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century

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century [ 'sentʃuri] n.世纪,百年

century ['sentʃuri] n. 世纪,百年

century ['sentʃuri] n.世纪

跨世纪工程 a trans-century project

面向21世纪的中美建设性伙伴关系 a constructive, strategic partnership between China and the United Stated aimed at the next century

适应社会主义现代化建设需要,面向二十一世纪,具有中国特色的社会主义教育体系。
a socialist education system with distince Chinese characteristics that meets
the needs of socialist modernization and is oriented to the 21st century

何为新世纪的好老师? What Is a Good Teacher in the Next Century?

展望廿一世纪 Looking Forward to the 21st Century

廿一世纪的青年人 The Youth and the 21st Century

Civil Service into the 21st Century--Civil Service Reform Consultation document
《迈进新世纪──公务员体制改革谘询文件》

The public school for girls was established at the beginning of the century.
这所公立女子学校建立于本世纪初。

The sea has been eating away at this shore for centuries.
几百年来海水一直在侵蚀着海岸。

At the end of the eighteenth century, the Americans rebelled against their English rulers.
18世纪末,美国人奋起反抗统治他们的英国人。

In the context of late 19th century Italy, it was difficult to be both a practicing Christian and a political official.
在十九世纪的意大利,既想当基督徒又想从政是很难的。

The key issue for higher education of the new century is to bring the students' creativity into full play.
新世纪高等教育的关键是要充分发挥学生的创造能力。

The story is a contemporary one; it occurs in the second half of the twentieth century.
这是一个发生在当代的故事--故事发生在20世纪下半叶。

She looked like a princess in a 19th-century illustration.
她像一个19世纪插图中的公主。

During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to its parents, is yet considered emotionally “ priceless”.
她认为十九世纪给家庭经济作出贡献的孩子才“有用”的概念慢慢改变了,今天提到那些没有挣取收入的“无用”孩子,甚至还要花销很多,仍然在情感上被认为是无价的。

Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicted in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.
这种关于孩子的观点到19世纪时已在中上阶级中建立,并于19世纪末20世纪初在社会上广泛传播,当时改革者们推行童工规定和义务教育法,部分来源于孩子的情感价值的假设,这都使得使用童工被禁止了。

“The biggest construction project of this century”, explained French President Francois Mitterand in January, 1986 as he and then British prime minister Margaret Thatcher jointly announced that the two countries would finally overcome ancient quarrels and prejudices and forge a link across the narrow Channel separating them.
1986年1月,法国总统弗兰西斯· 密特朗解释说:“这是本世纪最大的建设项目。”当时,他和英国首相玛格丽特·撒切尔一起宣布两国将克服一直以来的争论和偏见,铺设一条横穿分隔两国的狭长海峡的地下隧道。

He enjoys the liberties hard won over centuries by the alliance of philosophic genius and political heroism, consecrated by the blood of martyrs; he is provided with comport and leisure by the most productive economy ever known to mankind; science has penetrated the secrets of nature in order to provide him with the marvellous, life like electronic sound and image reproductions he is enjoying.
他享受着数世纪来哲学天才和政治英雄们联合取得的自由,这是被烈士的鲜血神圣化了的自由;着人类有史以来最发达的经济提供的舒适与休闲;科学解开了自然的奥秘,使他能享受神奇逼真的音响和影像效果。

Towards the end of the century there was still considerable argument over whether books should be used for information or treated respectfully, and over whether the reading of material such as newspapers was in some way mentally weakening.
直到这个世纪末还是有大量的这样的争论,书籍是否应该作为信息来认真对待,还是有些像报纸之类的阅读材料已经在精神上有某种程度地减弱了。

By the end of the century students were being recommended to adopt attitudes to books and to use skills in reading them which were inappropriate, if not impossible, for the oral reader.
到这个世纪末,学生们被介绍对书籍要采用“拿来主义”,阅读时也要采用技巧,可能的话,对于朗读者来说是不太适合的。

This book was written centuries ago.
这本书是几百年前写的。

Many centuries have passed since that time.
从那时起,几百年过去了。

We are living in the 21st century.
我们生活在21世纪。

Jane was counted among the greatest dancers of the century.
简被视为本世纪最伟大的舞蹈家之一。

Settlers flooded from Europe to America in the
19th century.
十九世纪欧洲移民纷纷涌到了美国。

We have had two world wars in this century.
本世纪我们已经经历了两次世界大战。

百个 century; hundred

白陶 [bái táo] /white pottery (of Shang Dynastry 16-11th century BC)/

百年 [bǎi nián] /a hundred years/a century/lifetime/

卜辞 [bǔ cí] /oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty (16th-11th century BC) on tortoiseshells or animal bones/

二十世纪 [èr shí shì jì] /20th Century/

二十一世纪 [èr shí yī shì jì] /21st century/

年代 [nián dài] /a decade of a century (e.g. the Sixties)/age/era/period/

世纪 [shì jì] /century/

世纪末 [shì jì mò] /end of the century/

中叶 [zhōng yè] /mid- (e.g., mid-century)/middle period/

To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, "all that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing."
18世纪政治家埃德蒙·柏克曾说过类似这样的话,“一个被误导的事业如果要成功,它惟一需要的是好人无所作为”。
One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research.
一个这样的事业现在正在寻求终止生物医学的研究,因为有这样一种理论说,动物享有权利禁止它们被用于实验。

It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional.
据说,在英国死亡很紧迫,在加拿大死亡不可避免,在加利福尼亚死亡可以选择。
Small wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century.
难怪,在过去的一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎翻了一番。

Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期——那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使他们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动——但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect, "a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects — a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen — is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.
尽管裁决认为,宪法没有赋予医生帮助病人自杀的权利,然而最高法庭实际上却认可了医疗界的“双效”原则,这个存在了好几个世纪的道德原则认为,如果某种行为具有双重效果(希望达到的好效果和可以预见得到的坏效果),那么,只要行为实施只是想达到好的效果,这个行为就是可以允许的。

The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science.
19世纪的专业化的发展,以及随之而来的对训练的长期性和复杂性的要求,对业余人员进入科学界造成了更大的困难。

A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.
对过去一个半世纪的英国地质出版物进行比较,我们不但发现人们对研究的重视程度在不断增加,而且人们对可以接受的论文的定义也在不断变化。

Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.
因此,在19世纪,局部的地质研究本身就可形成一种有价值的研究;而到了20世纪,如果局部的研究能够被专业人员接受,那么它越来越倾向于必须体现或思考更广阔的地质面貌。
Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way.
另一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。

The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century.
其整体的结果是使业余人员进入专业性地质学杂志更加困难,而审稿制度的全面引进使这个结果得到加强,这一制度开始是在19世纪的全国性杂志进行,进入20世纪后也在一些地方性地质杂志实行。

Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.
虽然职业化和专业化过程在19世纪的英国地质学界中已经得到迅速发展,但是它的效果直到20世纪才充分显示出来。然而,从科学这个整体来看,19世纪必须被视为科学结构发生变化的关键时期。

Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty.
目前证明这股合并浪潮是带来利还是弊的实例并不多。
Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the US, when the Standard Oil trust was broken up.
但是很难想像当今的几个石油公司的合并是否会重新造成约100年前美国标准石油公司对竞争造成的同样的威胁,那时由于人们对该公司的这种担心而导致了它最终的解散。
The mergers of telecom companies, such as World Com, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress.
像世界通讯这样的通讯公司合并似乎没有给消费者带来更高的价格,或者降低技术进步的速度。
On the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast.
相反,通信的价格在迅速下降。

No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness.
毫无疑问,我们将记住20世纪的生活方式,尽管对其丑陋之处不得其解,
But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.
但是,不管我们的子孙后代对我们离乌托邦的理想境界还差多远感到有多么惊讶,他们的样子会同我们差不了多少。

This, in brief, is what the Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been conditionally speeding up, till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed.
简而言之,未来派诗人宣称:一个世纪以来,过去的生活一直在有条件地急剧变化;现在,我们生活在一个充斥着喧嚣、暴力和快节奏的世界之中。
Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change.
因此,我们的感情、思想和情绪都经历了相应的变化。

Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall.
多少个世纪以来,苹果一直在许多地方落到地面,也有成千上万的人看到过苹果落地。
But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets.
多年来牛顿一直对月球和行星绕轨道运行的起因好奇不已。

Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture.
科学与文化的其他方面的关系一直都很紧张。
Think of Galileo's 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton.
想想看,17世纪伽利略为他叛逆性的信仰而遭受天主教会的审判,还有诗人威廉·布莱克对艾萨克·牛顿的机械的世界观所发表的尖锐批判。
The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.
本世纪,(自然)科学与人文科学之间的分裂更深了。

In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital" and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organisations on modern lines.
19世纪后半叶,“资方”和“劳方”按现代方式不断扩大和完善各自相对立的组织。

All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world's movement towards industrialisation.
整个19世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳洲及欧洲的部分地区都靠英国的资本发展起来,而英国股东则因世界性的工业化而大发其财。

{adj: Biedermeier} of or relating to a style of furniture developed in Germany in the 19th century

{adj: Chippendale} of or relating to an 18th-century style of furniture made by Thomas Chippendale; graceful outlines and Greek motifs and massive rococo carvings

{adj: Coptic} of or relating to the Copts or their church or language or art
"the distinctive Coptic art of 6th-century Christian Egypt"

{adj: Old} of a very early stage in development
"Old English is also called Anglo Saxon"
"Old High German is High German from the middle of the 9th to the end of the 11th century"

{adj: Tudor} of or relating to a style of architecture in England in the 15th century
"half-timbered Tudor houses"
"Tudor furniture"

{adj: Y2K compliant} prepared to accurately process date and time data between and into the 20th and 21st centuries

{adj: apart, isolated, obscure} remote and separate physically or socially
"existed over the centuries as a world apart"
"preserved because they inhabited a place apart"- W.H.Hudson
"tiny isolated villages remote from centers of civilization"
"an obscure village"

{adj: assassinated} murdered by surprise attack for political reasons
"the 20th century has seen too many assassinated leaders"

{adj: depopulated} having lost inhabitants as by war or disease
"the 15th century plagues left vast areas of Europe depopulated"

{adj: early} of an early stage in the development of a language or literature
"the Early Hebrew alphabetical script is that used mainly from the 11th to the 6th centuries B.C."
"Early Modern English is represented in documents printed from 1476 to 1700"
<-> middle, late

{adj: enigmatic, enigmatical, puzzling} not clear to the understanding
"I didn't grasp the meaning of that enigmatic comment until much later"
"prophetic texts so enigmatic that their meaning has been disputed for centuries"

{adj: fin de siecle} relating to or characteristic of the end of a century (especially the end of the 19th century)
"fin de siecle art"

{adj: late} being or occurring at an advanced period of time or after a usual or expected time
"late evening"
"late 18th century"
"a late movie"
"took a late flight"
"had a late breakfast"
<-> early, middle

{adj: majuscule} of or relating to a style of writing characterized by somewhat rounded capital letters; 4th to 8th centuries
<-> minuscule

{adj: minuscule, minuscular} of or relating to a small cursive script developed from uncial; 7th to 9th centuries
<-> majuscule

{adj: peruked, periwigged} wearing a wig popular for men in the 17th and 18th centuries

{adj: red-brick, redbrick} of or relating to British universities founded in the late 19th century or the 20th century

{adv: amidships, amidship, midships} at or near or toward the center of a ship
"in the late 19th century, engines were placed in front, amidships, and at the rear"

{adv: centennially} every hundred years; once in a century
"the birthday of this city is being celebrated centennially"

{adv: forth, forward, onward} forward in time or order or degree
"from that time forth"
"from the sixth century onward"

{adv: illustriously} in an illustrious manner
"Einstein, the illustriously famous physicist of the 20th century"

{adv: importantly} in an important way
"for centuries jellies have figured importantly among English desserts, particularly upon festive occasion"

{adv: irreverently} in an irreverent manner
"in the seventeenth century England had known fifty years of doctrinal quarrels and civil war; clergymen had been turned from their cures, and churches irreverently used"

{adv: monotonously} in a monotonous manner
"the history of the play throughout the latter part of the eighteenth century is monotonously uneventful"

{adv: off, away} at a distance in space or time
"the boat was 5 miles off (or away)"
"the party is still 2 weeks off (or away)"
"away back in the 18th century"

{adv: spiritually} in a spiritual manner
"the ninth century was the spiritually freest period"

{adv: subtly} in a subtle manner
"late nineteenth-century French opera at its most beautiful, subtly romantic with a twilight melancholy"

{n: Abecedarian} a 16th century sect of Anabaptists centered in Germany who had an absolute disdain for human knowledge

{n: Ahab} according to the Old Testament he was a pagan king of Israel and husband of Jezebel (9th century BC)

{n: Akhbari} a religious movement by Arab Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iraq that is opposed to the Usuli
"Akhbari Shiism has never promoted political control"

{n: Albigenses, Cathars, Cathari} a Christian religious sect in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries; believers in Albigensianism

{n: Albigensianism, Catharism} a Christian movement considered to be a medieval descendant of Manichaeism in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries; characterized by dualism (asserted the coexistence of two mutually opposed principles, one good and one evil); was exterminated for heresy during the Inquisition

{n: Algeria, Algerie, Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria} a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea with a population that is predominantly Sunni Muslim; colonized by France in the 19th century but gained autonomy in the early 1960s

{n: Alhazen, Alhacen, al-Haytham, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham} an Egyptian polymath (born in Iraq) whose research in geometry and optics was influential into the 17th century; established experiments as the norm of proof in physics (died in 1040)

{n: Amish sect} an orthodox Anabaptist sect separated from the Mennonites in late 17th century; settled chiefly in southeastern Pennsylvania

{n: Anaximenes} a presocratic Greek philosopher and associate of Anaximander who believed that all things are made of air in different degrees of density (6th century BC)

{n: Anglo-Saxon} a person of Anglo-Saxon (especially British) descent whose native tongue is English and whose culture is strongly influenced by English culture as in WASP for `White Anglo-Saxon Protestant'
"in the ninth century the Vikings began raiding the Anglo-Saxons in Britain"
"his ancestors were not just British, they were Anglo-Saxons"

{n: Arabian Nights' Entertainment, Arabian Nights, Thousand and One Nights} a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century

{n: Aramaic, Aramaic script} an alphabetical (or perhaps syllabic) script used since the 9th century BC to write the Aramaic language; many other scripts were subsequently derived from it

{n: Aramean, Aramaean} a member of one of a group of Semitic peoples inhabiting Aram and parts of Mesopotamia from the 11th to the 8th century BC

{n: Argos} an ancient city in southeastern Greece; dominated the Peloponnese in the 7th century BC

{n: Arminianism} 17th century theology (named after its founder Jacobus Arminius) that opposes the absolute predestinarianism of John Calvin and holds that human free will is compatible with God's sovereignty

{n: Arnold of Brescia} Italian theologian who censured the worldly possessions of monks and the temporal power of bishops and was condemned for dogmatic errors by the Second Lateran Council (early 12th century)

{n: Arthur, King Arthur} a legendary king of the Britons (possibly based on a historical figure in the 6th century but the story has been retold too many times to be sure); said to have led the Knights of the Round Table at Camelot

{n: Asanga} Indian religious leader and founder of the Yogacara school of Buddhism in India (4th century)

{n: Ash Can, Ashcan school} early 20th-century United States painting; portrays realistic and sordid scenes of city life

{n: Athens, Athinai, capital of Greece, Greek capital} the capital and largest city of Greece; named after Athena (its patron goddess)
"in the 5th century BC ancient Athens was the world's most powerful and civilized city"

{n: Athos, Mount Athos} an autonomous area in northeastern Greece that is the site of several Greek Orthodox monasteries founded in the tenth century

{n: Austria, Republic of Austria, Oesterreich} a mountainous republic in central Europe; under the Habsburgs (1278-1918) Austria maintained control of the Holy Roman Empire and was a leader in European politics until the 19th century

{n: Avesta, Zend-Avesta} a collection of Zoroastrian texts gathered during the 4th or 6th centuries

{n: Babylonia, Chaldaea, Chaldea} an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia; Babylonia conquered Israel in the 6th century BC and exiled the Jews to Babylon (where Daniel became a counselor to the king)

{n: Balzac, Honore Balzac, Honore de Balzac} French novelist; he portrays the complexity of 19th century French society (1799-1850)

{n: Barbary} a region of northern Africa on the Mediterranean coast between Egypt and Gibraltar; was used as a base for pirates from the 16th to 19th centuries

{n: Basil, St. Basil, Basil of Caesarea, Basil the Great, St. Basil the Great} (Roman Catholic Church) the bishop of Caesarea who defended the Roman Catholic Church against the heresies of the 4th century; a saint and Doctor of the Church (329-379)

{n: Bastille} a fortress built in Paris in the 14th century and used as a prison in the 17th and 18th centuries; it was destroyed July 14, 1789 at the start of the French Revolution

{n: Bathsheba} (Old Testament) the wife of Uriah and later the wife of King David; Solomon was her son by David (circa 10th century BC)

{n: Beguine} (Roman Catholic Church) a member of a lay sisterhood (one of several founded in the Netherlands in the 12th and 13th centuries); though not taking religious vows the sisters followed an austere life

{n: Belshazzar} (Old Testament) Babylonian general and son of Nebuchadnezzar II; according to the Old Testament he was warned of his doom by divine handwriting on the wall that was interpreted by Daniel (6th century BC)

{n: Benedictine order, order of Saint Benedict} a Roman Catholic monastic order founded in the 6th century; noted for liturgical worship and for scholarly activities

{n: Beowulf} the legendary hero of an anonymous Old English epic poem composed in the early 8th century; he slays a monster and becomes king but dies fighting a dragon

{n: Bithynia} an ancient country in northwestern Asia Minor in what is now Turkey; was absorbed into the Roman Empire by the end of the 1st century BC

{n: Black Hand} a secret terrorist society in the United States early in the 20th century

{n: Bloomsbury Group} an inner circle of writers and artists and philosophers who lived in or around Bloomsbury early in the 20th century and were noted for their unconventional lifestyles

{n: Brahmi} a script (probably adapted from the Aramaic about the 7th century BC) from which later Indian scripts developed

{n: British empiricism} the predominant philosophical tradition in Great Britain since the 17th century

{n: Britten, Benjamin Britten, Edward Benjamin Britten, Lord Britten of Aldeburgh} major English composer of the 20th century; noted for his operas (1913-1976)

{n: Bronte sisters} a 19th century family of three sisters who all wrote novels

{n: Bruges, City of Bridges} a city in northwestern Belgium that is connected by canal to the North Sea; in the 13th century it was a leading member of the Hanseatic League; the old city (known as the City of Bridges) is a popular tourist attraction

{n: Byrd, William Byrd} English organist and composer of church music; master of 16th century polyphony; was granted a monopoly in music printing with Thomas Tallis (1543-1623)

{n: Byzantine architecture} the style of architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire developed after the 5th century; massive domes with square bases and round arches and spires and much use of mosaics

{n: Caladium bicolor} most popular caladium; cultivated in many varieties since the late 19th century

{n: Caliphate} the era of Islam's ascendancy from the death of Mohammed until the 13th century; some Moslems still maintain that the Moslem world must always have a calif as head of the community
"their goal was to reestablish the Caliphate"

{n: Carmelite order, Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel} a Roman Catholic mendicant order founded in the 12th century

{n: Charleston} an American ballroom dance in syncopated rhythm; popular early in the 20th century

{n: Chartism} the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people

{n: Chartist} a 19th century English reformer who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people

{n: Cheops, Khufu} Egyptian Pharaoh of the 27th century BC who commissioned the Great Pyramid at Giza

{n: Chinese Wall, Great Wall, Great Wall of China} a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC; is 1,500 miles long and averages 6 meters in width

{n: Christopher, Saint Christopher, St. Christopher} Christian martyr and patron saint of travellers (3rd century)

{n: Chuang-tzu} 4th-century Chinese philosopher on whose teachings Lao-tse based Taoism

{n: Church Father, Father of the Church, Father} (Christianity) any of about 70 theologians in the period from the 2nd to the 7th century whose writing established and confirmed official church doctrine; in the Roman Catholic Church some were later declared saints and became Doctor of the Church; the best known Latin Church Fathers are Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory the Great, and Jerome; those who wrote in Greek include Athanasius, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and John Chrysostom

{n: Clichy, Clichy-la-Garenne} a northwestern suburb of Paris; the residence of the Merovingian royalty in the 7th century

{n: Cologne, Koln} a commercial center and river port in western Germany on the Rhine River; flourished during the 15th century as a member of the Hanseatic League

{n: Constantine} a walled city in northeastern Algeria east of Algiers; was destroyed in warfare in the 4th century and rebuilt by Constantine I

{n: Coventry} an industrial city in central England; devastated by air raids during World War II; remembered as the home of Lady Godiva in the 11th century

{n: Cremona} a city in Lombardy on the Po River; noted for the manufacture of fine violins from the 16th to the 18th centuries

{n: Crispin, Saint Crispin, St. Crispin} patron saint of shoemakers; he and his brother were martyred for trying to spread Christianity (3rd century)

{n: Crusade} any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11th to 13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe tried to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims

{n: Cynewulf, Cynwulf} Anglo-Saxon poet (circa 9th century)

{n: Damocles} the Greek courtier to Dionysius the Elder who (according to legend) was condemned to sit under a naked sword that was suspended by a hair in order to demonstrate to him that being a king was not the happy state Damocles had said it was (4th century BC)

{n: Damon} the friend of Phintias who pledged his life that Phintias would return (4th century BC)

{n: Daniel} (Old Testament) a youth who was taken into the court of Nebuchadnezzar and given divine protection when thrown into a den of lions (6th century BC)

{n: Democratic-Republican Party} a former major political party in the United States in the early 19th century; opposed the old Federalist party; favored a strict interpretation of the constitution in order to limit the powers of the federal government

{n: Diophantus} Greek mathematician who was the first to try to develop an algebraic notation (3rd century)

{n: Dominican order} a Roman Catholic order of mendicant preachers founded in the 13th century

{n: Donatism} a schismatic Christian religion in northern Africa from the 4th to the 7th century; held that only those who led a blameless life belonged in the church or could administer the sacraments

{n: Donatus, Aelius Donatus} Roman grammarian whose textbook on Latin grammar was used throughout the Middle Ages (fourth century)

{n: Dortmund} an industrial city in northwestern Germany; flourished from the 13th to 17th century as a member of the Hanseatic League

{n: Draco} Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)

{n: East India Company} an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia; in the 18th century it assumed administrative control of Bengal and held it until the British army took over in 1858 after the Indian Mutiny

{n: Edda} either of two distinct works in Old Icelandic dating from the late 13th century and consisting of 34 mythological and heroic ballads composed between 800 and 1200; the primary source for Scandinavian mythology

{n: El Cid} the hero of a Spanish epic poem from the 12th century

{n: El Dorado, eldorado} an imaginary place of great wealth and opportunity; sought in South America by 16th-century explorers

{n: Elijah} a Hebrew prophet in the Old Testament who opposed the worship of idols; he was persecuted for rebuking Ahab and Jezebel (king and queen of Israel); he was taken up to heaven in a chariot of fire (circa 9th century BC)

{n: Elizabethan age} a period in British history during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century; an age marked by literary achievement and domestic prosperity

{n: Empedocles} Greek philosopher who taught that all matter is composed of particles of fire and water and air and earth (fifth century BC)

{n: Enlightenment, Age of Reason} a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

{n: Epirus} an ancient area on the Ionian Sea that flourished as a kingdom in the 3rd century BC; located in northwestern Greece and southern Albania

{n: Erie Canal} an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo; built in the 19th century; now part of the New York State Barge Canal

{n: Euclid} Greek geometer (3rd century BC)

{n: Ezekiel, Ezechiel} a Hebrew prophet of the 6th century BC who was exiled to Babylon in 587 BC

{n: Ezra, Book of Ezra} an Old Testament book telling of a rabbi's efforts in the 5th century BC to reconstitute Jewish law and worship in Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity

{n: Farmer-Labor Party} a former minor political party in the United States in the early 20th century

{n: Federalist Party, American Federalist Party, Federal Party} a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century; founded by Alexander Hamilton; favored a strong centralized government

{n: Ferrara} a city in northern Italy
"in the 13th century Ferrara was a center of Renaissance learning and the arts"

{n: Firenze, Florence} a city in central Italy on the Arno; provincial capital of Tuscany; center of the Italian Renaissance from 14th to 16th centuries

{n: Fragonard, Jean Honore Fragonard} French artist whose rococo paintings typified the frivolity of life in the royal court of France in the 18th century (1732-1806)

{n: Franciscan order} a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Francis of Assisi in the 13th century

{n: Frank} a member of the ancient Germanic peoples who spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire in the 4th century

{n: Galatian} a native or inhabitant of Galatia in Asia Minor (especially a member of a people believed to have been Gauls who conquered Galatia in the 3rd century BC)

{n: Gdansk, Danzig} a port city of northern Poland near the mouth of the Vistula River on a gulf of the Baltic Sea; a member of the Hanseatic League in the 14th century

{n: Gloucester} a town in northeastern Massachusetts on Cape Ann northeast of Boston; the harbor has been a fishing center for centuries

{n: Golden Horde} a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century

{n: Gothic, Gothic architecture} a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches

{n: Gothic, black letter} a heavy typeface in use from 15th to 18th centuries

{n: Gothic} extinct East Germanic language of the ancient Goths; the only surviving record being fragments of a 4th-century translation of the Bible by Bishop Ulfilas

{n: Goth} one of the Teutonic people who invaded the Roman Empire in the 3rd to 5th centuries

{n: Greenwich Village, Village} a mainly residential district of Manhattan; `the Village' became a home for many writers and artists in the 20th century

{n: Hadrian's Wall} an ancient Roman wall built by Hadrian in the 2nd century; marked the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Britain

{n: Hagia Sophia, Hagia Sofia, Santa Sophia, Santa Sofia} a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century

{n: Hakka} a member of a people of southeastern China (especially Hong Kong, Canton, and Taiwan) who migrated from the north in the 12th century

{n: Halle, Halle-an-der-Saale} a city in the Saxony region of Germany on the Saale River; a member of the Hanseatic League during the 13th and 14th centuries

{n: Hamburg} a port city in northern Germany on the Elbe River that was founded by Charlemagne in the 9th century and is today the largest port in Germany; in 1241 it formed an alliance with Lubeck that became the basis for the Hanseatic League

{n: Hanseatic League} a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669

{n: Hasidim, Hassidim, Hasidism, Chasidim, Chassidim} a sect of Orthodox Jews that arose out of a pietistic movement originating in eastern Europe in the second half of the 18th century; a sect that follows the Mosaic law strictly

{n: Hebrew alphabet, Hebraic alphabet, Hebrew script} a Semitic alphabet used since the 5th century BC for writing the Hebrew language (and later for writing Yiddish and Ladino)

{n: Hero, Heron, Hero of Alexandria} Greek mathematician and inventor who devised a way to determine the area of a triangle and who described various mechanical devices (first century)

{n: Hesiod} Greek poet whose existing works describe rural life and the genealogies of the gods and the beginning of the world (eighth century BC)

{n: Hessian boot, hessian, jackboot, Wellington, Wellington boot} (19th century) a man's high tasseled boot

{n: Hiawatha} a native American chieftain who argued for peace with the European settlers (16th century)

{n: High Renaissance} the artistic style of early 16th century painting in Florence and Rome; characterized by technical mastery and heroic composition and humanistic content

{n: Hipparchus} Greek astronomer and mathematician who discovered the precession of the equinoxes and made the first known star chart and is said to have invented trigonometry (second century BC)

{n: Hosea} a minor Hebrew prophet (8th century BC)

{n: Hudson, Hudson River} a New York river; flows southward into New York Bay; explored by Henry Hudson early in the 17th century

{n: Huguenot} a French Calvinist of the 16th or 17th centuries

{n: Humpty Dumpty} an egg-shaped character in a nursery rhyme who fell off a wall and could not be put back together again (late 17th century)

{n: Hun} a member of a nomadic people who invaded Europe in the 4th century

{n: Impressionism} a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light

{n: Isaiah} (Old Testament) the first of the major Hebrew prophets (8th century BC)

{n: Islam, Islamism, Mohammedanism, Muhammadanism, Muslimism} the monotheistic religious system of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
"Islam is a complete way of life, not a Sunday religion"
"the term Muhammadanism is offensive to Muslims who believe that Allah, not Muhammad, founded their religion"

{n: Istanbul, Stambul, Stamboul, Constantinople} the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church

{n: Italy, Italian Republic, Italia} a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD

{n: Jack the Ripper} an unidentified English murderer in the 19th century

{n: Jainism} religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism; emphasizes asceticism and immortality and transmigration of the soul; denies existence of a perfect or supreme being

{n: Jainism} sect founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism

{n: Jakarta, Djakarta, capital of Indonesia} capital and largest city of Indonesia; located on the island of Java; founded by the Dutch in 17th century

{n: Jeroboam, Jeroboam I} (Old Testament) first king of the northern kingdom of Israel who led Israel into sin (10th century BC)

{n: Jezebel} wife of Ahab who was king of Israel; according to the Old Testament she was a cruel immoral queen who fostered the worship of Baal and tried to kill Elijah and other prophets of Israel (9th century BC)

{n: Kabbalah, Kabbala, Kabala, Cabbalah, Cabbala, Cabala, Qabbalah, Qabbala} an esoteric theosophy of rabbinical origin based on the Hebrew scriptures and developed between the 7th and 18th centuries

{n: Karaites} a Jewish sect that recognizes only the Hebrew Scriptures as the source of divinely inspired legislation and denies the authority of the postbiblical tradition of the Talmud; the sect arose in Iraq in the eighth century

{n: Kazakhstan, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakstan, Kazakh, Kazak} a landlocked republic south of Russia and northeast of the Caspian Sea; the original Turkic-speaking inhabitants were overrun by Mongols in the 13th century; an Asian soviet from 1936 to 1991

{n: Ku Klux Klan, Klan, KKK} a secret society of white Southerners in the United States; was formed in the 19th century to resist the emancipation of slaves; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black people

{n: Lao-tzu, Lao-tse, Lao-zi} Chinese philosopher regarded as the founder of Taoism (6th century BC)

{n: Late Greek} the Greek language in the 3rd to 8th centuries

{n: Late Latin, Biblical Latin} the form of Latin written between the 3rd and 8th centuries

{n: Lateran Palace} a palace that served as the residence of the popes until the 14th century

{n: Leo IX, Bruno, Bruno of Toul} German pope from 1049 to 1054 whose papacy was the beginning of papal reforms in the 11th century (1002-1054)

{n: Liberal Party} a major political party in Great Britain in the 19th century; now the third largest; advocated reforms and improvement of the conditions of working people

{n: Lima, capital of Peru} capital and largest city and economic center of Peru; located in western Peru; was capital of the Spanish empire in the New World until the 19th century

{n: Linear A} an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century B.C.

{n: Linear B} a syllabic script used in Greece in the 13th century B.C.

{n: Lombard, Langobard} a member of a Germanic people who invaded northern Italy in the 6th century

{n: Lubavitch} a town in Belarus that was the center of the Chabad movement for a brief period during the 19th century

{n: Luddite} one of the 19th century English workmen who destroyed laborsaving machinery that they thought would cause unemployment

{n: Ludi Saeculares, secular games} the centennial rites and games of ancient Rome that marked the commencement of a new generation (100 years representing the longest life in a generation); observances may have begun as early as the 5th century BC and lasted well into the Christian era

{n: Lysippus} Greek sculptor (4th century BC)

{n: Macedonian War} one the four wars between Macedonia and Rome in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, which ended in the defeat of Macedonia and its annexation as a Roman province

{n: Machu Picchu} Inca fortress city in the Andes in Peru discovered in 1911; it may have been built in the 15th century

{n: Mafia, Maffia, Sicilian Mafia} a secret terrorist group in Sicily; originally opposed tyranny but evolved into a criminal organization in the middle of the 19th century

{n: Malachi, Malachias} a Hebrew minor prophet of the 5th century BC

{n: Manchu} a member of the Manchu speaking people of Mongolian race of Manchuria; related to the Tungus; conquered China in the 17th century

{n: Mandaeanism, Mandeanism} a Gnostic religion originating the 2nd and 3rd centuries that believes John the Baptist was the Messiah and that incorporates Jewish and Christian elements into a framework of dualistic beliefs

{n: Manichaeism, Manichaeanism} a religion founded by Manes the third century; a synthesis of Zoroastrian dualism between light and dark and Babylonian folklore and Buddhist ethics and superficial elements of Christianity; spread widely in the Roman Empire but had largely died out by 1000

{n: Marcionism} the Christian heresy of the 2nd and 3rd centuries that rejected the Old Testament and denied the incarnation of God in Jesus as a human

{n: Martial} Roman poet noted for epigrams (first century BC)

{n: Medici} aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century

{n: Mennonite Church} formed from the Anabaptist movement in the 16th century; noted for its simplicity of life

{n: Micah, Micheas} a minor Hebrew prophet (8th century BC)

{n: Middle East, Mideast, Near East} the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the 20th century
"the Middle East is the cradle of Western civilization"

{n: Mithraism, Mithraicism} ancient Persian religion; popular among Romans during first three centuries a.d.

{n: Monophysitism} a Christian heresy of the 5th and 6th centuries that challenged the orthodox definition of the two natures (human and divine) in Jesus and instead believed there was a single divine nature

{n: Moorish, Moorish architecture} a style of architecture common in Spain from the 13th to 16th centuries; characterized by the horseshoe (Moorish) arch

{n: Moor} one of the Muslim people of north Africa; of mixed Arab and Berber descent; converted to Islam in the 8th century; conqueror of Spain in the 8th century

{n: Munich beer, Munchener} a dark lager produced in Munich since the 10th century; has a distinctive taste of malt

{n: Muscovy} a Russian principality in the 13th to 16th centuries; Moscow was the capital

{n: Nahum} a Hebrew minor prophet of the 7th century BC

{n: Nefertiti} queen of Egypt and wife of Akhenaton (14th century BC)

{n: Neoplatonism} a system of philosophical and theological doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism; its most distinctive doctrine holds that the first principle and source of reality transcends being and thought and is naturally unknowable
"Neoplatonism was predominant in pagan Europe until the 6th century"
"Neoplatonism was a major influence on early Christian writers and on later medieval and Renaissance thought and on Islamic philosophy"

{n: Nestorius} Syrian who was a Christian bishop and Patriarch of Constantinople in the early fifth century; one of the major heresies concerning the doctrine of the hypostasis of Christ was named after him (died in 451)

{n: New London} a town in southeastern Connecticut near Long Island Sound; an important whaling center in the 19th century

{n: New Orleans} a port and largest city in Louisiana; located in southeastern Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi river; a major center for offshore drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico; jazz originated here among black musicians in the late 19th century; Mardi Gras is celebrated here each year

{n: Nicaea} an ancient city in Bithynia; founded in the 4th century BC and flourished under the Romans; the Nicene Creed was adopted there in 325

{n: Nicholas, Saint Nicholas, St. Nicholas} a bishop in Asia Minor who is associated with Santa Claus (4th century)

{n: Nijinsky, Vaslav Nijinsky, Waslaw Nijinsky} Russian dancer considered by many to be the greatest dancer of the 20th century (1890-1950)

{n: Nome} a town in western Alaska on the southern coast of the Seward Peninsula; an important center of an Alaskan gold rush at the beginning of the 20th century

{n: Norman architecture} a Romanesque style first appearing in Normandy around 950 AD and used in Britain from the Norman Conquest until the 12th century

{n: Northwest Passage} a water route between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean along the northern coast of North America; Europeans since the 16th century had searched for a short route to the Far East before it was successfully traversed by Roald Amundsen (1903-1906)

{n: Old Catholic Church} Catholic churches that broke away from the Roman Catholic Church in the 18th century

{n: Old Catholic} a member of the church formed in the 19th century by German Catholics who refused to accept the infallibility of the Pope

{n: Old Church Slavonic, Old Church Slavic, Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian} the Slavic language into which the Bible was translated in the 9th century

{n: Old French} the earliest form of the French language; 9th to 15th century

{n: Old Frisian} the Frisian language until the 16th century; the Germanic language of ancient Frisia

{n: Old Italian} the Italian language up to the middle of the 16th century

{n: Old Latin} the oldest recorded Latin (dating back at early as the 6th century B.C.)

{n: Olympiad} one of the four-year intervals between Olympic Games; used to reckon time in ancient Greece for twelve centuries beginning in 776 BC

{n: Osage} a member of the Siouan people formerly living in Missouri in the valleys of the Missouri and Osage rivers; oil was found on Osage lands early in the 20th century

{n: Osman I, Othman I} the conqueror of Turkey who founded the Ottoman Empire and the Ottoman dynasty that ruled Turkey after the 13th century; conquered most of Asia Minor and assumed the title of emir in 1299 (1259-1326)

{n: Ottoman Empire, Turkish Empire} a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe; created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire

{n: Ottoman, Ottoman dynasty} the Turkish dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century to its dissolution after World War I

{n: Oxford movement} 19th-century movement in the Church of England opposing liberal tendencies

{n: Pahlavi} the Iranian language of the Zoroastrian literature of the 3rd to 10th centuries

{n: Parmenides} a presocratic Greek philosopher born in Italy; held the metaphysical view that being is the basic substance and ultimate reality of which all things are composed; said that motion and change are sensory illusions (5th century BC)

{n: Patras, Patrai} a port city in western Greece in the northwestern Peloponnese on an inlet of the Ionian Sea; was a major trade center from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century BC; commercial importance revived during the Middle Ages

{n: Patrick, Saint Patrick, St. Patrick} Apostle and patron saint of Ireland; an English missionary to Ireland in the 5th century

{n: Peloponnese, Peloponnesus, Peloponnesian Peninsula} the southern peninsula of Greece; dominated by Sparta until the 4th century BC

{n: Pepys, Samuel Pepys} English diarist whose diary contained detailed descriptions of 17th century disasters in England (1633-1703)

{n: Persia, Persian Empire} an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC

{n: Peru, Republic of Peru} a republic in western South America; achieved independence from Spain in 1821; was the heart of the Inca empire from the 12th to 16th centuries

{n: Philistine} a member of an Aegean people who settled ancient Philistia around the 12th century BC

{n: Phintias, Pythias} friend of Damon; Phintias (according to legend) was condemned to death by Dionysius the Elder and asked a respite to put his affairs in order; Damon pledged his life for the return of his friend; when Phintias returned in time the tyrant released them both (4th century BC)

{n: Pietism} 17th and 18th-century German movement in the Lutheran Church stressing personal piety and devotion

{n: Plantation} a newly established colony (especially in the colonization of North America)
"the practice of sending convicted criminals to serve on the Plantations was common in the 17th century"

{n: Polo, Marco Polo} Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

{n: Portugal, Portuguese Republic} a republic in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; Portuguese explorers and colonists in the 15th and 16th centuries created a vast overseas empire (including Brazil)

{n: Prague, Praha, Prag, Czech capital} the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic in the western part of the country; a cultural and commercial center since the 14th century

{n: Prakrit} any of the vernacular Indic languages of north and central India (as distinguished from Sanskrit) recorded from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD

{n: Prussia, Preussen} a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
"in the 19th century Prussia led the economic and political unification of the German states"

{n: Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemaeus} Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)

{n: Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin} English architect who played a prominent role in the 19th century revival of Gothic architecture (1812-1852)

{n: Purana} a body of 18 works written between the first and 11th centuries and incorporating legends and speculative histories of the universe and myths and customary observances

{n: Puritan} a member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries thought that the Protestant Reformation under Elizabeth was incomplete and advocated the simplification and regulation of forms of worship

{n: Reformation, Protestant Reformation} a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

{n: Renaissance, Renascence} the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries

{n: Rilke, Rainer Maria Rilke} German poet (born in Austria) whose imagery and mystic lyricism influenced 20th-century German literature (1875-1926)

{n: Robin Hood} legendary English outlaw of the 12th century; said to have robbed the rich to help the poor

{n: Romanticism, Romantic Movement} a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
"Romanticism valued imagination and emotion over rationality"
<-> classicism

{n: Rosicrucian} a member of a secret 17th-century society of philosophers and scholars versed in mystical and metaphysical and alchemical lore

{n: Rosicrucian} a member of any of various organizations that subsequently derived from the 17th-century society

{n: Rostock} a city in northeastern Germany near the Baltic sea; an important member of the Hanseatic League in the 14th century

{n: Russia} a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in the 17th and 18th centuries under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital; overthrown by revolution in 1917

{n: Rus} the medieval Russian state established by Scandinavian traders in the 9th century; the capital was first in Novgorod and then in Kiev

{n: Saint Joseph, St. Joseph} a town in northwest Missouri on the Missouri River; in the 19th century it became the eastern terminus of the pony express

{n: Saint Louis, St. Louis, Gateway to the West} the largest city in Missouri; a busy river port on the Mississippi River near its confluence with the Missouri River; was an important staging area for wagon trains westward in the 19th century

{n: Saints Peter and Paul, June 29} first celebrated in the 3rd century

{n: Salian Frank, Salian} a member of the tribe of Franks who settled in the Netherlands in the 4th century AD

{n: Samaria} an ancient city in central Palestine founded in the 9th century BC as the capital of the northern Hebrew kingdom of Israel; the site is in present-day northwestern Jordan

{n: Samarkand, Samarcand} city in southern Uzbekistan; Tamerlane's opulent capital in the 14th century

{n: Santa Fe Trail} a trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico; an important route for settlers moving west in the 19th century

{n: Sappho} the Greek lyric poet of Lesbos; much admired although only fragments of her poetry have been preserved (6th century BC)

{n: Sardinia, Sardegna} the Italian region on the island of Sardinia; the kingdom of Sardinia was the nucleus for uniting Italy during the 19th century

{n: Scythia} an ancient area of Eurasia extending from the Black Sea to the Aral Sea that was populated by Scythians from the eighth to the fourth century BC

{n: Seljuk} any one of the Turkish dynasties that ruled Asia Minor from the 11th to the 13th centuries; they successfully invaded Byzantium and defended the Holy Land against Crusaders

{n: Seminole} a member of the Muskhogean people who moved into Florida in the 18th century

{n: Serbia, Srbija} a historical region in central and northern Yugoslavia; Serbs settled the region in the 6th and 7th centuries

{n: Serbian, Serb} a member of a Slavic people who settled in Serbia and neighboring areas in the 6th and 7th centuries

{n: Sessions, Roger Sessions, Roger Huntington Sessions} United States composer who promoted 20th century music (1896-1985)

{n: Shang, Shang dynasty} the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC

{n: Sikhism} the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

{n: Silk Road} an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles); followed by Marco Polo in the 13th century to reach Cathay

{n: Simon, St. Simon, Simon Zelotes, Simon the Zealot, Simon the Canaanite} one of the twelve Apostles (first century)

{n: Social Democratic Party} a political party in Germany and Britain (and elsewhere) founded in late 19th century; originally Marxist; now advocates the gradual transformation of capitalism into democratic socialism

{n: Solomon} (Old Testament) son of David and king of Israel noted for his wisdom (10th century BC)

{n: Sophist} any of a group of Greek philosophers and teachers in the 5th century BC who speculated on a wide range of subjects

{n: Spanish Inquisition} an inquisition initiated in 1478 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that guarded the orthodoxy of Catholicism in Spain (especially from the 15th to the 17th centuries)
"the Spanish Inquisition was administered by both civil and church authorities which gave it ultimate power"
"Torquemada was the inquisitor general for the Spanish Inquisition"

{n: Sparta} an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess; the dominant city of the Peloponnesus prior to the 4th century BC

{n: States General} assembly of the estates of an entire country especially the sovereign body of the Dutch republic from 16th to 18th centuries

{n: Sussex} a county in southern England on the English Channel; formerly an Anglo-Saxon kingdom that was captured by Wessex in the 9th century

{n: Syracuse, Siracusa} a city in southeastern Sicily that was founded by Corinthians in the 8th century BC

{n: Tara} a village in eastern Ireland (northwest of Dublin); seat of Irish kings until 6th century

{n: Tarbell, Ida Tarbell, Ida M. Tarbell, Ida Minerva Tarbell} United States writer remembered for her muckraking investigations into industries in the early 20th century (1857-1944)

{n: Tartary, Tatary} the vast geographical region of Europe and Asia that was controlled by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries
"under Genghis Khan Tartary extended as far east as the Pacific Ocean"

{n: Tatar, Tartar, Mongol Tatar} a member of the Mongolian people of central Asia who invaded Russia in the 13th century

{n: Tell, William Tell} a Swiss patriot who lived in the early 14th century and who was renowned for his skill as an archer; according to legend an Austrian governor compelled him to shoot an apple from his son's head with his crossbow (which he did successfully without mishap)

{n: Temple of Jerusalem, Temple of Solomon} any of three successive temples in Jerusalem that served as the primary center for Jewish worship; the first temple contained the Ark of the Covenant and was built by Solomon in the 10th century BC and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC; the second was built in 515 BC and the third was an enlargement by Herod the Great in 20 BC that was destroyed by the Romans during a Jewish revolt in AD 70; all that remains is the Wailing Wall

{n: Thebes} an ancient Egyptian city on the Nile River that flourished from the 22nd century BC to the 18th century BC; today the archeological remains include many splendid temples and tombs

{n: Thespis} Greek poet who is said to have originated Greek tragedy (sixth century BC)

{n: Thomism} the comprehensive theological doctrine created by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century and still taught by the Dominicans

{n: Tobit, Book of Tobit} an Apocryphal book that was a popular novel for several centuries

{n: Toledo} a city in central Spain on the Tagus river; famous for steel and swords since the first century

{n: Tripoli, Tarabulus Al-Gharb, capital of Libya} the capital and chief port and largest city of Libya; in northwestern Libya on the Mediterranean Sea; founded by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC

{n: Tucson} a city in southeastern Arizona ringed by mountain ranges; long known as a winter and health resort but the population shift from industrial states to the Sunbelt resulted in rapid growth late in the 20th century

{n: Ukraine, Ukrayina} a republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European soviet; the center of the original Russian state which came into existence in the ninth century

{n: Uriah} (Old Testament) the husband of Bathsheba and a soldier who was sent to die in battle so that King David could marry his wife (circa 10th century BC)

{n: Usuli} a religious movement by Persian Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iran that is opposed to the Akhbari
"Usuli Shiism produced the politically active caste of priests that is a distinctive feature of Iranian Shiism"

{n: Vedanga} Vedic texts from the fifth and fourth centuries BC dealing with phonetics and ritual injunctions and linguistics and grammar and etymology and lexicography and prosody and astronomy and astrology

{n: Versailles, Palace of Versailles} a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles

{n: Versailles} a city in north central France near Paris; site of the Palace of Versailles that was built by Louis XIV in the 17th century

{n: Victorian age} a period in British history during the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century; her character and moral standards restored the prestige of the British monarchy but gave the era a prudish reputation

{n: Viking} any of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries

{n: Voltaire, Arouet, Francois-Marie Arouet} French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)

{n: Vulgate} the Latin edition of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek mainly by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century; as revised in 1592 it was adopted as the official text for the Roman Catholic Church

{n: Wahhabi, Wahabi} a member of a strictly orthodox Sunni Muslim sect from Saudi Arabia; strives to purify Islamic beliefs and rejects any innovation occurring after the 3rd century of Islam
"Osama bin Laden is said to be a Wahhabi Muslim"

{n: Waldenses, Vaudois} a Christian sect of dissenters that originated in southern France in the late 12th century adopted Calvinist doctrines in the 16th century

{n: Wessex} a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England that became the most powerful English kingdom by the 10th century

{n: Whig} a member of the political party that urged social reform in 18th and 19th century England; was the opposition party to the Tories

{n: Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom} an Apocryphal book consisting mainly of a meditation on wisdom; although ascribed to Solomon it was probably written in the first century BC

{n: Young Turk} a member of one or more of the insurgent groups in Turkey in the late 19th century who rebelled against the absolutism of Ottoman rule

{n: Zealot} a member of an ancient Jewish sect in Judea in the first century who fought to the death against the Romans and who killed or persecuted Jews who collaborated with the Romans

{n: Zechariah, Zacharias} a Hebrew minor prophet of the late 6th century BC

{n: Zephaniah, Sophonias} a Hebrew minor poet of the late 7th century BC

{n: Zionism, Zionist movement} a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine

{n: Zoroastrianism, Mazdaism} system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster; set forth in the Zend-Avesta; based on concept of struggle between light (good) and dark (evil)

{n: agave, century plant, American aloe} tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes; some cultivated for ornament or for fiber

{n: apogee, culmination} a final climactic stage
"their achievements stand as a culmination of centuries of development"

{n: aspersion, slur} a disparaging remark
"in the 19th century any reference to female sexuality was considered a vile aspersion"
"it is difficult for a woman to understand a man's sensitivity to any slur on his virility"

{n: assassin} a member of a secret order of Muslims (founded in the 12th century) who terrorized and killed Christian Crusaders

{n: baroque, baroqueness} elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

{n: being, beingness, existence} the state or fact of existing
"a point of view gradually coming into being"
"laws in existence for centuries"
<-> nonbeing, nonexistence

{n: bell seat, balloon seat} a seat that has a bell shape (on some 18th century chairs)


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