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慢性萧条 chronic depression 

chronic a.长期的;慢性的

病包儿 [bìng bāo er ] /a person who is always falling ill/chronic invalid/

疚 [jiù] /chronic disease/

{adj: acute} having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course
"acute appendicitis"
"the acute phase of the illness"
"acute patients"
<-> chronic

{adj: chronic} being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
"chronic indigestion"
"a chronic shortage of funds"
"a chronic invalid"
<-> acute

{adj: confirmed, habitual, inveterate} having a habit of long standing
"a chronic smoker"

{n: Gaucher's disease} a rare chronic disorder of lipid metabolism of genetic origin

{n: alcoholic dementia, alcohol amnestic disorder, Korsakoff's psychosis, Korsakoff's syndrome, Korsakov's psychosis, Korsakov's syndrome, polyneuritic psychosis} dementia observed during the last stages of severe chronic alcoholism; involves loss of memory for recent events although long term memory is intact

{n: alveolitis} inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs caused by inhaling dust; with repeated exposure the condition may become chronic

{n: amyloidosis} a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma

{n: ankylosing spondylitis, Marie-Strumpell disease, rheumatoid spondylitis} a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis

{n: asthmatic} a person suffering from asthma
"she is a chronic asthmatic"
"the painful gasps of a dying asthmatic"

{n: bedsore, pressure sore, decubitus ulcer} a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)

{n: benzodiazepine} any of several similar lipophilic amines used as tranquilizers or sedatives or hypnotics or muscle relaxants; chronic use can lead to dependency

{n: cachexia, cachexy, wasting} any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease

{n: chronic bronchitis} a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow

{n: chronic gastritis} persistent gastritis can be a symptom of a gastric ulcer or pernicious anemia or stomach cancer or other disorders

{n: chronic glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma} glaucoma caused by blockage of the canal of Schlemm; produces gradual loss of peripheral vision

{n: chronic glossitis} glossitis with atrophy of tongue tissue; sometimes accompanies pernicious anemia

{n: chronic leukemia} slowly progressing leukemia

{n: chronic lymphocytic leukemia} chronic leukemia characterized by lymphoblast-like cells; more common in older men

{n: chronic myelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia} chronic leukemia characterized by granular leukocytes; more common in older people

{n: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease} a nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; usually patients have been heavy cigarette smokers

{n: chronic pyelonephritis} pyelonephritis that develops slowly and can lead to renal failure if untreated; often associated with a kidney stone or with narrowing of the urinary passageways

{n: chronic renal failure, chronic kidney failure} renal failure that can result from a variety of systemic disorders

{n: chronic wasting disease} a wildlife disease (akin to bovine spongiform encephalitis) that affects deer and elk

{n: cirrhosis, cirrhosis of the liver} a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism

{n: diabetes insipidus} a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst

{n: discoid lupus erythematosus, DLE} a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose

{n: drunkard, drunk, rummy, sot, inebriate, wino} a chronic drinker

{n: dysthymia, dysthymic depression} mild chronic depression
"I thought she had just been in a bad mood for thirty years, but the doctor called it dysthymia"

{n: elephantiasis scroti, chyloderma} swelling of the scrotum resulting from chronic lymphatic obstruction

{n: emphysema, pulmonary emphysema} an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age

{n: fistulous withers, fistula} a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse

{n: generalized anxiety disorder, GAD, anxiety reaction} an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months

{n: gleet} a thin morbid discharge as from a wound or especially chronic gonorrhea

{n: heaves, broken wind} a chronic emphysema of the horse that causes difficult expiration and heaving of the flanks

{n: hypochondria, hypochondriasis} chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments

{n: insomnia} an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
<-> hypersomnia

{n: interstitial pneumonia} chronic lung disease affecting the interstitial tissue of the lungs

{n: invalid, shut-in} someone who is incapacitated by a chronic illness or injury

{n: invalidism} chronic ill health

{n: iron deficiency anemia, iron deficiency anaemia} a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding

{n: lead colic, painter's colic} symptom of chronic lead poisoning and associated with obstinate constipation

{n: leprosy, Hansen's disease} chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae

{n: lichtenoid eczema, chronic eczema, eczema hypertrophicum} eczema characterized by thickening of the skin with accentuated skin lines

{n: lupus erythematosus, LE} a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)

{n: lymphadenopathy} chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)

{n: multiple sclerosis, MS, disseminated sclerosis, disseminated multiple sclerosis} a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers

{n: myasthenia gravis, myasthenia} a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions

{n: osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease} chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age

{n: ozena, ozaena} a chronic disease of the nose characterized by a foul-smelling nasal discharge and atrophy of nasal structures

{n: pernicious anemia, pernicious anaemia, malignant anemia, malignant anaemia} a chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)

{n: pneumoconiosis, pneumonoconiosis} chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles

{n: postnasal drip} chronic secretion of mucus from the rear of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx

{n: prurigo} chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by blister capped papules and intense itching

{n: pruritus ani} chronic itching of the skin around the anus

{n: psoriasis} a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences

{n: pyorrhea, pyorrhoea, pyorrhea alveolaris, Riggs' disease} chronic periodontitis; purulent inflammation of the teeth sockets

{n: realization, realisation, recognition} coming to understand something clearly and distinctly
"a growing realization of the risk involved"
"a sudden recognition of the problem he faced"
"increasing recognition that diabetes frequently coexists with other chronic diseases"

{n: regional enteritis, regional ileitis, Crohn's disease} a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss

{n: rheumatoid arthritis, atrophic arthritis, rheumatism} a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint

{n: sanatorium, sanatarium, sanitarium} a hospital for recuperation or for the treatment of chronic diseases

{n: sarcoidosis} a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands

{n: scrapie} a fatal disease of sheep characterized by chronic itching and loss of muscular control and progressive degeneration of the central nervous system

{n: seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema} a chronic skin disease associated with seborrhea and greasy scales on the scalp or eyelids or other parts of the skin

{n: sporotrichosis} a chronic fungal infection of the skin and lymph nodes

{n: sprue, tropical sprue} a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non-tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation

{n: subacute bacterial endocarditis} a chronic bacterial infection of the endocardium and heart valves; symptoms develop slowly

{n: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, SSPE, inclusion body encephalitis, subacute inclusion body encephalitis, sclerosing leukoencephalitis, subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis, Bosin's disease, Dawson's encephalitis, Van Bogaert encephalitis} a rare chronic progressive encephalitis caused by the measles virus and occurring primarily in children and young adults; death usually occurs within three years; characterized by primary measles infection before the age of two years

{n: tabes} wasting of the body during a chronic disease

{n: thrombocytosis} increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form; associated with many neoplasms and chronic infections and other diseases

{n: tophus, chalkstone} a deposit of urates around a joint or in the external ear; diagnostic of advanced or chronic gout

{n: trachoma} a chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue

{n: tyrosine kinase inhibitor} a drug used in cases of chronic myeloid leukemia

{n: ulcerative colitis} a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea

{n: wheeziness} presence of abnormal high-pitched sound heard with a stethoscope when an airway is blocked (as in asthma or chronic bronchitis)

{n: xanthoma disseminatum} rare chronic xanthoma of adults n which orange or brownish papules develop on many surfaces of the body

Susan Thys-Jacobs, an endocrinologist and clinical director of the Metabolic Bone Centre at St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Centre, believes a chronic deficiency of calcium is largely responsible.

The pathology slides from 1953 also show that O'Neill's liver and other organs, often affected by chronic alcoholism, were normal.
采自 1953年的病理切片还表明奥尼尔的常受慢性酒精中毒影响的肝脏和其他器官是正常的。

From financial news courtesy of Bloomberg TV to gardening tips from Women.com to facts on chronic fatigue syndrome from FasTV, there's something for everyone at this wide-ranging site.
该网站涵盖面颇广,包括 BloombergTV 的财经新闻、 Women.com 的园艺秘诀、 FasTV 的慢性疲劳症状等等,数不数。

It's a chronic, relapsing problem.

Although an estimated 50 million Americans suffer from chronic pain, only 26% of those battling moderate to severe pain see the proper specialists.
尽管大约有五千万美国人患有慢性疼痛症,但是那些忍受中等程度的疼痛或剧痛的患者中只有 26%找到了合适的专家看玻

Chronic pain is generally defined as persistent pain, like daily migraines, or pain that continues after an injury heals or fails to heal.

The most effective appear to the tricyclics, prescribed for a broad spectrum of pain, including headaches, arthritis, chronic low-back pain, fibromyalgia, cancer pain and diabetic nerve pain; they can in some people lower blood pressure, create confusion and cause constipation and urine retention.
最有效的似乎是三环抗抑郁药,用来治疗相当多的疼痛症,包括头疼、关节疼、慢性腰背部疼痛、纤维肌瘤疼痛、癌症疼痛和糖尿病引起的神经疼痛;但是,这类药物会降低一些患者的血压,导致意识混乱,造成便秘和小便 ( FW) 留。

They won't work for everyone, but there's a strong chance, if you suffer from chronic pain, they'll make your life a lot more comfortable.

They won't work for everyone, but there's a strong chance, if you suffer from chronic pain, they'll make your life a@ lot more comfortable.

Although the evidence is largely anecdotal, some parents charge that inoculations have brought on such disorders as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes and even autism.

Rehabilitation services for people with chronic disabilities

Chronic intestinal amoebiasis

Subacute and chronic melioidosis

Chronic meningococcaemia

Chronic viral hepatitis

Chronic viral hepatitis B with delta-agent
伴有 δ 因子的慢性病毒性 B 型肝炎

Chronic viral hepatitis B without delta-agent
Chronic (viral) hepatitis B
无 δ 因子的慢性病毒性 B 型肝炎
慢性 ( 病毒性 ) B 型肝炎

Chronic viral hepatitis C
慢性病毒性 C 型肝炎

Other chronic viral hepatitis

Chronic viral hepatitis, unspecified

Chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis capsulati

Chronic pulmonary blastomycosis

Chagas' disease (chronic) with heart involvement (I41.2*,I98.1*)
American trypanosomiasis NOS
Chagas' disease (chronic) (with):
.cardiovascular involvement NEC (I98.1*)
.myocarditis (I41.2*)
Trypanosomiasis NOS, in places where Chagas' disease is prevalent
侵及心脏的 ( 慢性 ) 却格斯病 ( I41.2* , I98.1* )
却格斯病 ( 慢性 ) ( 伴有 ) :
. 其他未明示的
. 他处未归类而侵及心脏血管的 ( I98.1* )
. 心肌炎 ( I41.2* )

Chagas' disease (chronic) with digestive system involvement
侵及消化系统的 ( 慢性 ) 却格斯氏病

Chagas' disease (chronic) with nervous system involvement
侵及神经系统的 ( 慢性 ) 却格斯氏病

Chagas' disease (chronic) with other organ involvement
侵及其他器官的 ( 慢性 ) 却格斯氏病

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia,
Excludes: acute exacerbation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C91.1)
不包含 : 慢性淋巴球性白血病的急性恶化 ( C91.1 )

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Acute myeloid leukaemia
Excludes: acute exacerbation of chronic myeloid leukaemia (C92.1)
不包含 : 慢性骨髓性白血病的急性恶化 ( C92.1 )

Chronic myeloid leukaemia

Acute monocytic leukaemia
Excludes: acute exacerbation of chronic monocytic leukaemia (C93.1)
不包含 : 慢性单核球性白血病的急性恶化 ( C93.1 )

Chronic monocytic leukaemia

Chronic erythraemia
Heilmeyer-schoner disease
Heilmeyer-Schoner 氏病

Acute leukaemia of unspecified cell type
Blast cell leukaemia
Stem cell leukaemia
Excludes: acute exacerbation of unspecified chronic leukaemia (C95.1)
不包含 : 未明示的慢性白血病之急性恶化 ( C95.1 )

Chronic leukaemia of unspecified cell type

Chronic myeloproliferative disease
Myelofibrosis (with myeloid metaplasia)
Myeloproliferative disease, unspecified
Myelosclerosis (megakaryocytic) with myeloid metaplasia
骨髓纤维化症 ( 具骨髓样化生 )
具骨髓样化生的骨髓硬化症 ( 巨核细胞性 )

Iron deficiency anaemia secondary to blood loss (chronic)
Posthaemorrhagic anaemia (chronic)
Excludes: acute posthaemorrhagic anaemia (D62)
congenital anaemia from fetal blood loss (P61.3)
续发於失血 ( 慢性 ) 之缺铁性贫血
出血後贫血 ( 慢性 )
不包含 : 急性出血後贫血 (D62)
胎儿失血引起之先天性贫血 (P61.3)

Nutritional anaemia, unspecified
Simple chronic anaemia
Excludes: anaemia NOS (D64.9)
营养性贫血 , 未明示者
不含 : 贫血 , 其他未明示者 (D64.9)

Other autoimmune haemolytic anaemias
Autoimmune haemolytic disease (cold type)(warm type)
Chronic cold haemagglutinin disease
Cold agglutinin:
. disease
. haemoglobinuria
Haemolytic anaemia:
. cold type (secondary)(symptomatic)
. warm type (secondary)(symptomatic)
Excludes: Evans' syndrome (D69.3)
haemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (P55.-)
paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria (D59.6)

Thyrotoxicosis [hyperthyroidism]
Excludes: chronic thyroiditis with transient thyrotoxicosis (E06.2)
neonatal thyrotoxicosis(P72.1)
甲状腺毒症 [ 甲状腺高能症 ]
不包含 : 伴有短暂甲状腺毒症的慢性甲状腺炎 (E06.2)
新生儿甲状腺毒症 (P72.1)

Chronic thyroiditis with transient thyrotoxicosis
Excludes: autoimmune thyroiditis (E06.3)
不包含 : 自体免疫甲状腺炎 (E06.3)

Other chronic thyroiditis
. chronic:
. fibrous
. ligneous
. Riedel
甲状腺炎 :
. 慢性 :
. 其他未明示
. 纤维性
. 木样的
. 立得氏 (Riedel)

Other metabolic disorders
Excludes: histiocytosis Ⅹ (chronic) (D76.0)
Use additional external cause code (Chapter ⅩⅩ), if desired, to identify drug, if
不包含 : 组织细胞增多症 Ⅹ ( 慢性 ) (D76.0)
若药物引起 , 如有需要 , 使用外来原因附码 ( 第二十
章 ) 确认药物。

Organic, including symptomatic, mental
disorders (F00-F09)
This block comprises a range of mental disorders grouped together on the basis of their
having in common a demonstrable etiology in cerebral disease, brain injury, or other
insult leading to cerebral dysfunction. The dysfunction may be primary, as in diseases,
injuries, and insults that affect the brain directly and selectively; or secondary, as in
systemic diseases and disorders that attack the brain only as one of the multiple organs
or systems of the body that are involved.
Dementia (F00-F03) is a syndrome due to disease of the brain, usually of a chronic or
progressive nature, in which there is disturbance of multiple higher cortical functions,
including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity,
language, and judgement. Consciousness isnot clouded. The impairments of cognitive
function are commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in
emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation. This syndrome occurs in Alzheimer's
disease, in cerebrovascular disease, and in other conditions primarily or secondarily
affecting the brain.
Use additional code, if desired, to identify the underlying disease.
器质性 ( 包含症状性 ) 精神疾病 (F00-F09)
本节所包含的这组精神疾患 , 相同的是它们都能经
检查而发现有大脑疾病、脑伤、或其他伤害 , 而导
致大脑功能失调 , 因此置於同一组。此功能失调可
以是原发性的 , 就如直接影响或作用於脑部的一些
疾病、伤害、与外伤 ; 也可以是续发性的 , 如一些
系统性疾病与疾患 , 其对脑部的侵袭仅仅是全身性
痴呆 (F00-F03) 是由於脑部疾病造成的徵候群 , 通常为慢
性或进行性之本质 , 可造成多种高级皮质功能之障
碍 , 包含记忆、思考、定向感、理解能力、计算、
机等功能之退化 , 这些功能之退化 , 有时会比认知
如有需要 , 使用附码以标示其基本疾病类别。

Dependence syndrome  
A cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after
repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug,
difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harm- ful consequences,
a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased
tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.
The dependence syndrome may be present for a specific psychoactive substance (e.g.
tobacco, alcohol, or diazepam), for a class of substances (e.g. opioid drugs), or for a
wider range of pharmacologically different psychoactive substances.
Chronic alcoholism
Drug addiction
认知的现象 , 它包括强烈的欲望想要使用此药物 ,
非常难以克制药物之使用 , 明明有种种伤害仍继续
使用 , 忽略应有之责任 , 而把药物之使用摆在优先
之地位 , 药物耐受力增加 , 以及身体之戒断症状等

成瘾徵候群可能出现在某一特定的精神作用物质 (
如烟草、酒精或 diazepam) , 某一类的物质 ( 如鸦片类
药物 ) , 或者是范围更广的种种精神作用物质。

Amnesic syndrome
A syndrome associated with chronic prominent impairment of recent and remote memory.
Immediate recall is usually preserved and recent memory is characteristically more
disturbed than remote memory. Disturbances of time sense and ordering of events are
usually evident, as are difficulties in learning new material. Confabulation may be marked
but is not invariably present. Other cognitive functions are usually relatively well
preserved and amnesic defects are out of proportion to other disturbances.
Amnesic disorder, alcohol- or drug-induced
Korsakov's psychosis or syndrome, alcohol- or other psychoactive substance-induced or
Excludes: nonalcoholic Korsakov's psychosis or syndrome (F04)
此徵候群为近程或远程记忆出现明显的慢性衰退 ,
但立即回忆仍能保持完整 , 近程记忆均比远程记忆
着的障碍 , 学习新的事物也会感到十分困难。虚谈
现象可能很明显 , 但却不一定都会出现。其他认知
功能有时尚能保存的不错 , 惟记忆缺失的症状比其
失忆徵候群 , 酒精或其他精神作用物质所引起。
柯沙科夫 (Korsakov) 精神病症或徵候群 , 酒精或其他精神
不包含 : 非酒精性科沙科夫精神病症或徵候群 (F04)

Residual and late-onset psychotic disorder
A disorder in which alcohol- or psychoactive substance-induced changes of cognition,
affect, personality, or behaviour persist beyond the period during which a direct
psychoactive substance-related effect might reasonably be assumed to be operating. Onset
of the disorder should be directly related to the use of the psychoactive substance. Cases
in which initial onset of the state occurs later than episode(s) of such substance use
should be coded here only where clear and strong evidence is available to attribute the
state to the residual effect of the psychoactive substance. Flashbacks may be
distinguished from psychotic state partly by their episodic nature, frequently of very
short duration, and by their duplication of previous alcohol- or other psychoactive
substance-related experiences.
Alcoholic dementia NOS
Chronic alcoholic brain syndrome
Dementia and other milder forms of persisting impairment of cognitive functions
Late-onset psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorder
Posthallucinogen perception disorder
. affective disorder
. disorder of personality and behaviour
Excludes: alcohol- or psychoactive substance-induced:
. Korsakov's syndrome (F10-F19 with common fourth char- acter .6)
. psychotic state (F10-F19 with common fourth character .5)
人格或行为的改变 , 此变化会较原先精神作用质引
时才能归类於此诊断。重现现象 (F1x.70) 与精神病症
是不同的 , 其区别之要点是其短暂性、阵发性、以

酒精性痴呆症 , 其他未明示者
残馀性 :
. 情感障碍症
. 人格与行为障碍症
不包含 : 酒精或精神作用物质引起 :
. 柯沙科夫徵候群 (F10-F19 与有第 4 码.6 者 )
. 精神病性状态 (F10-F19 与有第 4 码.5 者 )

Undifferentiated schizophrenia
Psychotic conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizo- phrenia but not
conforming to any of the subtypes in F20.0-F20.2, or exhibiting the features of more than
one of them without a clear predominance of a particular set of diagnostic
Atypical schizophrenia
Excludes: acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder (F23.2)
chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia (F20.5)
post-schizophrenic depression (F20.4)
符合精神分裂症的诊断准则 (见F20) , 但无法将其归
於上述任何亚型 (F20.0-F20.2) , 或同时有二个以上之亚型
特徵 , 且无法分辨何者为主要时即归类於此。 
不包含 : 急性类精神分裂症之精神病症 (F23.2)  
慢性未分化精神分裂症 (F20.5)  
精神分裂後忧郁症 (F20.4)

Residual schizophrenia
A chronic stage in the development of a schizophrenic illness in which there has been a
clear progression from an early stage to a later stage characterized by long-term, though
not necessarily irreversible, "negative" symptoms, e.g. psychomotor slowing;
underactivity; blunting of affect; passivity and lack of initiative; poverty of quantity
or content of speech; poor nonverbal communication by facial expression, eye contact,
voice modulation and posture; poor self-care and social performance.
Chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia
Restzustand (schizophrenic)
Schizophrenic residual state
一种慢性期的变化 , 自早期之进展 ( 其中也有几次
精神病性症状的发作 , 而且符合上述精神分裂症的
诊断准则 ) , 到後期以长期性负性症状与功能缺失
为主之临床表。但不一定是不可回复的 , 这些负性
动及缺乏动机、言谈之量与内容贫乏 , 缺乏非语言
性沟通表达如 : 脸部表情、眼神接触、声调与姿态
静止状态 (Restzustand)  

Other nonorganic psychotic disorders
Delusional or hallucinatory disorders that do not justify a diagnosis of schizophrenia
(F20.-), persistent delusional disorders (F22.-), acute and transient psychotic disorders
(F23.-), psychotic types of manic episode (F30.2), or severe depressive episode (F32.3).
Chronic hallucinatory psychosis
此类妄想性或幻觉性疾病 , 其临床表现未能归类於
精神分裂症 (F20.- ) 、持久妄想症 (F22.-) 、急性与暂性精
神病症 (F23.-) 、精神病性躁症发作 (F30.2) 或严重郁症发
作 (F32.3) 。 

A chronic depression of mood, lasting at least several years, which is not sufficiently
severe, or in which individual episodes are not sufficiently prolonged, to justify a
diagnosis of severe, moderate, or mild recurrent depressive disorder (F33.-).
. neurosis
. personality disorder
Neurotic depression
Persistent anxiety depression
Excludes: anxiety depression (mild or not persistent) (F41.2)
轻郁情感障碍症 (Dysthymia)  
一种慢性忧郁情绪 , 其发病期间至少数年以上。其
严重度、或单次忧郁期间 , 不符合轻度或中度或重
度复发性郁症 (F33.-) 的诊断准则。
. 精神官能症
. 人格障碍症
官能性忧郁症 ( 有二年以上者 )

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