moderate Muslims to be infidels; seek to convert all Muslims and to insure that its own fundamentalist version of Islam will dominate the world

{n: Santa Cruz cypress, Cupressus abramsiana, Cupressus goveniana abramsiana} rare California cypress taller than but closely related to gowen cypress and sometimes considered the same species

{n: Sardinian} the Italian dialect spoken in Sardinia; sometimes considered a separate language with many loan words from Spanish

{n: Scandentia, order Scandentia} a small order comprising only the tree shrews: in some classifications tree shrews are considered either primates (and included in the suborder Prosimii) or true insectivores (and included in the order Insectivora)

{n: Scandinavia} a group of culturally related countries in northern Europe; Finland and Iceland are sometimes considered Scandinavian

{n: Sciadopityaceae, family Sciadopityaceae} family comprising a single genus that until recently was considered part of Taxodiaceae

{n: Shakespeare, William Shakespeare, Shakspere, William Shakspere, Bard of Avon} English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)

{n: Shema} a liturgical prayer (considered to be the essence of Jewish religion) that is recited at least twice daily by adult Jewish males to declare their faith
"as soon as Leonard learned to talk he was taught to recite the first words of the Shema, the creed of Judaism which originated on Sinai with Moses and is recited daily"

{n: Sinornis} sparrow-sized fossil bird of the Jurassic period to the Cretaceous period having a keeled breastbone and vestigial tail; found in China; considered possibly the second most primitive of all birds

{n: Spinus, genus Spinus} in some classifications considered a subgenus of Carduelis: siskins and New World goldfinches

{n: Sylviidae, family Sylviidae} in some classifications considered a subfamily (Sylviinae) of the family Muscicapidae: Old World (true) warblers; American kinglets and gnatcatchers

{n: Synapsida, subclass Synapsida} extinct reptiles of the Permian to Jurassic considered ancestral to mammals

{n: Tardigrada, class Tardigrada} in some classifications considered a separate phylum: microscopic arachnid-like invertebrates living in water or damp moss having 4 pairs of legs and instead of a mouth a pair of stylets or needlelike piercing organs connected with the pharynx

{n: Taxidea, genus Taxidea} in some classifications considered a genus of subfamily Melinae

{n: Taxodiaceae, subfamily Taxodiaceae, redwood family} coniferous trees; traditionally considered an independent family though recently included in Cupressaceae in some classification systems

{n: Thallophyta} used only in former classifications: comprising what is now considered a heterogeneous assemblage of flowerless and seedless organisms: algae; bacteria; fungi; lichens

{n: Thelypteris, genus Thelypteris} marsh ferns: in some classification systems considered part of genus Dryopteris in family Dryopteridaceae

{n: Torah, Pentateuch, Laws} the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit

{n: Triglinae, subfamily Triglinae} in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising searobins having ordinary scales and no barbels (true searobins)

{n: Trilliaceae, family Trilliaceae, trillium family} small family of herbs having flowers with 3 petals and 3 sepals; in some classification systems considered a subfamily of the Liliaceae

{n: Tupaiidae, family Tupaiidae} tree shrews; in some classifications tree shrews are considered prosimian primates

{n: Turdidae, family Turdidae} thrushes; in some classifications considered a subfamily (Turdinae) of the family Muscicapidae

{n: Ummah, Umma, Muslim Ummah, Islamic Ummah, Islam Nation} the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan


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