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relationship [ ri'leiʃənʃip] n.关系,联系

relationship [ri'leiʃənʃip] n. 关系

relationship [ri'leiʃənʃip] 关系

党群关系 Party-masses relationship

糖藕 candied lotus root - fulfilling love relationship

close relationship 密切的关系

to establish(enter into, set up)business relationship 建立业务关系

to continue business relationship 继续业务关系

to present business relationship 保持业务关系

to improve business relationship 改善业务关系

to promote business relationship 促进业务关系

to speed up business relationship 加快业务关系的发展

to enlarge (widen) business relationship 扩大业务关系

to restore (resume) business relationship 恢复业务关系

to interrupt business relationship 中断业务关系

to cement business relationship 巩固业务关系

cooperative relationship 合作关系

workaholic 工作狂
A: My wife has been very upset about my bad habit of staying late at work.
A: 我太太对我喜欢晚下班的坏习惯很不开心。
B: I've been there. My husband used to be a workaholic until I gave him an ultimatum. His work addiction almost ruined our relationship.
B: 我是过来人。我先生以前一直是个工作狂, 直到我向他下了最后通牒。他的沉迷于工作基乎毁了我们的感情。
- 对于「沉迷于酒」的人我们叫他"an alcoholic", 对于放不下工作的人呢,
美语就叫"a workaholic"「工作狂」, "ultimatum"是「最后通牒」的意思。
"I've been there."(原意:我到过那里)在口语里有「我是过来人」的意思。

administrative relationships 管理关系

cost-and-volume relationship 成本-数量关系

marketing relationship 营销关系

opening relationships 建立关系

utility/price relationship 效用/价格关系

working relationship 工作关系

Relationships among reform, development and stability 改革发展和稳定的关系

relationship marketing 关系营销

Relationship 关系

relationships among reform,development

There is no more lovely, friendly, and charming relationship, communion, or company than a good marriage.

Respect is a very important part of any relationship.

A key task is to get pupils to perceive for themselves the relationship between success and effort.

Money problems place great stress on close family relationships.

The study shows that there is a relationship between diet and cancer.

What is the relationship of clouds to rain?

His novel was inspired by his relationship with his first wife.

Both novelists use a storytelling method that emphasizes ironic disjunctions between different perspectives on the same events as well as ironic tensions that inhere in the relationship between surface drama and concealed authorical intention, a method I call an evidentiary narrative technique.

An obsession with the exact privileges of a colonial legislature and the precise extent of Britain’s imperial power, the specifics of a state constitution and the absolute necessity of a federal one, all expressed this urge for a careful articulation as proof that the right relationship with external powers did indeed prevail.

Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships.

Behavioral research discloses that human relations at work are just easier, perhaps because they are more regular and predictable and thus simpler to adjust to than the sporadic, the more intense and less regular relationship in the community.
R.Sayles Leonard, British writer

No matter how strong you are how notable your attainments, you have endruring significance only in your relationship to others.
Ziegler Edward, American writer
美国作家爱德华.Z .

The magic's gone from our relationship.

Trust is the single most important factor in both personal and professional relationships.

- a pain in the neck 使人讨厌的事
Working for VIPs was an honor for me, but now it has become a pain in the neck. I don't know how to balance the relationships.

We see that your firm specializes in Light Industrial Goods, and we are willing to establish business relationship with you.

We are one of the largest importers of Electric Goods in this city, and we wish to establish business relationship with you.

We are willing to enter into business relationship with your company on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

Our company is thinking of expanding its business relationship with China.

As is known, we set great store by the trade relationship with the third world countries.

We look forward to reactivating our business relationship.

We shall welcome a chance to renew our friendly relationship.

We'll try our best to widen our business relationship with you.

We're writing you in order to establish business relationship.

The arrangement will contribute to cement our pleasant relationship.

We're willing to restore our business relationship.

It will be advantageous if steps are taken to resume our business relationship on the basis of mutual benefit.

We’ve had a very good business relationship over the past years. I think this transaction would be more promising if you could make an appropriate reduction.

关系 [guān xi ] /relation/relationship/to concern/to affect/to have to do with/relations/guanxi/

伦 [lún] /human relationship/

人情 [rén qíng] /(n) human emotions/(n) social relationship/(n) favor; good turn/

通商 [tōng shāng] /(v) have a trading relationship (i.e. between nations)/

因缘 [yīn yuán] /chance/opportunity/predestined relationship/(Buddhist) principal and secondary causes/chain of cause and effect/

Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture.
Think of Galileo's 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton.
The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.

As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.

{adj: adopted} having been taken into a specific relationship
"an adopted child"

{adj: adulterous, extramarital, extracurricular} characterized by adultery
"an adulterous relationship"
"extramarital affairs"
"the extracurricular activities of a philandering husband"

{adj: anaclitic} of or related to relationships that are characterized by the strong dependence of one person on another

{adj: associated} joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
"a cabal of associated lawyers"

{adj: attached, committed} associated in an exclusive sexual relationship
<-> unattached

{adj: causal} involving or constituting a cause; causing
"a causal relationship between scarcity and higher prices"

{adj: chummy, matey, pally, palsy-walsy} (used colloquially) having the relationship of friends or pals

{adj: close} close in relevance or relationship
"a close family"
"we are all...in close sympathy with..."
"close kin"
"a close resemblance"
<-> distant

{adj: conjugal, connubial} of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband
"connubial bliss"
"conjugal visits"

{adj: dear, good, near} with or in a close or intimate relationship
"a good friend"
"my sisters and brothers are near and dear"

{adj: distant} far apart in relevance or relationship
"a distant cousin"
"a distant likeness"
<-> close

{adj: disturbed, maladjusted} emotionally unstable and having difficulty coping with personal relationships

{adj: feudatory} of or pertaining to the relation of a feudal vassal to his lord
"a feudatory relationship"

{adj: fraught} marked by distress
"a fraught mother-daughter relationship"

{adj: harmonious} existing together in harmony
"harmonious family relationships"

{adj: intimate, sexual} involved in a sexual relationship
"the intimate (or sexual) relations between husband and wife"
"she had been intimate with many men"

{adj: lasting} lasting a long time without change
"a lasting relationship"

{adj: meretricious} like or relating to a prostitute
"meretricious relationships"

{adj: monogamous} (used of relationships and of individuals) having one mate
"monogamous marriage"
"monogamous for life"
<-> polygamous

{adj: political} of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power
"political opinions"

{adj: polygamous} having more than one mate at a time; used of relationships and individuals
<-> monogamous

{adj: removed} separated in relationship by a given degree of descent
"a cousin once removed"

{adj: schizoid} marked by withdrawal and inability to form close relationships

{adj: stable} resistant to change of position or condition
"a stable ladder"
"a stable peace"
"a stable relationship"
"stable prices"
<-> unstable

{adj: triangular, trilateral, tripartite, three-party, three-way} involving three parties or elements
"the triangular mother-father-child relationship"
"a trilateral agreement"
"a tripartite treaty"
"a tripartite division"
"a three-way playoff"

{adj: unattached, uncommitted} not associated in an exclusive sexual relationship
<-> attached

{adv: indeterminably} in an indeterminable manner
"their relationship was of an indeterminably vague nature"

{adv: near, nigh, close} near in time or place or relationship
"as the wedding day drew near"
"stood near the door"
"don't shoot until they come near"
"getting near to the true explanation"
"her mother is always near"
"The end draws nigh"
"the bullet didn't come close"
"don't get too close to the fire"

{adv: peripherally} in or at or near a periphery or according to a peripheral role or function or relationship
<-> centrally

{adv: politically} with regard to social relationships involving authority
"politically correct clothing"

{adv: unwarrantably} in an unwarrantable manner or to an unwarranted degree
"in this painting, the relationship of the upper part of the body to the lower is uneasy and the right thigh seems unwarrantably stressed"

{n: Hall, Radclyffe Hall, Marguerite Radclyffe Hall} English writer whose novel about a lesbian relationship was banned in Britain for many years (1883-1943)

{n: Lawrence, D. H. Lawrence, David Herbert Lawrence} English novelist and poet and essayist whose work condemned industrial society and explored sexual relationships (1885-1930)

{n: Lothario} a successful womanizer; a man who behaves selfishly in his sexual relationships with women

{n: Office of Intelligence Support, OIS} agency that oversees the intelligence relationships of the Treasury's offices and bureaus and provides a link between the Intelligence Community and officials responsible for international economic policy

{n: abduction} the criminal act of capturing and carrying away by force a family member; if a man's wife is abducted it is a crime against the family relationship and against the wife

{n: account, business relationship} a formal contractual relationship established to provide for regular banking or brokerage or business services
"he asked to see the executive who handled his account"

{n: acquaintance, acquaintanceship} a relationship less intimate than friendship

{n: adverse witness, hostile witness} a witness whose relationship to the opposing party is such that his or her testimony may be prejudiced against the opposing party
"a hostile witness can be asked leading questions and cross-examined"

{n: affair, affaire, intimacy, liaison, involvement, amour} a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship

{n: affiliation, association, tie, tie-up} a social or business relationship
"a valuable financial affiliation"
"he was sorry he had to sever his ties with other members of the team"
"many close associations with England"

{n: affinity, phylogenetic relation} (biology) state of relationship between organisms or groups of organisms resulting in resemblance in structure or structural parts
"in anatomical structure prehistoric man shows close affinity with modern humans"

{n: affinity} (anthropology) kinship by marriage or adoption; not a blood relationship
<-> consanguinity

{n: anaclisis} (psychoanalysis) relationship marked by strong dependence on others; especially a libidinal attachment to e.g. a parental figure

{n: annulment, invalidation} (law) a formal termination (of a relationship or a judicial proceeding etc)

{n: anthropology} the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

{n: belonging} happiness felt in a secure relationship
"with his classmates he felt a sense of belonging"

{n: bonding} a close personal relationship that forms between people (as between husband and wife or parent and child)

{n: catamite} a boy who submits to a sexual relationship with a man

{n: chapter} any distinct period in history or in a person's life
"the industrial revolution opened a new chapter in British history"
"the divorce was an ugly chapter in their relationship"

{n: cladogram} a tree diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships

{n: cohabitation} the act of living together and having a sexual relationship (especially without being married)

{n: comfortableness} a feeling of being at ease in a relationship

{n: common-law marriage} a marriage relationship created by agreement and cohabitation rather than by ceremony

{n: confidence, trust} a trustful relationship
"he took me into his confidence"
"he betrayed their trust"

{n: contextual definition} a definition in which the term is used by embedding it in a larger expression containing its explanation
"a contextual definition of `legal duty' might be `X has a legal duty to do Y means that X is required to do Y by a contract relationship that would be upheld in a court of law'"

{n: dissolution, breakup} the termination or disintegration of a relationship (between persons or nations)

{n: domestic partner, significant other, spousal equivalent, spouse equivalent} a person (not necessarily a spouse) with whom you cohabit and share a long-term sexual relationship

{n: dominatrix} a dominating woman (especially one who plays that role in a sadomasochistic sexual relationship)

{n: faith, trust} complete confidence in a person or plan etc
"he cherished the faith of a good woman"
"the doctor-patient relationship is based on trust"

{n: female bonding} the formation of a close personal relationship between women

{n: form division} an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure

{n: form family} (biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure

{n: form genus} (biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure

{n: form genus} an artificial taxonomic category established on the basis of morphological resemblance for organisms of obscure true relationships especially fossil forms

{n: fragmentation} the disintegration of social norms governing behavior and thought and social relationships

{n: friendship, friendly relationship} the state of being friends

{n: honeymoon} the early (usually calm and harmonious) period of a relationship; business or political

{n: inamorata} a woman with whom you are in love or have an intimate relationship

{n: inamorato} a man with whom you are in love or have an intimate relationship

{n: kinship, family relationship, relationship} (anthropology) relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption

{n: legal document, legal instrument, official document, instrument} (law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right

{n: love affair, romance} a relationship between two lovers

{n: male bonding} the formation of a close personal relationship between men
"the rituals known as male bonding do not necessarily involve drinking beer together"

{n: marital relationship, marital bed} the relationship between wife and husband

{n: marriage, matrimony, union, spousal relationship, wedlock} the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)
"a long and happy marriage"
"God bless this union"

{n: mistress, kept woman, fancy woman} an adulterous woman; a woman who has an ongoing extramarital sexual relationship with a man

{n: open marriage} a marriage in which each partner is free to enter into extraneous sexual relationships without guilt or jealousy from the other

{n: orientation} a person's awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships

{n: palimony} support paid by one half of an unmarried partnership after the relationship ends

{n: partnership} a cooperative relationship between people or groups who agree to share responsibility for achieving some specific goal
"effective language learning is a partnership between school, teacher and student"
"the action teams worked in partnership with the government"

{n: personal relation, personal relationship} a relation between persons

{n: pickup} a casual acquaintance; often made in hope of sexual relationships

{n: privilege} (law) the right to refuse to divulge information obtained in a confidential relationship

{n: public relations person} a person employed to establish and promote a favorable relationship with the public

{n: rapport, resonance} a relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people

{n: reciprocal pronoun} a pronoun or pronominal phrase (as `each other') that expresses a mutual action or relationship between the individuals indicated in the plural subject
"The sentence `They cared for each other' contains a reciprocal pronoun"

{n: recusation} (law) an objection grounded on the judge's relationship to one of the parties

{n: relationship, human relationship} a relation between people; (`relationship' is often used where `relation' would serve, as in `the relationship between inflation and unemployment', but the preferred usage of `relationship' is for human relations or states of relatedness)
"the relationship between mothers and their children"

{n: relationship} a state involving mutual dealings between people or parties or countries

{n: relationship} a state of connectedness between people (especially an emotional connection)
"he didn't want his wife to know of the relationship"

{n: relative, congener, congenator, congeneric} an animal or plant that bears a relationship to another (as related by common descent or by membership in the same genus)

{n: serial monogamy} a succession of short monogamous relationships (as by someone who undergoes multiple divorces)

{n: sexual relationship} a relationship involving sexual intimacy

{n: sigeh} a Shiite tradition of temporary marriage permitted in Iran that allows a couple to specify the terms of their relationship; can last from a few minutes to 99 years
"sigeh legally wraps premarital sex in an Islamic cloak"

{n: social organization, social organisation, social structure, social system, structure} the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
"the social organization of England and America is very different"
"sociologists have studied the changing structure of the family"

{n: social psychology} the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole

{n: social science} the branch of science that studies society and the relationships of individual within a society

{n: social scientist} someone expert in the study of human society and its personal relationships

{n: sociometry} the quantitative study of social relationships

{n: steprelationship} a family relationship by virtue of remarriage

{n: storm, tempest} a violent commotion or disturbance
"the storms that had characterized their relationship had died away"
"it was only a tempest in a teapot"

{n: taxonomy} practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships

{n: two-timer} someone who deceives a lover or spouse by carrying on a sexual relationship with somebody else

{n: womanizer, womaniser, philanderer} a man who likes many women and has short sexual relationships with them

{v: break with} end a relationship
"China broke with Russia"

{v: connect} establish a rapport or relationship
"The President of this university really connects with the faculty"

{v: derive, come, descend} come from ; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example
"She was descended from an old Italian noble family"
"he comes from humble origins"

{v: dislocate, displace} put out of its usual place, position, or relationship
"The colonists displaced the natives"

{v: finish} cause to finish a relationship with somebody
"That finished me with Mary"

{v: give the axe, give the bounce, give the gate} terminate a relationship abruptly
"Mary gave John the axe after she saw him with another woman"

{v: go steady, go out, date, see} date regularly ; have a steady relationship with
"Did you know that she is seeing an older man?"
"He is dating his former wife again!"

{v: have} have a personal or business relationship with someone
"have a postdoc"
"have an assistant"
"have a lover"

{v: interrelate} place into a mutual relationship
"I cannot interrelate these two events"

{v: officialize, officialise} make official
"We officialized our relationship"

{v: relate, interrelate} be in a relationship with
"How are these two observations related?"

{v: relate} have or establish a relationship to
"She relates well to her peers"

{v: sever, break up} set or keep apart
"sever a relationship"

{v: take back} resume a relationship with someone after an interruption, as in a wife taking back her husband

{v: two-time} carry on a romantic relationship with two people at the same time

Self-respect and a clear conscience are powerful components of integrity and are the basis for enriching your relationships with others.

A great deal of money is poured into promoting and advertising material things for " special occasion " s_ it causes people to forget that the most important element in a lasting relationship is how they treat each other every day.
大量的金钱被倾注在宣传、促销那些为 "特别的时刻 "而准备的物质类的东西上,致使人们有时忘记了维系一种持久关系的最重要的因素是他们在每一天里怎样彼此相待。

" Although every incidence of high blood pres-sure can not be put down to poor calcium intake, there may be a definite relationship among some patients, " she says.
她说: "虽然不能把任何高血压的发生都归因于钙的摄入量低,但在一些病人中,两者之间可能有着一定的联系。 "

These are the times of fast foods and slow digestion; tall men and short character; steep profits and shallow relationships.

Adults weigh about 20 pounds, and their main prey is the snowshoe hare--so close is the relationship that their populations boom and crash in sync, and both share similar adaptations for moving fast through snowy forest.
重约 20磅的成年山猫和它们的主食雪兔之间的关系是那么密切,彼此数量的增加或下降是配合一致的,同时,为了生存,它们都具备在雪山密林中飞速快跑的类似的应变能力。

" Washington is a good platform to build relationships with governments throughout the world, " says Edmund Muskie, senior vice-president and managing director of First Union's embassy banking services.
"华盛顿是一个好的立足点,你可在此与世界各国政府建立联系, "第一联合公司的高级副总裁兼使馆银行业务总经理埃德蒙·马斯基这样说。

Meanwhile First Union's international network grew to five foreign branches--one in London, and the others in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Bahamas; 28 representative offices in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America and 1,400 correspondent banking relationships.
同时,第一联合公司的国际网络发展到了五个国外分支机构-一个在伦敦,其余的分别在南韩、香港、台湾和巴哈马;在欧洲、亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲拥有 28家代表机构和 1400家相关的银行业务关系户。

He converted to the Christian religion and began attending church.
The relationship broke up -
" it was doomed because I was violent. An abusive husband. "
"这是命中注定的,因为我太粗暴,是个满嘴脏话的丈夫。 "

When a Georgia mother began selling the kits, which ChemTrak now markets under agreement with the Parent's Alert group, the FDA was concerned that mom-and-opo-administered drug tests could damage family relationships.
当一位佐治亚州的母亲开始出售这种药盒时( ChemTrak 公司现在已在 "家长警报 "研究组的同意下将它推向市场), FDA 所关切的是这种父母参与的药物测试可能会伤害家庭关系。

" It's dream to make a million dollars overnight.
But these people are not happy, their relationships are miserable, and they 're taking a step back to ask what it's all about. "

"That makes me feel like I 'm treated as an old person.
I would rather have an equal relationship with a robot. "

Marriage counselors say couples often choose to separate as a last-ditch effort to change their relationship, and possibly themselves.

" Many trial separations don't work because they 're not 'authentic' they 're just one person's way of getting out of the relationship, " says Harriet Lerner, author of the book The Dance of Anger.

But a separation can give couples time to calm down, renegotiate the rules of the relationship and gain some needed distance.

Some therapists advise their clients to agree not to talk to each other about their relationship during these encounters and to use the time apart to reflect on their own lives and see what they can change about themselves.

Judging by the third-tier seats she was relegated to at the U.S. Open, the relationship seems to be in its nascent stages, but given the unending opportunities for puns, headline writers, at least, are rooting for the couple to flourish.

WHO: Mannequin CLAUDIA SCHIFFER and magician DAVID COPPERFIELD WHEN: September 1999, after a six-year engagement RELATIONSHIP's LEGAL HIGHLIGHT: In 1997 Copperfield filed a $30 million lawsuit against a French magazine that had suggested the union was a fraud FUTURE DATING PROSPECTS: She was spotted in Majorca with monied British art dealer Tim Jeffries; he was seen at Sean( " Puff Daddy ") Combs ' Labor Day party with a Chilean journalist said to be a Schiffer look-alike

When it's designed well, a district, school or classroom website can change the relationship between the parent and the school, says Cynthia LaPier, Ithaca's director of information and instructional technology.

A digital certificate can be used to establish a person's online identity and define their relationships within a certain business or group.

Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds-and yesterday's unforgotten lessons.

When blood relationships were few, as in newly created plantations in the Southwest, "fictive" kinship arrangements took their place until a new pattern of consanguinity developed.

We also know that the number of indictments in preindustrial Europe bears little relation to the number of actual criminal acts, and we strongly suspect that the relationship has varied widely over time.

The leguminous plants—among them crop plants such as soybeans, peas, alfalfa, and clover—have solved the nitrogen supply problem by entering into a symbiotic relationship with the bacterial genus Rhizobium; as a matter of fact, there is a specific strain of Rhizobium for each species of legume.

A recently published letter from Proust to the editor Vallette confirms that Fallois, the editor of the 1954 edition of Contre Saint-Beuve, made an essentially correct guess about the relationship of the essay to the novel.

The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels, from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently.

There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need, or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging.

According to Kullman, web structure is the only charactristic that suggests a relationship between families.

President Bush said he and Mr. Putin have developed a relationship this is frank, candid and open. "We may not always agree with each other, and we haven't over the last four years, that is for certain, but we found a lot of agreement, a lot of common ground, and the world is better for it," he said.

President Bush also rejected the notion that the Pakistani-American relationship has become one-sided, and that Pakistan is not getting enough in return for its help in the war on terrorism.

The comments came in an appearance before the U.S. Institute for Peace. During a question and answer session, Ms. Rice was asked to reflect on the differences between the United States and some of its European allies over Iraq. She said that, overall, the trans-Atlantic relationship is strong. "The trans-Atlantic relationship is actually in very good shape. And it is in very good shape because we have had to confront, once again, the fact that we are an alliance of values," she said.

On the subject of government-to-government contacts, September 11 Commission's Deputy Executive Director Christopher Kojm advocated creating a forum for regular consultation between Western and Muslim governments. He also gave an impassioned plea for a renewed U.S. commitment to improving relations with allies and international partners. "Whether it is military cooperation, law enforcement, aviation security - we are going to have to work with other governments. It all takes place in the context of the overall relationship that we have with governments. And if we do not have a relationship of trust and cooperation with key international partners, these other forms of cooperation in sector-specific areas will not happen," he said.

In Washington, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Charles Snyder, says there is little doubt that the Arab-Muslim government in Khartoum has deep ties to the Janjaweed. Mr. Snyder says he believes their relationship was forged precisely because of the threat the Darfur rebellion posed against the leadership in Khartoum.

Customer relationship management CRM software

Relationship building or family life skills instructional materials

Customer relationship center CRC management services

Malignant neoplasms overlapping site boundaries and the use of
subcategory.8 (overlapping lesion)
Categories C00-C75 classify primary malignant neoplasms according to their point of
origin. Many three-character categories are further divided into named parts or
subcategories of the organ in question. A neoplasm that overlaps two or more contiguous
sites within a three- character category and whose point of origin cannot be determined
should be classified to the subcategory.8 ("overlapping lesion"), unless the
combination is specifically indexed elsewhere. For example, carcinoma of oesophagus and
stomach is specifically indexed to C16.0 (cardia), while carcinoma of the tip and ventral
surface of the tongue should be assigned to C02.8. On the other hand, carcinoma of the tip
of the tongue extending to involve the ventral surface should be coded to C02.1 as the
point of origin, the tip, is known. "Overlapping" implies that the sites
involved are contiguous (next to each other). Numerically consecutive subcategories are
frequently anatomically contiguous, but this is not invariably so (e.g. bladder C67.-) and
the coder may need to consult anatomical texts to determine the topographical
Sometimes a neoplasm overlaps the boundaries of three-character categories within certain
systems. To take care of this the following subcategories have been designated:
恶性肿瘤的位置重叠 , 以及次类别 .8 ( 重叠性病灶 )
C00-C75 类别是根据原发部位来归类原发性恶性肿瘤 ,
, 在叁码分类内一个肿瘤如果跨越一个以上相邻部
位且原发部位不明者可归类於次分类 . 8 , 此重叠区
已在其他地方有特殊归类则不在此限。例如 : 食道
和胃癌是明示在 C16.0 ( 贲门部 ) , 而舌尖和舌腹面癌
, 被定为 C02.8 , 当原发部位已知为舌尖 , 舌尖癌扩展
至舌腹面 , 必须登录为 C02.1 , 重叠性意为侵犯的部位
是连接的 ( 至另一邻近部位 ) 而连续的数字类别在
解剖学上常常是连续的 , 这是会变化的 ( 如 : 膀胱 (
C67.- ) ) 登录者需要查解剖书来决定局部解剖的关系

在一些系统里有时肿瘤在叁特质类别范围有重叠 ,
为了收录这些特性而有下列的次类别命名 :

Predominantly obsessional thoughts or ruminations
These may take the form of ideas, mental images, or impulses to act, which are nearly
always distressing to the subject. Sometimes the ideas are an indecisive, endless
consideration of alternatives, associated with an inability to make trivial but necessary
decisions in day-to-day living. The relationship between obsessional ruminations and
depression is particularly close and a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder should
be preferred only if ruminations arise or persist in the absence of a depressive episode.
它们主要的型式是意念 , 心象或想做事的冲动 , 对
的 , 无止尽的思考可能的方案 , 它使病人在日常生
反刍与忧郁特别有关连 , 强迫症的诊断只有在忧郁
症不存在下 , 而又出现一些反刍思考时才能优先考

Dissociative [conversion] disorders
The common themes that are shared by dissociative or conversion disorders are a partial or
complete loss of the normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of
identity and immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements. All types of
dissociative disorders tend to remit after a few weeks or months, particularly if their
onset is associated with a traumatic life event. More chronic disorders, particularly
paralyses and anaesthesias, may develop if the onset is associated with insoluble problems
or interpersonal difficulties. These disorders have previously been classified as various
types of "conversion hysteria". They are presumed to be psychogenic in origin,
being associated closely in time with traumatic events, insoluble and intolerable
problems, or disturbed relationships. The symptoms often represent the patient's concept
of how a physical illness would be manifest. Medical examination and investigation do not
reveal the presence of any known physical or neurological disorder. In addition, there is
evidence that the loss of function is an expression of emotional conflicts or needs. The
symptoms may develop in close relationship to psychological stress, and often appear
suddenly. Only disorders of physical functions normally under voluntary control and loss
of sensations are included here. Disorders involving pain and other complex physical
sensations mediated by the autonomic nervous system are classified under somatization
disorder (F45.0). The possibility of the later appearance of serious physical or
psychiatric disorders should always be kept in mind.
Includes: conversion:
. hysteria
. reaction
hysterical psychosis
Excludes: malingering [conscious simulation] (Z76.5)
解离 ( 转化 ) 症
关於解离或转化症 , 最常讨论到的主题是过去记忆
倾向於数周或数月内恢复 , 特别是那些在发生时和
创伤性生活事件有密切关连者。较慢性的状态 , 尤
类的 " 转化型歇斯底里症 " , 这里所描述的解离
症 , 认为是 " 心因性 ″ 的 , 和所受冲击的事件、无
法解决或无法忍受的难题、或破裂的人际关系 , 在

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