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exposure [ iks'pəuʒə] n.暴露;揭露;曝光

exposure [iks'pəuʒə] 曝光度

Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures

double exposure 两次曝光

exposure meter 曝光表

selective exposure 选择性接触

It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure.

It must be noted that improvement in agriculture seems to not be able to catch up with the increase in population of rural areas and there are millions of peasants who still live a miserable life and have to face the dangers of exposure and starvation.

曝光补偿 Exposure Compensation

测光方式 Exposure Metering

Direct exposure imaging 直接曝光成像

Exposure 曝光

Exposure table 曝光表格

Exposure chart 曝光曲线

Exposure fog 曝光灰雾

Exposure,radiographic exposure 曝光,射线照相曝光

Indirect exposure 间接曝光

Panoramic exposure 全景曝光

Radiographic exposure 射线照相曝光量

There is a great difference between exposure of the mind and that of the body.
William Hazlitt, British critic and essayist

exposure to 暴露,显露;曝光

暴光 exposure

暴露 uncase; debunk; divulge; divulged; expose; exposed; exposure; reveal; showdown; showup; bewray

暴光 [bào guāng] /exposure/

曝光 [pù guāng] /exposure/

曝露 [pù lù] /expose/exposure/

{adj: adust, baked, parched, scorched, sunbaked} dried out by heat or excessive exposure to sunlight
"a vast desert all adust"
"land lying baked in the heat"
"parched soil"
"the earth was scorched and bare"
"sunbaked salt flats"

{adj: air-dry} not giving off moisture on exposure to the air

{adj: blase, bored} uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence
"his blase indifference"
"a petulant blase air"
"the bored gaze of the successful film star"

{adj: bronzed, suntanned, tanned} (of skin) having a tan color from exposure to the sun
"a young bronzed Apollo"

{adj: chapped, cracked, roughened} used of skin roughened as a result of cold or exposure
"chapped lips"

{adj: direct, unmediated} having no intervening persons, agents, conditions
"in direct sunlight"
"in direct contact with the voters"
"direct exposure to the disease"
"a direct link"
"the direct cause of the accident"
"direct vote"

{adj: enured, inured, hardened} made tough by habitual exposure
"hardened fishermen"
"a peasant, dark, lean-faced, wind-inured"- Robert Lynd
"our successors...may be graver, more inured and equable men"- V.S.Pritchett

{adj: exhibitionistic} compulsively attracting attention to yourself especially by public exposure or exaggerated behavior

{adj: fluorescent} emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source

{adj: fumed} (of wood) darkened or colored by exposure to ammonia fumes
"fumed oak"

{adj: immunocompetent} capable of developing an immune response following exposure to an antigen
"immunocompetent cells"
<-> immunodeficient

{adj: immunodeficient} incapable of developing an immune response following exposure to an antigen
"immunodeficient rodents"
<-> immunocompetent

{adj: new} unaffected by use or exposure
"it looks like new"
<-> worn

{adj: snow-blind, snow-blinded} temporarily blinded by exposure to light reflected from snow or ice

{adj: southerly, southern} situated in or oriented toward the south
"a southern exposure"
"took a southerly course"

{adj: sunbaked} baked or hardened by exposure to sunlight; not burned
"sunbaked adobe bricks"

{adj: toasted} browned over by exposure to heat
"he liked toasted marshmallows"

{adj: toxic} of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison
"suffering from exposure to toxic substances"
<-> nontoxic

{adj: untoasted} not having been browned by exposure to heat

{adj: unweathered} not worn by exposure to the weather
"chemical weathering was beginning to attack the unweathered bedrock"

{adj: weather-beaten, weatherworn, weathered} worn by exposure to the weather
"a house of weathered shingles"

{adj: weatherproof} able to withstand exposure to weather without damage
"weatherproof electric wiring"
"a weatherproof coat"

{n: Mantoux test} tuberculin (a derivative of tubercle bacillus) is injected intradermally; a red area appearing 1-3 days later signifies an exposure (past or present) to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing

{n: acrocyanosis, Raynaud's sign} cyanosis of the extremities; can occur when a spasm of the blood vessels is caused by exposure to cold or by strong emotion

{n: actinic dermatitis} dermatitis caused exposure to sunlight

{n: actinic keratosis} an overgrowth of skin layers resulting from extended exposure to the sun

{n: alveolitis} inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs caused by inhaling dust; with repeated exposure the condition may become chronic

{n: anaphylactic shock} a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure

{n: aplastic anemia, aplastic anaemia} anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure

{n: biosafety level 1} exposure only to infectious agents that do not ordinarily cause human disease

{n: biosafety level 2} exposure to infectious agents that can cause disease in humans but whose potential for transmission is limited

{n: biosafety level 3} exposure to infectious agents that can be transmitted by the respiratory route and which can cause serious infection

{n: biosafety level 4} exposure to exotic infectious agents that pose a high risk of life-threatening disease and can be transmitted as an aerosol and for which there is no vaccine or therapy

{n: biosafety level} the level of safety from exposure to infectious agents; depends on work practices and safety equipment and facilities

{n: biosafety} safety from exposure to infectious agents

{n: broil, broiling, grilling} cooking by direct exposure to radiant heat (as over a fire or under a grill)

{n: brown pine, Rockingham podocarp, Podocarpus elatus} large Australian tree with straight-grained yellow wood that turns brown on exposure

{n: burn} an injury caused by exposure to heat or chemicals or radiation

{n: chilblain, chilblains, pernio} inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture

{n: cysteine} an amino acid containing sulfur that is found in most proteins; oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine

{n: dissemination, airing, public exposure, spreading} the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate

{n: etiolation} (botany) the act of causing a plant to develop without chlorophyll by growing it without exposure to sunlight
"the etiolation of celery"

{n: exceedance} (geology) the probability that an earthquake will generate a level of ground motion that exceeds a specified reference level during a given exposure time
"the concept of exceedance can be applied to any type of environmental risk modeling"

{n: expose, unmasking} the exposure of an impostor or a fraud
"he published an expose of the graft and corruption in city government"

{n: exposure therapy} a form of behavior therapy in which a survivor confronts feelings or phobias or anxieties about a traumatic event and relives it in the therapy situation

{n: exposure} abandoning without shelter or protection (as by leaving as infant out in the open)

{n: exposure} aspect re light or wind
"the studio had a northern exposure"

{n: exposure} presentation to view in an open or public manner
"the exposure of his anger was shocking"

{n: exposure} the act of exposing film to light

{n: exposure} the act of subjecting someone to an influencing experience
"she denounced the exposure of children to pornography"

{n: exposure} the disclosure of something secret
"they feared exposure of their campaign plans"

{n: exposure} the intensity of light falling on a photographic film or plate
"he used the wrong exposure"

{n: exposure} vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain
"exposure to the weather" or "they died from exposure";

{n: fatty liver} yellow discoloration as a result of the accumulation of certain fats (triglycerides) in the liver; can be caused by alcoholic cirrhosis or pregnancy or exposure to certain toxins

{n: firewall} (computing) a security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software that limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers; commonly used on local area networks that are connected to the internet

{n: freemail} a service providing free email delivery in exchange for exposure to advertising

{n: fumed oak} oak given a weathered appearance by exposure to fumes of ammonia; used for cabinetwork

{n: heatstroke, heat hyperpyrexia} collapse caused by exposure to excessive heat

{n: heliotherapy, insolation} therapeutic exposure to sunlight

{n: hepatitis C} a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)

{n: history, account, chronicle, story} a record or narrative description of past events
"a history of France"
"he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president"
"the story of exposure to lead"

{n: immunocompetence} the ability to develop an immune response following exposure to an antigen
<-> immunodeficiency

{n: indecent exposure, public nudity} vulgar and offensive nakedness in a public place

{n: latex} a milky exudate from certain plants that coagulates on exposure to air

{n: light meter, exposure meter, photometer} photographic equipment that measures the intensity of light

{n: magazine, cartridge} a light-tight supply chamber holding the film and supplying it for exposure as required

{n: mesothelioma} a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust

{n: muckraking} the exposure of scandal (especially about public figures)

{n: occupational disease, industrial disease} disease or disability resulting from conditions of employment (usually from long exposure to a noxious substance or from continuous repetition of certain acts)

{n: photalgia, photophobia} pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)

{n: photograph, photo, exposure, pic} a picture of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

{n: photoretinitis} damage to the retina resulting from exposure of the eye to the sun without adequate protection

{n: radiation sickness, radiation syndrome, radiation} syndrome resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g., exposure to radioactive chemicals or to nuclear explosions); low doses cause diarrhea and nausea and vomiting and sometimes loss of hair; greater exposure can cause sterility and cataracts and some forms of cancer and other diseases; severe exposure can cause death within hours
"he was suffering from radiation"

{n: radiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiation, actinotherapy, irradiation} (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance

{n: repudiation, debunking} the exposure of falseness or pretensions
"the debunking of religion has been too successful"

{n: risk, risk of exposure} the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent

{n: risk, risk of infection} the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred

{n: roentgen, R} a unit of radiation exposure; the dose of ionizing radiation that will produce 1 electrostatic unit of electricity in 1 cc of dry air

{n: sensitometer} a measuring instrument for measuring the light sensitivity of film over a range of exposures

{n: shipping fever, shipping pneumonia} a deadly form of septicemia in cattle and sheep; involves high fever and pneumonia; contracted under conditions of exposure or exhaustion (as often happens when the animals are shipped to market)

{n: shutter} a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure

{n: snowblindness, snow-blindness} temporary blindness caused by exposure to sunlight reflected from snow or ice

{n: solarization, solarisation} exposure to the rays of the sun

{n: sun parlor, sun parlour, sun porch, sunporch, sunroom, sun lounge, solarium} a room enclosed largely with glass and affording exposure to the sun

{n: sunburn, erythema solare} redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun

{n: sunhat, sun hat} a hat with a broad brim that protects the face from direct exposure to the sun

{n: sunstroke, insolation, thermic fever, siriasis} sudden prostration due to exposure to the sun or excessive heat

{n: tachistoscope, t-scope} scientific instrument used by psychologists; presents visual stimuli for brief exposures

{n: tan, suntan, sunburn, burn} a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun

{n: tanning} process in which skin pigmentation darkens as a result of exposure to ultraviolet light

{n: tetanus antitoxin} antitoxin given for short-term immunization against tetanus in cases of possible exposure to the tetanus bacillus

{n: tetanus immunoglobulin, tetanus immune globulin} sterile solution of globulins derived from the blood plasma of a person who has been immunized for tetanus; provides short-term immunization against tetanus in cases of possible exposure to the tetanus bacillus

{n: thallium, Tl, atomic number 81} a soft grey malleable metallic element that resembles tin but discolors on exposure to air; it is highly toxic and is used in rodent and insect poisons; occurs in zinc blende and some iron ores

{n: time exposure} a photograph produced with a relatively long exposure time

{n: time exposure} exposure of a film for a relatively long time (more than half a second)

{n: tine test} a tuberculin test in which a disk with several tines bearing tuberculin antigen is used to puncture the skin; development of a hard red area indicates past or present exposure to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing

{n: trench foot, immersion foot} resembling frostbite but without freezing; resulting from exposure to cold and wet

{n: visibility, profile} degree of exposure to public notice
"that candidate does not have sufficient visibility to win an election"

{n: vulnerability, exposure} the state of being vulnerable or exposed
"his vulnerability to litigation"
"his exposure to ridicule"

{n: windage, wind exposure} exposure to the wind (as the exposed part of a vessel's hull which is responsible for wind resistance)

{n: windburn} redness and irritation of the skin caused by exposure to high-velocity wind

{v: air-slake} alter by exposure to air with conversion at least in part to a carbonate
"air-slake lime"

{v: digest} soften or disintegrate, as by undergoing exposure to heat or moisture

{v: parch, sear} cause to wither or parch from exposure to heat
"The sun parched the earth"

{v: sensitize, sensitise} make sensitive to a drug or allergen
"Long-term exposure to this medicine may sensitize you to the allergen"

{v: sun, insolate, solarize, solarise} expose to the rays of the sun or affect by exposure to the sun
"insolated paper may turn yellow and crumble"
"These herbs suffer when sunned"

{v: tarnish, stain, maculate, sully, defile} make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air ; also used metaphorically
"The silver was tarnished by the long exposure to the air"
"Her reputation was sullied after the affair with a married man"

{v: winnow} treat by exposure to a current of air so that waste matter is eliminated
"winnow grain"

Arnault, of course, vows to work his magic on Fendi. t's a hot product with limited exposure, he says.

The added exposure that Australia and New Zealand have given the Cup has made it all the more desirable for the U.S. to reclaim: the New York Yacht Club is already forecasting a US$ 1 billion boon to the region if the Cup returns.
澳大利亚与新西兰使杯赛倍添光彩。这样一来,美国人更想收回杯赛的主办资格:纽约帆船俱乐部预测,只要杯赛能重回美国,举办地将获得高达 10亿美元的收益。

The band led by example in April, 1998, by refusing to perform at a high-exposure Toulouse concert on the grounds that ticket prices were too high.
例如, 1998年 4月,该乐队带头拒绝参加一场在图卢兹被炒得沸沸扬扬的音乐会,原因是票价太高。

In all, 167 countries have signed the treaty. But, it is legally binding only for the 57 countries that have ratified it. The treaty sets standards and guidelines for tobacco advertising, pricing and smuggling. It also aims to limit non-smokers' exposure to other people's smoke.
总共有167个国家签署了条约,不过,只有57个 国家已经正式批准条约,烟草控制公约只在这五十几个国家内具有法律约束力。条约订定了有关香烟广告、价格和走私等的标准和准则,同时还保护不吸烟者少受吸烟者的污染。

"The threat is real and the potential is very high," he said. "The longer the virus circulates the way it does in poultry production systems and in ducks, the higher is the probability of exposure of humans and if we are indeed unlucky and have human influenza at the same time, there is increased likelihood of reassortment and therefore of the generation of pandemic."

人体接触污染物 Human exposure to pollutants

Exposure meters

Enduring personality changes, not attributable to brain damage and
Disorders of adult personality and behaviour that have developed in persons with no
previous personality disorder following exposure to catastrophic or excessive prolonged
stress, or following a severe psychiatric illness. These diagnoses should be made only
when there is evidence of a definite and enduring change in a person's pattern of
perceiving, relating to, or thinking about the environment and himself or herself. The
personality change should be significant and be associated with inflexible and maladaptive
behaviour not present before the pathogenic experience. The change should not be a direct
manifestation of another mental disorder or a residual symptom of any antecedent mental
Excludes: personality and behavioural disorder due to brain disease, damage and
dysfunction (F07.-)
某些成人并非原先存在人格违常或行为违常 , 而是
续发於发生灾难之後 , 暴露在长期压力之後或续发
於严重精神疾病之後。除非有证据显示 , 以下情形
才做此诊断 : 此病人对环境及自我的看法与他人的
另一精神疾病的临床表现 , 亦非任何先前存在的精
不包含 : 由於脑部疾病 , 受损及功能障碍所引发的
人格及行为违常 (F07.-)

Enduring personality change after catastrophic experience ,br>
Enduring personality change, present for at least two years, following exposure to
catastrophic stress. The stress must be so extreme that it is not necessary to consider
personal vulnerability in order to explain its profound effect on the personality. The
disorder is characterized by a hostile or distrustful attitude towards the world, social
withdrawal feelings of emptiness or hopelessness, a chronic feeling of "being on
edge" as if constantly threatened, and estrangement. Post-traumatic stress disorder
(F43.1) may precede this type of personality change.
Personality change after:
. concentration camp experiences
. disasters
. prolonged:
. captivity with an imminent possibility of being killed
. exposure to life-threatening situations such as being a victim of terrorism
. torture
Excludes: post-traumatic stress disorder (F43.1)
续发於经历灾难之後 , 至少持续两年的人格改变。
此种人格违常之特质 : 对世界抱持敌对、不信任的
态度 , 变得较退缩 , 感到空虚或绝望 , 长期紧张像
是持续受到威胁一样 , 有疏离感。在此种人格改变
人格改变发生在以下事件之後 :
. 集中营
. 大灾难
. 持续的 :
. 被囚禁且即将可能被处死
. 暴露在生命受威胁的情境之下 , 如身为恐怖政治
. 折磨的苦痛
不包含 : 创伤後压力徵候群 (F43.1)

A recurrent or persistent tendency to expose the genitalia to strangers (usually of the
opposite sex) or to people in public places, without inviting or intending closer contact.
There is usually, but not invariably, sexual excitement at the time of the exposure and
the act is commonly followed by masturbation.
经常或反覆地在陌生人 ( 通常是异性 ) 或公共场合
暴露个人之性器 , 但并不企求进一步之性接触。此
举动以达到性兴奋为目的 , 事後通常还会有进行自

. exposure
. neurotrophic
. phlyctenular
Ophthalmia nodosa
Superficial keratitis with conjunctivitis
角结膜炎 :
. 其他未明示的
. 暴露性
. 神经营养性的
. 小水泡的

Skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation

Other skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation
Farmer's skin
Sailor's skin
Solar dermatitis
慢性暴沾於非游离辐射 0 的其他皮肤变化

Skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation

Fetus and newborn affected by maternal exposure to environmental
chemical substances

Malaise and fatigue
Asthenia NOS
General physical deterioration
Excludes: debility:
.congenital (P96.9)
.senile (R54)
exhaustion and fatigue (due to)(in):
.excessive exertion (T73.3)
exposure (T73.2)
.heat (T67.-)
.neurasthenia (F48.0)
.pregnancy (O26.8)
.senile asthenia (R54)
fatigue syndrome (F48.0)
.postviral (G93.3)
虚弱 :
. 其他未明示的
. 慢性
. 神经性
不包含 : 下列情况之虚弱 :
. 先天性 (P96.9)
. 衰老性 (R54)
肇因於下列之虚耗与倦怠 :
. 格斗 (F43.O)
. 过度用力 (F73.3)
. 暴露 (T73.2)
. 热 (T67.-)
. 神经衰弱 (F48.0)
. 妊娠 (O26.8)
. 老年性无力 (R54)
倦怠徵候群 (F48.0)
. 病毒感染後 (G93.3)

Exhaustion due to exposure

Other air transport accidents not elsewhere classified
Injury from machinery on aircraft
Excludes: aircraft accident NOS (V95.9)
exposure to changes in air pressure during ascent or descent (W94.-)
不包含 : 其他未明示飞行器事故 (V95.9)
上升或下降时 , 暴露於气压的改变 (W94.-)

Exposure to inanimate mechanical forces
[See pages 1013-1017 for fourth-character subdivisions〕
Excludes: assault (X85-Y09)
contact or collision with animals or persons (W50-W64)
intentional self-harm (X60-X84)
暴露於非生命体的机械力 (W20-W49)
( 见 1013-1017 页第四码次分类 )
不包含 : 攻击 (X85-Y09)
与动物或人接触或相撞 (W50-W64)
蓄意性自害 (X60-X84)

Contact with powered lawnmower
Excludes: exposure to electric current (W86.-)
不包含 : 与电流接触 (W86.-)

Contact with other powered hand tools and household machinery
Includes: blender
. can-opener
. chain-saw
. do-it-yourself tool
. garden tool
. hedge-trimmer
. knife
. sewing-machine
* spin-drier
Excludes: exposure to electric current (W86.-)
包含 : 搅拌机
动力 :
. 开罐器
. 链锯
. 自己动手做之工具
. 园艺工具
. 修边器
. 刀
. 缝衣机
不包含 : 与电流接触 (W86.-)

Contact with agricultural machinery
Includes: animal-powered farm machine
combine harvester
derrick, hay
farm machinery NOS
Excludes: contact with agricultural machinery in transport under own power or being towed
by a vehicle (V01-V99)
exposure to electric current (W86.-)
包含 : 动物推动农业机器
不包含 : 由车拖或自动农业运输机器接触 (V01-V99)
与电流接触 (W86.-)

Contact with other and unspecified machinery
Includes: machine NOS
recreational machinery
Excludes: contact with machinery in transport under own power or being towed by a vehicle
exposure to electric current (W86.-)
包含 : 其他未明示机器
不包含 : 由车拖或自动运输机器接触 (V01-V99)
与电流接触 (W86.-)

Exposure to high-pressure jet
Includes: hydraulic jet
pneumatic jet
包含 : 水柱

Exposure to noise
Includes: sound waves
supersonic waves
包含 : 声波

Exposure to vibration
Includes: infrasound waves
包含 : 低音波

Exposure to other and unspecified inanimate mechanical forces
Includes: abnormal gravitational [G] forces
包含 : 不正常重力

Exposure to animate mechanical forces
[See pages 1013-1017 for fourth-character subdivisions]
Excludes: bites, venomous (X20-X29)
stings (venomous) (X20-X29)
机械力的暴露 (W50-W64)
( 见 1013-1017 页第四码次分类 )
不包含 : 有毒的咬伤 (X20-X29)
有毒的刺 (X20-X29)

Exposure to other and unspecified animate mechanical forces

Exposure to electric current, radiation,
and extreme ambient air temperature and pressure (W85-W99)
[See pages 1013-1017 for fourth-character subdivisions]
Excludes: exposure to:
. natural:
. cold (X31.-)
. heat (X30.-)

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