as though

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as though 好像

as though 好像,仿佛

as though

as though

Though their personalities were different, they got along as friends.

Everything went on as usual as though nothing had happened.

This equipment operated as though it had been repaired.

Why is she looking at me as though she knew me? I have never seen her before in my life.

Though she hesitated for a moment, she finally went in and asked to see a dress that was in the window.
尽管她迟疑了片刻, 但最后还是进了店, 并且要求给她拿一件陈列在橱窗里的衣服看看。

He behaved as though nothing had happened.

There is no disputing, says the proverb, about taste—though, in fact, human beings spend at least half their leisure doing nothing else—and if highbrowism and lowbrowism were exclusively ( as it is certain that they are in great part) matters of individual taste, there would be no more to say about them than what I have said in the preceding lines.

Though most dictionary have a system of making words as obsolete, or in use only as slang, many people, more especially if their use of a particular word has been challenged, are likely to conclude, if they find it in a dictionary, that it is accepted as being used by writers of established reputation.

A I'm astonished! You really think your traffic is worse than ours ...
A 我太吃惊了!你真的认为你们的交通比我们的还糟糕...
B Yes, there are more cars, more buses and more noise.
B 是的,我们那里有更多的小汽车、公共汽车和更大的噪音。
A I think there are more bicycles here.
A 我想这里有更多的自行车。
B Yes, that's true. But they don't cause pollution or traffic jams. One thing in New York is much better, though.
B 是的,确实。但是自行车并不引起污染或者交通阻塞。尽管在纽约有一个方面更好一些。
A What's that?
A 是什么?
B The subway. They subway system in New York is much better.
B 地铁。纽约的地铁系统要好很多。

He feels as though everything around him is spinning.

as though 好像,仿佛

as though 好像,仿佛

- be completely in the dark 一无所知,仍蒙在鼓里
keep someone in the dark ; be left (kept) in the dark
He is a dictator. Though I'm the production manager, I'm completely in the dark as what to do next.

- as sly as a fox 非常狡猾
Though the suspect was as sly as fox, he had to admit his crime in front of solid evidence.

- Not give someone a tumble 不理睬某人
Though Jackson has asked May to marry him for many times, she just won't give him a tumble.

Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect, "a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects — a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen — is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death.
"It's like surgery," he says. "We don't call those deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide."

Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.

This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature.
All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. 实际上,没有一个善于思考的人会拒绝接受他们的第一个观点:即情感生活的巨大变化要求表达方式也随之变化。
The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly.
Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well.

{adj: analogous, correspondent} similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar
"brains and computers are often considered analogous"
"salmon roe is marketed as analogous to caviar"

{adj: called, known as} known or spoken of as
"though she is named Katherine, she is called Kitty"

{adj: erose, jagged, jaggy, notched, toothed} having an irregularly notched or toothed margin as though gnawed

{adj: fascinated, hypnotized, hypnotised, mesmerized, mesmerised, spellbound, spell-bound, transfixed} having your attention fixated as though by a spell

{adj: indirect} extended senses; not direct in manner or language or behavior or action
"making indirect but legitimate inquiries"
"an indirect insult"
"doubtless they had some indirect purpose in mind"
"though his methods are indirect they are not dishonest"
"known as a shady indirect fellow"
<-> direct

{adj: nonassertive} not aggressively self-assured, though not necessarily lacking in confidence
"she was quiet and nonassertive as she took control"

{adj: rickety, shaky, wobbly, wonky} inclined to shake as from weakness or defect
"a rickety table"
"a wobbly chair with shaky legs"
"the ladder felt a little wobbly"
"the bridge still stands though one of the arches is wonky"

{adj: uncorrupted} not debased
"though his associates were dishonest, he remained uncorrupted"
"uncorrupted values"

{adv: falsely} in an insincerely false manner
"a seduction on my part would land us with the necessity to rise, bathe and dress, chat falsely about this and that, and emerge into the rest of the evening as though nothing had happened"

{adv: for dear life} as though your life was at stake
"he was running for dear life"

{n: Chinese} any of the Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in China; regarded as dialects of a single language (even though they are mutually unintelligible) because they share an ideographic writing system

{n: Monothelitism} the theological doctrine that Christ had only one will even though he had two natures (human and divine); condemned as heretical in the Third Council of Constantinople

{n: Ottoman Empire, Turkish Empire} a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe; created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire

{n: Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom} an Apocryphal book consisting mainly of a meditation on wisdom; although ascribed to Solomon it was probably written in the first century BC

{n: cascade} a succession of stages or operations or processes or units
"progressing in severity as though a cascade of genetic damage was occurring"
"separation of isotopes by a cascade of processes"

{n: erose leaf} a leaf having a jagged margin as though gnawed

{n: foster-daughter, foster daughter} someone who is raised as a daughter although not related by birth

{n: foster-son, foster son} someone who is raised as a son although not related by birth

{n: intangible, intangible asset} assets that are saleable though not material or physical

{n: laetrile} a substance derived from amygdalin; publicized as an antineoplastic drug although there is no supporting evidence

{n: light} a particular perspective or aspect of a situation
"although he saw it in a different light, he still did not understand"

{n: logion} a saying of Jesus that is regarded as authentic although it is not recorded in the Gospels

{n: out-of-body experience} the dissociative experience of observing yourself from an external perspective as though your mind or soul had left and was observing your body

{n: perfecter} a skilled worker who perfects somethings
"although not the inventor he must be recognized as the perfecter of this technique"

{n: propylene glycol, propanediol} a sweet colorless, viscous, hygroscopic liquid used as an antifreeze and in brake fluid and also as a humectant in cosmetics and personal care items although it can be absorbed through the skin with harmful effects

{n: scientific fact} an observation that has been confirmed repeatedly and is accepted as true (although its truth is never final)

{v: pass} accept or judge as acceptable
"The teacher passed the student although he was weak"
<-> fail

{v: pass} be identified, regarded, accepted, or mistaken for someone or something else ; as by denying one's own ancestry or background
"He could pass as his twin brother"
"She passed as a White woman even though her grandfather was Black"

{v: peep} appear as though from hiding
"the new moon peeped through the tree tops"

{v: simulate, assume, sham, feign} make a pretence of
"She assumed indifference, even though she was seething with anger"
"he feigned sleep"

We do believe that South Africa's transition, hailed by many as a miracle, though in reality it was based on the actions of humans, has had a great importance in demonstration what is possible when the will and the conditions for peace are there.

" It's as though it vanished, " I said.
"它好像神秘地消失了, "我说道。

" It's as though we could walk on it, " I said once.
"看起来好像我们可以在上面行走, "有一次我这样说。

" I didn't own a single feddan when I first set foot in this village.
Masood was then the owner of all these riches.
The position has changed now, though,
and I think that before Allah calls to him I shall have bought the remaining third as well. "
我想在安拉召回他之前,我应该可以买下剩余的三分之一。 "

There was a vast number of people there,
but though I knew them all, I found myself for some reason, watching Masood:
aloof from the great gathering of people he stood as though it was no concern of his, despite the fact that the date palms to be harvested were his own.

I felt myself drawing close to Masood, felt my hand stretch out towards him as though I wanted to touch the hem of his garment.

Quickening my pace, it was as though I carried within me a secret I wanted to rid myself of.

Although the rest are unscathed, Jordan is shot from his horse and breaks his leg as he falls.

Once seated in a theatre wearing 3D glasses, you feel as though you are caught up in the Terminator story which is unraveling around you.

Guldan explains: " Although one study found that Chinese children absorb higher levels of calcium than those in the West, a lack of regular physical activity slows down the rate of bone building as compared to breaking down----two_ processes simultaneously occurring in our bones throughout life. "
古尔丹解释道: "虽然有一项研究发现中国的孩子比西方的孩子吸收的钙多,但由于缺乏经常性的体育活动,骨形成的速度比骨分解来得缓慢-骨形成和骨分解是在骨中同时进行的两个动态过程,贯穿我们生命的始终。 "

" Further, witnesses may strongly believe in their memories, even though aspects of those memories are verifiably false. "
"进一步讲,目击者极为相信自己的记忆,即使这些记忆有许多方面经过验证是错误的。 "

Less sure is economic researcher Dr Cho Dong Chul from the Korean Development Institute( KDI).
韩国发展研究所( KDI )的经济研究员赵东哲博士则没有什么把握。
" This pace of recovery is definitely not sustainable.
But if you ask me 'will the Korean economy continue expanding? ', the answer is yes, although the rate will be much slower. "
但如果你问我 ' 下去的。韩国经济会继续增长吗? ' 会继续增长吗?答案是肯定的,虽然增长率将会很低。 "

His eccentric luck also had a practical side--he became known for his trademark white suit and green socks which he wore so that people would know him as " that strange Englishman " and not a soldier, although his insurance policy was the bullet-proof flak jacket he wore under the suit.
他那奇特的运气也有实在的一面-他那标志性的白衬衫和绿袜子使他广为人知;这身行头让人知道 "那个古怪的英国人 "不是军人,尽管他也采取了某些防卫措施,即在西装里穿着防弹背心。

It's having a front-row seat at the making of history, says Bell--although he did describe the members of his profession who cover wars as " licensed idiots ".
贝尔说,在创造历史时,新闻记者始终处于头排的位置-尽管他确实描述过他的同行中有些人在报道战争时像是 "持有执照的傻瓜 "。

Had the climate ever gotten as warm as some researchers have claimed, though, Sugden argues, the ice would have melted anyway.

Novotel spokesman Peter Hook said that although the survey highlighted some of the more amusing aspects of hotel life, such as the guests who were caught making love under the piano in a lobby bar, it helped hotel management to identify trends.
Novotel 的发言人彼得·胡克说,虽然调查突出了宾馆生活一些较有趣的方面,如有的客人被发现在大厅酒吧的钢琴下面做爱,但它也有助于宾馆管理部门确认宾馆房客的行为趋向。

Clarke, although he is seen as a visionary, has got it wrong before.

Each of them realises their voices can last only so long( although Pavarotti points out that his 86-year-old father still sings regularly in church in his Italian village), and while they can they will continue to appear on special occasions as the Three Tenors.
他们每个人都意识到了他们的声音只能持续这么长时间(虽然帕瓦罗蒂指出他 86岁的父亲还经常在意大利小村子的教堂里演唱),在还可以演唱的时候,他们会继续在特别的场合上以三大男高音的组合出现。

She seemed both close to me and also very far away, as though she was remembering.

She held my gift for a moment as though it was something unspeakably precious.

And though he may not be as famous as Sigmund Freud or even B. F. Skinner, his contribution to psychology may be longer lasting.
皮雅杰可能没有西蒙·弗洛伊德甚或是 B.F.斯金纳那样声名卓着,但他对心理学的贡献可能会更久远。

Although each teacher in training memorizes Piaget's four stages of childhood development( sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational), the better part of Piaget's work is less well known, perhaps because schools of education regard it as " too deep " for teachers.
尽管每一个受训的教师记住了皮雅杰关于儿童发展的四个阶段(感觉阶段、前期预备阶段、具体操作阶段、正式操作阶段)的理论,但皮雅杰著作更精妙的部分却鲜为人知,也许是因为师范学校认为它对教师而言 "太深奥 "了吧。

ChemTrak, though, takes a different twist:
不过, ChemTrak 有不同的看法:
Parent's Alert is a preventative measure, to be trotted out before suspicion of drug use arises preferably when kids are in elementary or junior high school.
"家长警报 "是一种预防性的措施,可以在对使用毒品的怀疑加剧-最好是孩子还在小学或初中时一之前便运作起来。
The Parent's Alert home drug test, marketed by ChemTrak, is a laboratory test for alcohol and drugs such as marijuana and cocaine.
由 ChemTrak 推向市场的 "家长警报 "家庭药物测试是化验室用于检测酒精和诸如大麻、可卡因这样的毒品的方法。

Most are searchable by topic as well as by keyword and author, but even after I rummaged through the relevant categories( Anger, Guilt, etc. ), none of them actually gave me the exact quote I was looking for, although many offered me something equally germane instead.

Although no longer actively involved in the business, Yee's sisters - Gail, 45, Teresa, 43, and Elaine, 41, all Columbus postal workers; Jane, 33, a customer service rep; and Leigh, 21, a college student( brother Gary, 50, is a bus driver) - often play guinea pigs as Yee tries out new products.
余素兰有三个姐姐──余惠兰( 45岁),余慕兰( 43岁)和余绮兰( 41岁),她们现在都是哥伦布市的邮递员;余素兰妹妹余贞兰( 33岁)现在是一位客户服务代表,余莉兰( 21岁)还是一位大学生(哥哥余本立, 50岁,是一位公共汽车司机),尽管她们现在不再介入真化妆品的经营,但是现在常在余素兰进行新产品实验时充当试验品。

Neither did I. Oddly enough though, a great number of people have been connecting always-on digital cameras to the Net, beaming back pictures even full-motion video of themselves as they putter around on their computers and about their homes.

Even though we hadn't taken off yet, I felt as if I'd already arrived.

MSNBC.COM If you want to go more mainstream than online news data from such obscure stations as FasTV and FashionTV( though that can be fun too), tune in to MSNBC for live, 24-hour programming identical to what's on its cable-TV show.
MSNBC.COM 如果你想摆脱那些小网站,如 FasTV 和 FashionTV 上的在线新闻(尽管那也很有意思),而倾向较为主流的网站,那就去 MSNBC.COM 收看其 NBC 的有线电视几乎相同的节目。

Though many of them are 90s creations that began as Web designers, and few have produced significant profits, these e-savvy young consultancies are capturing the business of blue-chip clients like CBS, Nokia, Sony and American Express business.
尽管许多新公司都是在 90年代以网络设计起家的,而且几乎没有一家赚过什么大钱,但是它们熟谙电子信息技术,正在抢得哥伦比亚广播公司、诺基亚、索尼和美国运通银行等大公司的咨询生意。

Though not favored to win, few doubt that these teams will become strong contenders as a result of this year's experience.

" The image quality is excellent, " says Bowskill.
" It has the same resolution as a PC desktop screen.
And even though the image is 2.5 cm away from your eye, it looks as if you 're staring at a screen one meter away. "
尽管图像离你的眼睛只有 2.5厘米,感觉却好像你正盯一米开外的显示屏。

" We have to ask ourselves why some people can eat a lot and remain slim, " says Dieter Johnsen, a nutrition expert at the German Institute for Nutrition Research, " While others get fat though they eat normally. "

Although the evidence is largely anecdotal, some parents charge that inoculations have brought on such disorders as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes and even autism.

Although man has invented machines for flying and swimming, they are never as well-adapted to air and water as the creatures born to inhabit those elements.

Optical astronomy is most directly affected, for although interstellar gas is perfectly transparent, the dust is not.
光学天文学(optical astronomy)受到的影响最为直接,因为虽然星际气体是全然透明的,但尘埃却并非如此。

Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system.
虽然神经能量之间存在性质差异的观点从没有遭到严格的驳斥,但该学说普遍被抛弃,人们转而采纳了与之相对立的一个观点,即神经冲击从根本上来说在性质上是毫无二致的,并仿佛象“通用货币”(common currency)一样在神经系统中传输。

Although some experiments show that, as an object becomes familiar, its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel, the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis, at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar.
虽然某些实验表明,随着一个物体变得熟悉起来,其内心再现图像亦更具整体感,辨认过程相应地更趋于平行,但证据的砝码似乎在支持序列假设(serial hypothesis),至少是对于那些不甚简单、不甚熟悉的物体来说。

The physicist rightly dreads precise argument, since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed, whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.
物理学家恐惧于那些精确无误的论据不无道理,因为某种只有在它是精确无误的条件下才令人置信的论据,一旦它赖于建立其上的假设稍有变化,便会失去它一部的作用;而与此相反,一个尽管并不精确无误但却令人置信的论据,在其基本假设(underlying assumption)稍微受干扰的情况下,仍然有可能是站得住脚的。

Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances, its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise.

Although she has denied any symbolic or religious intent in her works, their three-dimensional grandeur and even their titles, such as Sky Cathedral and Night Cathedral, suggest such connotations.
虽然她否认她作品中具有任何象征性的或宗教的意图,但它们三维立体的恢宏气势以及它们的标题,例如《天庭大教堂》(Sky Cathedral)以及《黑夜大教堂》(Night Cathedral),暗示出这样一种意蕴。

Laksmi Mittal an Indian born steel tycoon enjoyed the biggest increase in personal fortune. His net worth has quadrupled to thirteen billion dollars making him the world'third richest man. Ingvar Kamprad founder of the Swedish furniture chain Ikea also saw a big increase in wealth taking him to sixth place. Developing countries make more of a showing than in past years - there are for example three Russians and four Indians in the top sixty richest people though surprisingly perhaps none from China excluding Hong Kong. Asian wealth is probably under-represented as its usually spread among families whereas Forbes looks at individuals.

A top North Korea envoy visited Beijing earlier this week amid reports Pyongyang had agreed to return to the talks as early as mid-May, though Spokesman Boucher said no such word has been conveyed to Washington.

There has been no comment from Iran. But such a visit would mark the latest twist in the IAEA's long dealings with Iran over its suspected nuclear weapons program. The U.N. agency has not found hard evidence proving the country is working to produce nuclear weapons. But Tehran has acknowledged that it hid critical aspects of its civilian nuclear program for nearly two decades even though it insists all such programs are intended to produce electricity.

The earthquake and tidal waves struck as thousands of American and other tourists were spending year-end holidays at resorts around the Indian Ocean. Secretary Powell said hundreds of U.S. citizens remain unaccounted for, though they are not necessarily among the casualties. He said there are 11 confirmed American deaths and that a number of others are being treated for injuries.

President Bush continues to attack Senator Kerry as a politician who he says is too indecisive to lead."Much of what my opponent said last night is contradicted by his own record," said President Bush. "Twenty years of votes that earned him the most liberal label. He voted 98 times to raises taxes, more than 200 times to break spending caps. He voted against tort reform although last night he tried to claim he now supports it."

He also cites Russia, which has tightened restrictions on the technology and equipment it supplies for Iran's nuclear energy program but would be reluctant to give up the lucrative contracts. European allies still favor a dialogue and negotiations to dissuade Tehran from its nuclear pursuits even though they appear to be losing patience with Iran's defiant behavior. Washington is pushing for a much tougher approach. The next showdown for Iran is the IAEA meeting in September to review its cooperation on inspections of its facilities. But analysts say Iran probably figures it can buy time before tougher action is taken by assuming there will be no dramatic shift in the international community's strategy before the U.S. presidential elections in November.
他还提到了俄罗斯。俄罗斯开始进一步限制对伊朗核计划提供技术和设备,但它不愿放弃利益丰厚的合同。欧洲国家虽然对伊朗一意孤行的做法感到不满,但还是主张通过对话磋商来说服德黑兰放弃发展核武器。而华盛顿力图采取更加严厉的措施来解决这个问题。伊朗将在9月份面临再次摊牌, 届时,国际原子能机构会对伊朗与其在核设备检查方面的合作情况做出评估。但是分析人士说,伊朗会估计,在11月份美国大选前,国际社会对它发展核武器问题的处理策略不会有太大改变,因此在联合国采取更严厉的行动之前,它还能争取到一些时间。

There are a number of major morphological (histological) groups of malignant neoplasms:
carcinomas including squamous (cell) and adenocarcinomas; sarcomas; other soft tissue
tumours including mesotheliomas; lymphomas (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's); leukaemia; other
specified and site-specific types; and unspecified cancers. Cancer is a generic term and
may be used for any of the above groups, although it is rarely applied to the malignant
neoplasms of lymphatic, haematopoietic and related tissue. "Carcinoma" is
sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for "cancer".
In Chapter Ⅱ neoplasms are classified predominantly by site within broad groupings for
behaviour. In a few exceptional cases morphology is indicated in the category and
subcategory titles. For those wishing to identify the histological type of neoplasm,
comprehensive separate morphology codes are provided on pages 1177-1204.
These morphology codes are derived from the second edition of International Classification
of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), which is a dual-axis classification providing
independent coding systems for topography and morphology.
Morphology codes have six digits: the first four digits identify the histological type;
the fifth digit is the behaviour code (malignant primary, malignant secondary
(metastatic), in situ, benign, uncertain whether malignant or benign); and the sixth digit
is a grading code (differentiation) for solid tumours, and is also used as a special code
for lymphomas and leukaemias.
恶性肿瘤在形态学上 ( 组织学上 ) 主要分为 : 癌 ,
含鳞状细胞及腺癌 ; 恶性肉瘤 ; 其他软组织肿瘤 (
含间皮细胞瘤 ) ; 淋巴瘤 ( 何杰金和非何杰金氏 )
; 白血病 ; 其他明示和部位明示类型 ; 和未明示癌
。癌是总称名词 , 可用於上述任何群 , 虽然很少用
於淋巴、造血和相关组织的肿瘤 , 癌瘤 ( Carcinoma ) 与癌
( Cancer ) 并非同义字。
在第二章肿瘤主要以部位分类 , 常包括广泛而行为
不同之肿瘤。只有少数的例外 , 其型态学被明示在
分项标题中。若欲确认肿瘤组织学之类型 , 可参考
第 1177-1204 页内完整的形态学码。
这些形态学码源引自第二版的国际肿瘤疾病分类 (
ICD-O ) , 用二轴分类来提供解剖和形态学独立码系统

形态学码有六个位码 , 前四个位码为组织学上分类
, 第五个位码是性态码 ( 原发恶性 , 续发恶性 ( 转
移 ) , 原位 , 良性 , 未确定是否恶性或良性 ) , 第
六个位码是固体肿瘤等级码 ( 分化 ) , 并常用为淋

Schizotypal disorder
A disorder characterized by eccentric behaviour and anomalies of thinking and affect which
resemble those seen in schizophrenia, though no definite and characteristic schizophrenic
anomalies occur at any stage. The symptoms may include a cold or inappropriate affect;
anhedonia; odd or eccentric behaviour; a tendency to social withdrawal; paranoid or
bizarre ideas not amounting to true delusions; obsessive ruminations; thought disorder and
perceptual disturbances; occasional transient quasi-psychotic episodes with intense
illusions, auditory or other hallucinations, and delusion-like ideas, usually occurring
without external provocation. There is no definite onset and evolution and course are
usually those of a personality disorder.
Latent schizophrenic reaction
. borderline
. latent
. prepsychotic
. prodromal
. pseud neurotic
. pscudopsychopathic
Schizotypal personality disorder
Excludes: Asperger's syndrome (F84.5)
schizoid personality disorder (F60.1)
此类疾患通常以行为怪异、思考与情感异常 , 这些
症状很像精神分裂症的表现 , 但始终没有确定的、
漠或不恰当情感 ; 没有快乐感 ; 怪异行为 ; 孤立倾
向 ; 妄想性或怪怪之念头 , 但未形成妄想 ; 强迫性
冥想 ; 思考障碍与知觉障碍之偶见短暂性类似精神
病性的发作 , 伴随明显错觉、听幻觉或其他幻觉 ,
也有类似妄想想法 , 常在没有任何外界刺激下产生
。没有明确的初次发病现象与病程之演变 , 病程似
精神分裂症 :
. 边缘型 
. 潜伏型 
. 精神病性前 
. 前驱性 
. 假性精神官能性 
. 假性精神病质性 
不包含 : 艾斯伯格 (Aspergers) 徵候群 (F84.5)  
分裂性人格违常 (F60.1)  

Specific (isolated) phobias
Phobias restricted to highly specific situations such as proximity to particular animals,
heights, thunder, darkness, flying, closed spaces, urinating or defecating in public
toilets, eating certain foods, dentistry, or the sight of blood or injury. Though the
triggering situation is discrete, contact with it can evoke panic as in agoraphobia or
social phobia.
Animal phobias
Simple phobia
Excludes: dysmorphophobia (nondelusional) (F45.2)
nosophobia (F45.2)
特殊 ( 单项 ) 畏惧症
惧社交症一样 , 会引发恐慌现象。
不包含 : 畸形恐惧症 ( 非妄想性 ) (F45.2)
畏病症 (F45.2)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder
The essential feature is recurrent obsessional thoughts or compulsive acts. Obsessional
thoughts are ideas, images, or impulses that enter the patient's mind again and again in a
stereotyped form. They are almost invariably distressing and the patient often tries,
unsuccessfully, to resist them. They are, however, recognized as his or her own thoughts,
even though they are involuntary and often repugnant. Compulsive acts or rituals are
stereotyped behaviours that are repeated again and again. They are not inherently
enjoyable, nor do they result in the completion of inherently useful tasks. Their function
is to prevent some objectively unlikely event, often involving harm to or caused by the
patient, which he or she fears might otherwise occur. Usually, this behaviour is
recognized by the patient as pointless or ineffectual and repeated attempts are made to
resist. Anxiety is almost invariably present. If compulsive acts are resisted the anxiety
gets worse.
Includes: anankastic neurosis
obsessive-compulsive neurosis
Excludes: obsessive-compulsive personality (disorder) (F60.5)
, 一次又一次的进入病人的思绪当中。这些通常是
令人困扰的 , 病人通常会试着去抵抗上述意念 , 但
考 , 纵使他们是非志愿或厌恶的。强迫性行动或仪
式行动是一种刻板的行为 , 被一次又一无可奈何次
的重复。这些并不令人感到愉快 , 也不能达成有用
在客观上并不可能发生的对患者或他人的伤害 , 这
的 , 而且屡次地想来抵抗此行动 , 同时会有焦虑。
若试图抵抗此重覆行为 , 焦虑会加重。
包含 : 强迫性精神官能症 (anankastic neurosis)
强迫性精神官能症 (obsessive-compulsive neurosis)
不包含 : 强迫性人格障碍症 (F60.5)

Reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders
This category differs from others in that it includes disorders identifiable on the basis
of not only symptoms and course but also the existence of one or other of two causative
influences: an exceptionally stressful life event producing an acute stress reaction, or a
significant life change leading to continued unpleasant circumstances that result in an
adjustment disorder. Although less severe psychosocial stress ("life events")
may precipitate the onset or contribute to the presentation of a very wide range of
disorders classified elsewhere in this chapter, its etiological importance is not always
clear and in each case will be found to depend on individual, often idiosyncratic,
vulnerability, i.e. the life events are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the
occurrence and form of the disorder. In contrast, the disorders brought together here are
thought to arise always as a direct consequence of acute severe stress or continued
trauma. The stressful events or the continuing unpleasant circumstances are the primary
and overriding causal factor and the disorder would not have occurred without their
impact. The disorders in this section can thus be regarded as maladaptive responses to
severe or continued stress, in that they interfere with successful coping mechanisms and
therefore lead to problems of social functioning.
此一类诊断与其他类不同乃在於要确认此种疾病 ,
不仅要基於症状学和病程 , 而且也要基於一两个影
响的原因 - 包含一个非比寻常的压力事件产生压力
反应 , 或是一个显着的生活改变导致继续不适意的
会压力 ( 生活事件 ) 会发生或促发在本章中处处所
提的较广范围之疾病表现 , 然而此类压力在病因学
上的重要性并不一定清楚 , 而每个个案上的特异性
够解释疾病的发生及型式 * 相对地 , 本项疾病被认为
具决定性的因子 , 如果没有此种冲击疾病必然不会
良反应 , 此情况会干扰个体应付事情之机转 , 以致

Sleep terrors [night terrors]
Nocturnal episodes of extreme terror and panic associated with intense vocalization,
motility, and high levels of autonomic discharge. The individual sits up or gets up,
usually during the first third of nocturnal sleep, with a panicky scream. Quite often he
or she rushes to the door as if trying to escape, although very seldom leaves the room.
Recall of the event, if any, is very limited (usually to one or two fragmentary mental
烈地喊叫 , 肢体动作 , 和自主神经高度运作。病人
坐起。病人常冲到门边似乎企图要逃离 , 虽然很少
( 通常只能回忆起片断印象 ) 。

Abuse of non-dependence-producing substances
A wide variety of medicaments and folk remedies may be involved, but the particularly
important groups are: (a) psychotropic drugs that do not produce dependence, such as
antidepressants, (b) laxatives, and (c) analgesics that may be purchased without medical
prescription, such as aspirin and paracetamol.
Persistent use of these substances often involves unnecessary contacts with medical
professionals or supporting staff, and is sometimes accompanied by harmful physical
effects of the substances. Attempts to dissuade or forbid the use of the substance are
often met with resistance; for laxatives and analgesics this may be in spite of warnings
about (or even the development of) physical harm such as renal dysfunction or electrolyte
disturbances. Although it is usually clear that the patient has a strong motivation to
take the substance, dependence or withdrawal symptoms do not develop as in the case of the
psychoactive substances specified in F10-F19.
Abuse of:
. antacids
. herbal or folk remedies
. steroids or hormones
. vitamins
Laxative habit
Excludes: abuse of psychoactive substances (F10-F19)
广泛的包含药剂和民俗用药 , 但较特别重要的几类
药物是 ( a ) 不造成成瘾性的精神药物 , 如抗忧郁剂 ,
( b ) 轻泻药 ( c ) 不需医师处方即可购得的止痛剂 , 如
aspirin 和 paracetamol 。
病人持续且不正常使用这些药物 , 常引起与医疗专
业人员非必要的求诊接触 , 有时也伴有该药物引起
常会遭遇阻抗 ; 使用泻药及止痛药者可能不顾对身
体伤害的警告 , 比如将会造成胃功能障碍或电解质
不平衡等。虽然病人了解上述状况 , 但是病人仍有
强烈动机去使用这些药物 , 并不会像 F10-F19 精神作用
滥用以下药物 :
. 制酸剂
. 草药及民俗用药
. 类固醇或荷尔蒙
. 维生素
不包含 : 有成瘾性精神药物之滥用 (F10-F19)

Disorders of psychological development
The disorders included in this block have in common: (a) onset invariably during infancy
or childhood; (b) impairment or delay in development of functions that are strongly
related to biological maturation of the central nervous system; and (c) a steady course
without remissions and relapses. In most cases, the functions affected include language,
visuo-spatial skills, and motor coordination. Usually, the delay or impairment has been
present from as early as it could be detected reliably and will diminish progressively as
the child grows older, although milder deficits often remain in adult life.
心理发展障碍 (F80-F89)
在 F80-F89 内所列的障碍症有下列共同点 : ( a ) 发生年
龄都是在婴儿期或儿童期 ; ( b ) 功能发展的障碍或
迟滞与中枢神经系统的生物性成熟有密切相关 ; 及
( C ) 病程稳定 , 与许多精神疾病具有的缓解、复发
的病程特性不同。大多数个案中 , 所影响的功能包
含语言、视觉 - 空间技巧或运动协调。通常其障碍
或迟滞的病史在早期即能正确地检查出来 , 且随着
儿童长大 , 其障碍会逐渐减轻 , 但成人期仍会存在

Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [de la Tourette]
A form of tic disorder in which there are, or have been, multiple motor tics and one or
more vocal tics, although these need not have occurred concurrently. The disorder usually
worsens during adolescence and tends to persist into adult life. The vocal tics are often

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